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Journal of Environmental Hazards

ISSN: 2684-4923

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 4 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 12

    Assessing the Influence of Drought and Coping Strategy Focus Pastoralist: The Case of Melka Sodda Woreda, West Guji Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Teshome Deresse* and Belay Daba

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4923.2021.5.143

    Drought is a prolonged period of abnormally dry weather conditions leading to an unadorned shortage of water and a natural temporary feature of the climate cycle that causes damage and can have severe impacts in most regions of the globe. The based current problem of drought this study was carried out to find the solution on the Influence of Drought and Coping Strategy focus Pastoralist at study areas. A total of 192 pastoral households were sampled using stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, inferential analysis, and Model specification analysis. The effects of drought on pastoralist community livelihoods in a mean range of 2.72-4.68 with a maximum standard deviation of 1.265 indicated drought on pastoralist community livelihoods and also largely influence pastoral coping mechanisms. Major pastoralist community coping strategies exercised were labeled using the highest mean rank order ranging from (4.47-1.59). The conclusion was pastoral households there is a need to accelerate the practice of pastoralist mode of life and development, and Coping strategies for the dual benefit of pastoralist mode of life like pastoralist competence development and social achievement, pastoral satisfaction, high performance, with better life to protect the resource wastage and to meet pastoral household demand for excellence.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Downscaling Future Temperature and Precipitation Values in Kombolcha Town, South Wollo in Ethiopia

    Kasye Shitu* and Mengesha Tesfaw

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4923.2021.5.144

    Whilst climate change is already manifesting in Ethiopia through changes in temperature and rainfall, its magnitude is poorly studied at regional levels. Therefore, the main aim of this study was statistically downscale of future daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, and precipitation value in Kombolcha Town, South Wollo, in Ethiopia. For this the long term historical climatic data were collected from Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency for Kombolcha station and the GCM data were downloaded from the global circulation models of, the Canadian Second Generation Earth System Model from the link (http://climate scenarios.canada.ca/?page=dstsdi). For future climate data generation among the different downscaling techniques, the statistical down scaling method, a type of regression model was used and the variations of temperature (maximum and minimum) and precipitation in the town for annually and seasonally condition were analysis based on the base of the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. In the future, relative to the observed mean value of annual rainfall in Kombolcha town, mean value of annual rainfall will decrease 1.36% - 7.03% for RCP4.5and 5.37% -13.8% for RCP8.5 emission scenarios in the last 21 century. Both maximum and minimum temperature of the town will be increased in the future time interval for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The rise in temperature will exacerbate the town maximum heat effects in warm seasons and decrease in precipitation is expected along with a possible risk of water supply scarcity due to a low level of water supply access and a high rate of urbanization.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Flood Vulnerability Assessment in Kilembe, Uganda

    Yayiru Tibara*, Bolanle Wahab and Ademola Kabir Aremu

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4923.2021.5.146

    On a global basis, there is evidence that the number of people affected by floods are on the rise. This research study assessed the level of community exposure, sensitivity and resilience and the households’ risks perceptions to floods in Kilembe. The research design for this study involved an index-based approach. The primary data was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire, 194 households were purposefully selected. The study revealed that the community was highly exposed to floods. About 43.3% of the households were found living less than two kilometres from the flooding river. The households were also found highly susceptible to flood hazards with 78.9% of the households had a monthly average income of about US$52. However, the community had high capacities to cope with the effects of flood hazards. Only 17.0% of the households surveyed had gone to the local authority for assistance in the last 1 year. About 98.5% of the households thought that the frequency of occurrence and impacts of flooding had increased during the last decade, and 74.4% of the households felt very worried about the floods. The government should install early warning system, ensure active participation of the local communities, and timely and adequately respond to floods.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    The Trajectory of Climate Induced Shocks on Livelihoods and Responses: A Case of CSA Adopters' and Non Adopters' in Nyando Basin, South Western Kenya

    Josephine Njogu*, John Gathiaka, George Karuku, John Busienei and Lia Wesenbeeek

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4923.2021.5.147

    Climate aggravated stressors like crop failure, pests and diseases, hunger, high food prices and death of livestock or family members have increased in frequency, intensity and magnitude. These have, aggravate ding rural poverty while and threatening the sustainability of rural livelihoods. Yet Hitherto, many small scale farmers fail to adopt what appear to be relatively simple agronomic or management practices like climate smart agriculture (CSA) which can help them cope. The study focused on the effect of related household shocks to climate change on livelihoods, and factors influencing choice of a coping strategy of smallholder farmers in the Nyando Basin. The population of the study comprised all smallholder farmers that were registered with CCAFS, Kenya. Data was collected in a year-long panel survey of financial diaries (FDs) from 124 households between March 2019 and February 2020. The households were classified into adopters and non-adopters of climate smart agriculture (CSA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate probit regression were used to determine common types of shocks experienced, their trends, and choice of coping strategies. The results showed that most shocks arose from pests and diseases (48.3%) including sickness/death of family member (38.1%) with non-adopters of CSA being affected more than adopters. Market for farm produce was affected by low output prices (81.3%), no market (100%) over the year. Low production of crops was due to pests and diseases (93.9%), high input prices (91.5%) and asset disputes mainly land related (73.3%). Regression analysis indicated that characteristics of the household head, climate smart village location, and county were significant factors influencing choice of a coping strategy. The data indicates that policy recommendation be addressed according to County based selfhelp capacity.

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