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Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering

ISSN: 2169-0022

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    An Investigation of Novel Nano Material Silver Nano Dots Synthesis and Characterization Using Simple Sugar Fructose

    A.G.J. Patriciaa

    Silver nano dots are new and smart materials for application in medical field. Their sizes are in the range of <=10 nm and have unique structural, chemical, physical properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, in devices used in medical procedures. In this report we present the chemical process in which the silver nano dots are synthesized using a simple ingredient fructose as reducing which is a less expensive and is a rapid phase method. It is a very feasible method to harvest silver nano dots in the lab at a very rapid pace than the conventional methods and without toxic side effects. The size of the silver nano dots were found to match the size of biological molecules and exhibited unique properties which can find a wide array of applications in the field of medicine and industrial electronics. UVVIS study, XRD analysis, FTIR studies and TEM analysis was done to establish the fact that silver nano dots can be synthesized using simple chemical sugar like fructose. Based on the size of the silver nano dots created in the lab and their ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier in the human system they can be applied for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Strengthening and Toughening of 3D Printing High Entropy Alloy

    Shan Cecilia Cao, Amy XY Guo, Zhiming Lin, Wei Xiong and Shuai Zhan

    By comparing the differences between high-entropy alloys and traditional alloys, this paper highlights the outstanding advantages of highentropy alloys in modern 3D printing, and introduces the characteristics, defects and corresponding solutions of different types of 3D printing technologies. DED uses a laser, electron beam, or arc to melt the powder or wire form during deposition. SLM is to melt metal powder on a powder bed and use high-energy lasers to print geometrically complex products. EBM uses electron beam to melt metal powder. In addition, the constituent elements, processing conditions and working temperature are also important factors in determining the mechanical properties of high-entropy alloys. By adding or reducing elements and conducting some treatment, the properties of high-entropy alloys such as tensile strength, compressive properties, fracture strength and plastic strain can be found changed.

    Review Pages: 1 - 7

    Stimulatory Role of Magnesium Chloride in Expression of Dentin Matrix Proteins

    Rania M Salem*, Chang Zhang and Laisheng Chou

    Magnesium-based biomaterials might provide an innovative therapeutic potential to substantially enhance regeneration of dental tissues. In previous work, magnesium oxide (MgO) has been studied for its potential ability to enhance cell attachment, proliferation rate and dentin matrix protein expression of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). However, to date, dentinogenic effect of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) on cell viability and expression of extracellular matrix proteins in HDPCs has not been investigated. This study was designed to compare the stimulatory effect of different concentrations of MgCl2 on dentinogenesis of HDPCs. HDPCs were cultured with 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 2 mM, 4 mM, 8 mM concentrations of supplemental MgCl2, 0 mM as negative control group. Stimulatory effect of MgCl2 was assessed by evaluating cell viability, and expression of dentin matrix proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin matrix protein1 (DMP-1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and type I collagen (COL-I). Statistical analysis was carried by Multi-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Wilks’ lambda test. Supplemental MgCl2 concentration groups between 0.5 mM-4 mM elicited a significantly higher expression of DSP and DMP-1, while 0.5 mM-2 mM supplemental MgCl2 concentrations showed highest stimulatory effect on cell viability and, expression of DSPP, and COL-I, compared to the negative control group at all-time points (P<0.0001). However, 8 mM MgCl2 group had an inhibitory effect on HDPCs with significant lower cell viability and expression levels of DSP, DMP-1, DSPP, and COL-I compared to the control (P<0.0001). In conclusion, optimal (0.5 mM-2 mM) supplemental MgCl2 concentration groups significantly upregulated odontogenic differentiation with enhanced expression of dentin matrix proteins. This is the first study to reveal the dentinogenic effect of MgCl2 on dentin matrix protein expression in HDPCs. Magnesium-containing biomaterials may serve as a potential material for pulp repair and dentin regeneration.

    Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Photoluminescence Spectrum of PbO-NaF-B2O3 Glass Doped with Ln3+ (Sm3+/Ho3+) Ions

    N. Narasimha Rao*, B. J.R.S.N. Swamy, P. Raghava Rao, P. Naresh and A. Chitti Babu

    Ln2O3 doped PbO-NaF-B2O3glasses were prepared and characterized through spectroscopic technique such as photoluminescence at room temperature to derive luminescence properties of Ln3+ ions in these glasses. Radiative properties which include radiative transition possibilities, branching ratios, radiative lifetime and stimulated emission cross sections of the fluorescent degree of Ln3+ ions in titled glasses are determined. In the present work all our systematic analysis has been presented with an example of results obtained in PbO-NaF-B2O3-Ln2O3 glasses. These results are used to access the gain media and in turn useful not only to write waveguides but also to modify the fluorescence properties through laser irradiation.

    Review Pages: 1 - 11

    Game Changing Innovation Ecosystem Development (GIDE) A Systematic Methodology (Meta-Framework) and Conceptual Algorithm Enabling Organizations to Develop, Deploy and Measure Innovation Impact in the VUCA World

    Horseman S.J*, Goede T.L, Basri E.H, Al Nazawi F, Clouse R.L, Seba M, Morgan S, Quigley K and Ghaleb, S.

    Organizations have been thrust into a VUCA1 world as an outcome of the global COVID-19 pandemic challenges. VUCA is a worldview that is founded upon environments that are volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA). Having the ability to be fast, agile and adaptable are the core competencies for VUCA survival, thus making innovation a critical success factor in business sustainability in this new world we are challenged with. Despite this value proposition argument the age-old question of “how can we effectively measure innovation impact?” within a company still exists. Methodology: This common dilemma presents an opportunity to further critique what innovation metrics and assumptions are more relevant in a new environment such as the VUCA world? Through surveying workforce professionals confirmed that the workforce at large, are also searching for more compelling and systematic metrics that can create and sustain innovation within organizations. In addition to compiling eight years of research that systematically evaluates innovation as it relates to four organizational dimensions (Governance, Culture, Process and Design) in the VUCA world. This real-world case study based on longitudinal actionbased research (N=3567) analyzes how investing and sustaining intellectual human capital through critical systems thinking, mentor-matching and ecosystem development is critical for successful design, development and deployment of innovation within organizations. Outcome: The outcome of this longitudinal case study is the construction of a meta-framework and algorithm. In applying the combined methodologies of Total Systems Intervention (TSI) through the organizational dimensions of culture and design (soft systems), process and governance (hard systems); a factor analysis algorithm was developed so that organizations can also apply this systematic methodology to position innovation as a business driver and strategic imperative. Therefore, such research outcomes have contributed towards the development of an integrated meta-framework and proposed metric the maturity innovation ecosystem conceptual algorithm which is the business application of GIDE. Conclusion: Furthermore, an action plan based upon validation research, machine learning simulations and industry case studies is the logical progression of this research work. The objective is to further investigate how GIDE provides a significant knowledge and business contribution for organizations, small-medium enterprises (SME) and startups collectively.

    Review Pages: 1 - 14

    Design Optimization and CFD and Performance Analyses of Miniature Axial-Centrifugal Flow Pumps for Circulating Molten Lead

    Mohamed S. El-Genk*, Timothy M. Schreiner and Andrew S. Hahn

    For circulating molten lead in compact in-pile and ex-pile test loops at 773.15 K this work developed a multi-physics methodology to optimize the designs of miniature axial-centrifugal flow pumps with impeller blades diameters of 55.0, 60.0 and 66.8 mm for maximizing the pumping power, the pump efficiency, and the pressure head. Increasing the diameter of the optimized impeller blades and/or the shaft rotation speed from 1,500 to 3,000 RPM increases the pump characteristics and efficiency, but also increases the dissipated thermal power. The molten lead flow rate at the peak efficiency increases with increased impeller shaft rotation speed and /or the blades outer diameter. The performed CFD analysis shows that rounding the tips of the blades and/or decreasing their clearance from 1.5 to 2.0 mm limit the formation of the flow vortices and the pressure losses and increases the pump efficiency. Results also show that increasing the molten lead temperature from 673.15 to 873.13 K slightly decreases the pump pressure head and negligibly affects the pump efficiency. This work successfully demonstrated the use of additive manufacturing of an impeller design with 60.0 mm diameter blades.

    Review Pages: 1 - 6

    A Review of Research Progress on ?-phase in Titanium Alloys

    Amy X.Y. Guo, Chenbo Geng, Zhiming Lin and Shan Cecilia Cao*

    Metastable β titanium alloys with twinning and/or martensite transformation have been exploited as biomedical and structural materials owing to their biocompatibility and excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. The dispersed ω phase is an important precipitation strengthening phase, which plays an important role in improving the strength of titanium alloys and assisting the transformation of α-phase. Therefore, the research of ω phase transitions in titanium alloys has become one of the hot topics for decades. In this work, the latest related research reports are reviewed, including ω phase transition mechanism, classification, and model evolution. The advantages and disadvantages of related models are compared and finally, some scientific issues are put forward.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

    Shear Stresses during the Flow of Structured Suspensions: Accounting for the Formation of Trimers

    AI Levinsky*

    A semi-empirical equation has been derived that describes the dependence of the shear stress on the shear rate during the flow of a onecomponent suspension. The suspension is considered as consisting of three fractions: single grains, their dimers and trimmers, between which equilibrium is established, depending on the shear rate. The equation is based on Krieger's formula generalized to the case of multicomponent suspensions. The derived equation well approximates the experimental data, including systems for which pseudoplastic behavior is replaced by dilatant behavior and vice versa.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Formability Assessment of Hot Rolled Steel Grades Used for Tubular Hydroforming Application

    Elakkiya Mani*

    Tubular hydroforming, the process which uses high pressure to form desired complex shape quickly and easily is the future of automotive industry and is quickly becoming a worthy challenger to the conventional metal stamping and welding. The growing demand for light weight parts in the various fields like automotive, aircraft and aerospace industries have increased the scope for tubular hydroforming in the last few years. The primary advantages of the process are improvement in structural stiffness and crash behavior due to lack of welds and reduced cost assembly. Hydroforming application demands a clear understanding of material process property relationships. Design, material selection, manufacturing and processing of tubes for this particular application remains critical. Proper understanding of material properties and its forming behavior is the basic necessity for material selection. The effect of material properties on hydroforming process of tubes was investigated. In the study, experimental and FEA studies on free expansion of tubes have been carried out in different materials and materials were ranked based on the suitability for hydroforming. The effect of strain rate on formability of steel sheets was discussed.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      MMT/Vinyl ester GFRP / CFRP Nano Composites Using High Shear Mixing for Mechanical, Thermal and Fire Retardation Properties

      Bommanna K, Radha H R

      This paper reports a first time use of combination of ultrasonication and twin screw extrusion for dispersing Montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay in vinylester resin matrix. Two sets of specimens of MMT/vinylester, namely, Type-1 using ultrasonication and Type-2 using combination of ultrasonication and twin screw extrusion were processed for comparative studies. XRD studies showed superior exfoliation of MMT in vinylester in Type-2 specimens compared to that of Type -1. DSC and TGA studies showed superior glass transition temperature and lower thermal degradation for Type-2. Based on these results, 4 wt % MMT/ vinylester / carbon and 4 wt % MMT / vinylester / glass specimens were fabricated using the combination of ultrasonication and screw extrusion. The addition of 4 wt % MMT to vinylester/carbon increased UTS by, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength and impact strength and fire retardation behaviour. The fractured specimens were studied using SEM.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Ferromagnetism in (Ga, Mn) as Synthesized by Mn+ Ion Implantation and 5 MeV Si++ Ion Beam induced Recrystallization

        S K Dubey

        In this study, gallium arsenide samples were first implanted with 325 V Mn ke + ions for the fluence of 16 2 2 10 ions cm− × . These implanted samples were further irradiated using 2 5MeVSi + ion beams for the fluence of 16 2 1 10 ions cm− × at a substrate temperature of 350 0C for recrystallization. Super conducting quantum interface device (SQUID) measurements on asimplanted sample revealed the paramagnetic behavior. While, after irradiation with 2 5MeVSi + ions, SQUID measurements showed the hysteresis loop indicative of the ferromagnetic behavior. Ferromagnetic transition temperature after irradiation of (Ga,Mn). As samples measured from zero field cool and field cool measurements were found to be 292 Kelvin.

          Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 3

          Structural, Electronic, and Antioxidant Properties of Ablated Ceo2 Nanoparticles with Controlled Limiting Size

          Maxim Alexandrovich Pugachevskii*

          Ceria particles of nanodispersed composition have been obtained by laser ablation and subsequent treatment in an aqueous solution. Using techniques (TEM, XRD, Raman, EELS) of the nanostructural and electronic analysis, it is shown that the produced particles have structural defects that stabilize their internal structure. It is established that when the particle size decreases from 100 to 10 nm, the crystal lattice parameter lowers from 5.41 to 5.39 , and the elemental O/Ce composition changes from 1:1.83 to 1:1.76. The ablated CeO2 particles of nanodispersed composition exhibit high antioxidant activity due to the high concentration of functional defects on the surface of nanoparticles.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

          Unintended Changes of Ion-Selective Membranes CompositionÔ??Origin and Effect on Analytical Performance

          Agata Michalska, Krzysztof Maksymiuk , Emilia Stelmach

          Ion-selective membranes, as used in potentiometric sensors, are mixtures of a few important constituents in a carefully balanced proportion.
          The changes of composition of the ion-selective membrane, both qualitative and quantitative, affect the analytical performance of
          sensors. Different constructions and materials applied to improve sensors result in specific conditions of membrane formation, in
          consequence, potentially can result in uncontrolled modification of the membrane composition. Clearly, these effects need to be considered,
          especially if preparation of miniaturized, potentially disposable internal-solution free sensors is considered. Furthermore, membrane
          composition changes can occur during the normal operation of sensors—accumulation of species as well as release need to be taken into
          account, regardless of the construction of sensors used. Issues related to spontaneous changes of membrane composition that can occur
          during sensor construction, pre-treatment and their operation, seem to be underestimated in the subject literature. The aim of this work is
          to summarize available data related to potentiometric sensors and highlight the effects that can potentially be important also for other
          sensors using ion-selective membranes, e.g., optodes or voltammetric sensors.

          Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 5

          Electrospun Polyglycolic Acid-Poly(Carbonate-Urea) Urethane Scaffold as a Hybrid Tissue Engineered Vessel

          Clay Quint*

          Alternative small diameter vascular grafts are needed for patients that require surgical revascularization in patients lacking autologous vein. In this study, a Polyglycolic Acid (PGA)-Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) electrospun scaffold seeded with human dermal fibroblasts was placed in a biomimetic perfusion system to generate a hybrid tissue engineered vessel. The outer layer was an electrospun PGA that was co-electrosprayed with sacrificial polyethylene oxide (PEO) microparticles to increase porosity. The PGA-TPU scaffold remained static for 1 week, then circumferential strain amplitude was incremented from 1% to 5% over 6 weeks. The hybrid tissue engineered vessel had an outer cellular layer with collagen deposition replacing the biodegradable PGA and the inner residual polyurethane layer remained relatively acellular. The tensile properties of the hybrid tissue engineered vessel demonstrated a significant reduction in the elastic modulus compared to the PGA-TPU scaffold, but the ultimate tensile strength, extension to break, and burst pressure remained stable. Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the degradation of the PGA and a reduction of polyurethane crosslinking in the hybrid TEV compared to the PGA-TPU. Thus, a biomimetic perfusion system can be used to evaluate the biocompatibility of an electrospun polyurethane scaffold in vitro, to understand the mechanical changes of the polyurethane scaffold after exposure to circumferential stretch, and to generate a hybrid tissue engineered vessel with suitable characteristics for implantation.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Development and characterization of pectin and chitosan based biocomposite material for bio-medical application

          Lingayya Hiremath, Shaila Vantagodi, Shivaprada S Hegde, Anitha G S , Keshamma E

          Pectin and Chitosan are the naturally occurring polymers which possess various beneficial properties. Pectin and Chitosan are abundantly available versatile polysaccharides with wide range of applications. The inherent properties of Pectin and Chitosan could be exploited to develop a biocomposite material which can be used as wound dressing material. Pectin is generously available in plant materials mainly citrus fruit peel. In th[e present study, Pectin was extracted from orange peels by Citric Acid and Alcohol Precipitation method as this method retains the Pectin properties and increases the yield of Pectin extraction. Characterization of Pectin extract by solubility tests and SEM analysis revealed the presence of Pectin. The extracted Pectin is sufficient enough to enhance the gelling ability of the biocomposite material. The extracted Pectin along with Chitosan extra pure was used for development of Pectin Chitosan biocomposite materials with the help of suitable solvents. The biocomposite material was prepared by using lactic acid or glycerol by solvent casting method. The biocomposite material was further characterized by SEM analysis which revealed that the surface of the material was smooth and heterogeneous. Also, antibacterial test against Bacillus subtilis confirms that the Pectin and Chitosan retains its antibacterial property in biocomposite materia.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

            Surface Defect Classification in Silicon Wafer Manufacturing Using Linear-Based Channeling and Rule-Based Binning

            Hao Hu*, Kari Ullako, Xin Lai and Mingming Chao

            Surface defect control is the serious science in semiconductor industry. Surface defects found at the end product of silicon wafer manufacturing are generated by human, fab facility, equipment and process. Generally, the surface defects found on a silicon wafer could be classified as grown-in Crystal Originated Particles (COPs), Surface-Adhered Foreign Particles (SFPs), and Process-Induced Defects (PIDs). Making the correct defect classification by the surface scanning instrument is of paramount because it provides the opportunity for finding defect root cause, which is part of yield enhancement process. This article reveals a novel defect classification approach by optimizing the linear-based channeling and rule-based binning algorithms applied in KLA surface scanning counter, a commercially available surface defect metrology tool.

            Short Commentary Pages: 1 - 3

            Synthesis and Characterization of New Heterocyclic Based Organic Crysta

            Arpitha Kumari*, Ganesh Sanjeev, Boja Poojari, and Soumya P V

            Synthesis of 3-[3-(2,3-dichlrophenyl)prop-2-enyl]-2H-chromen-2-one is a heterocyclic organic crystal using Claisen-Schmidth condensation reaction. Functional group present in the sample was investigated by their vibrational modes using FTIR spectrometer. Thermal stability of crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. UV absorption of crystal was determined by Shimadzu UV- 1800 spectrometer wavelength range from 400 to 4000cm-1.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Evolution of Compact Flexible Antennas Using Exotic Nano, Metamaterials for Wearable and Bio Medical Applications

            Amita Agnihotri*

            Recent innovations in engineered materials have been leveraged to augment the field of flexible electronics. Flexible electronic devices are often lightweight, portable, less expensive, environment friendly, and disposable. Flexible electronics systems require the integration of flexible and stretchable antennas operating in specific frequency bands to provide wireless connectivity, which is necessity in today’s informationoriented society. The markets for flexible wireless devices are rapidly increasing partly due to the demands in wearable and implantable devices for health-monitoring systems and daily-life wireless devices. For this reason, the need for flexible printed antennas has increased in recent years, especially for biomedical applications. This paper focuses on the need for flexible antennas, materials, and processes used for fabricating the antennas, various material properties influencing antenna performance, and specific biomedical applications accompanied by the design considerations. After a comprehensive treatment of the above-mentioned topics, the paper will also focus on inherent challenges and future prospects of flexible antennas. Finally, an insight into the application of flexible antenna on future wireless solutions is discussed

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

            Study on the Spinning Forming Process of a Bowl-Shaped Part with Hastelloy X Raw Material

            M. GHadimi Dafrazi*, B. Barooghi Bonab and M. Mahdi Bali

            One of the basic needs in the defense industry is the manufacturing of thin-slice and high-plasticity pieces, but thin-slice pieces with complex geometric shapes can often not be manufactured by conventional ways or cost more than conventional ones. Usually, the method of manufacturing these pieces is to use the spinning. In addition to quality and precision in size, these pieces must be of high strength, which makes them difficult to manufacture. In this study, spinning with thermal methods in High Temperature Furnace was used to form a bowl. The Hastelloy x alloy was used for fabrication. All tensile, hardness and microstructure tests were performed on the formed part by optical microscopy after forming and heating processes. After completing the process of manufacturing, the quality of its dimensions were also measured by a 3D optical scanner. The Hastelloy x alloy loses its plasticity after 45% cold-working, which significantly reduces elongation and increases hardness. The furnace at 1177°C was used to increase the workability. The use of the furnace results in full recrystallization of the microstructure, reducing the hardness by 62 percent, increasing by 6 times the elongation, and by 40 percent the yield stress, which provides the conditions for further cold work. Experimental examination of surface quality using optical scanners shows that the average thickness distribution obtained for this experiment is 0.13. This value represents only a difference of less than 15% with the value obtained by software 0.15, indicating that the dimension produced is in good agreement with the sample.

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

            KOH Activated Hollow Hierarchical Porous PolyanilineBased Nanospheres as Efficient Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitors

            Shehnaz Shehnaz*

            Hollow nanostructured materials have gained attraction due to their advantages in stability, enlarged surface area and enhanced electrochemical performance toward supercapacitors. In this study, we describe the synthesis of hollow polyaniline spheres (HPS) by one pot polymerization process using FeCl3 as a catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agents under hydrothermal conditions. The HPS are further activated by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heat treatment under N2. The obtained results have demonstrated that activated HPS samples possess unique well- balanced hierarchical porous structure with mesopores and micropores combination. Besides, activated HPS own easy-accessibly large surface area and high conductivity, which can result in ultrafast electrolyte ion transport and endow carbon materials outstanding capacitive performance. Furthermore, the KOH activated HPS exhibits a larger specific surface area of 311 m2 g–1, specific capacitance of 945 F g–1 at scan rate 2 mV s–1, high energy density 126 Wh kg├ó??1 at 1 A g├ó??1 current density and capacitance retention (96%) after completing 1000 cycles in 1.0 M KOH aqueous solution, indicating that HPS are a promising electrode material for high performance supercapacitor application

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

              THE IMPACTS OF TRIPLE-A SUPPLY CHAIN ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN ETHIOPIAN TEXTILE SHARE COMPANY

              Endris Ali

              This study aimed to investigate the impacts of triple-A supply chain (SC) on SC performance in Bahir Dar & Kombolcha textile Share Company, Ethiopia. The study used survey questionnaires as a data collection instrument. Statistical package for social science to purify measurement items through exploratory factor analysis & Partial least square structural equation model used to test whether SC agility, SC adaptability and SC alignment have individual and/or joint effects on SC performance. The finding indicates that SC adaptability, SC alignment and SC agility have a positive and significant effect on SC performance. The result also indicates that the joint triple-A SC had the strongest impact on SC performance.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

              Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties on Synthesized AA 6061 Reinforced with B4C

              Hartaj Singh, Kapil Singh, Sachit Vardhan

              Aluminium metrics based aluminium alloys have numerous applications in the field of modern technology. The aluminium alloys having three
              platforms of industrial applications which are widely used in electronics goods, ground transportation such as automobile, aerospace
              engineering and marine as well as military purposes. Aluminium alloys having low density, lightweight, excellent malleability and high
              strength are the key potency of these alloys. At present, the aluminium alloys are the capability to full fill the current demand of the modern
              industry. To enhance the mechanical properties of this aluminium alloys can be developed by reinforcing with ceramics such as SiC,
              MgO, Gr and so on are used to achieve the desirable properties of the
              materials. The present works investigated on Al 6061/B4C composites have been synthesized with different weight percentages of B4C (0, 1, 5,
              and 15%) along with varied particulate sizes of 50, 100 and 150 μm were used. The cast composites were produced
              via stir casting method and the addition of B4C particles in the base matrix has been analysis by SEM. The mechanical property such as
              Vickers hardness and UTS has been studied and the values of ultimate tensile strength have been optimized using the Taguchi method

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

              Pretreatment, Recycling, and Regeneration Strategies of Cathode Active Materials from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

              Meng Zhou* , Steven Liaw, Quanwen Sun, and Rong He

              Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have paved the way for the creation of portable consumer electronics and electric vehicles. The demands for LIBs of various chemistries show no sign of slowing. Many valuable metals, like Lithium and Cobalt, are contained in batteries, located primarily on the cathode component. The burden from increasing demand of LIBs has attracted attention to reuse the valuable active materials from the cathodes. This paper reviews the recent development of reusing spent LIBs in three categories: Pretreatment, Recycling and Regeneration. Pretreatment covers discharging, dismantling of the spent LIBs and separation of the useful part from waste; Recycling focuses on the recovery of value materials, four strategies (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and electrochemical process) are discussed in details; Regeneration revives the spent electrodes, the mostly used methods are organized, including solid state synthesis, hydrothermal treatment, sol-gel and co-precipitation method. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each method, aim to organize the state-of-the-art technologies and provide a guideline for future development.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Development of Non-Woven Composite Materials using Reclaimed Fibers for Sound Absorption

              Alemayehu Assefa

              Sound absorption behavior is an important requirement for the human life today, since noise affects the capability of day to day activities and even causes various health problems. Sound absorbent textile materials, especially non-woven composite structure of reclaimed materials have low production costs, low specific gravity and are aesthetically appealing. In this research the use of reclaimed cotton and polyester fiber for the development of sound absorptive non-woven composite materials has been explored. Three different blend ratios of reclaimed cotton and polyester fibers that is 25:75, 40:60 and50:50 have been used. The reclaimed cotton and polyester non-woven composites are characterized for their physical properties, such as thickness, areal density, bulk density, porosity and sound absorption characteristics in the frequency range of 250HZ-2000HZ. The values of sound absorption coefficient and noise reduction coefficient obtained signify that the reclaimed polyester fiber non-woven composite possess very good sound absorption behavior in the entire frequency range. Before compressed reclaimed cotton/polyester nonwoven composite of 25:75 blend ratio with high bulk density and low porosity is found to give the excellent performance when used by provided that air gap behind the reclaimed cotton/polyester non-woven composites.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

              Application of the 3D-DGI Method for Selection of the Ô??BestÔ?Ł ADC & Amplifier Combination From the Measured Trendless Sequences

              RR Nigmatullin, RK Sagdiev

              3D-DGI (Discrete Geometrical Invariants) method allows to reduce initial rectangle matrices N×M (N-is number of data points, M < N is number of columns) to a matrix M× P (P=13), where P – represents a set of invariants combined from of the first, second, third and the fourth moments inclusive. This “universal” platform allows to compare any random trendless sequences (TLS) with each other. The further analysis shows that one can extract only two significant parameters/criteria (free from treatment and model errors) for comparison of TLS recorded from the given set of ADCs. The experimental data set represented 15 rectangle matrices with parameters N=20000, M=150 (filtered in the region 1.1-5.0 kHz) and 15 matrices that were not subjected to the filtration procedure. The proposed algorithm given in the paper allows to select the “best” ADC&Amplifier combination from the given ones based on analysis of their TLS(s) and proposed criteria. The authors think that the algorithm can find a wide application in the industrial electronics based on the simplicity, reproducibility and reliability of the proposed procedure.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                Research on Poisson Ratio of Molded Pulp Material Based on DICM and Uniaxial Tensile Test

                Temesggen Feleke Fera*

                Green packaging, also known as sustainable packaging, is the use of materials and manufacturing methods for the packaging of goods that has a low impact on both energy consumption and on the environment. As a new type of green packaging materials, molded pulp is widely used in packaging industry. Molded pulp products have a widely range of materials, such as wood pulp, sugarcane pulp, recycled corrugated pulp, recycled newspaper pulp etc. The mechanical properties of molded pulp material are the basis of structural optimum design of the molded pulp products. An attempt were made by this paper on the relationship between Poisson's ratio and fiber structure, molding process and thickness, uniaxial tensile test and digital image correlation method were carried on samples made from wood pulp, bamboo pulp, sugarcane pulp, white mixed pulp, black mixed pulp, recycled corrugated paper pulp, recycled newspaper pulp and corrugated base paper. The fiber structure of the different molded pulp materials was observed by scanning electron microscope. The Poisson's ratio of each sample was analyzed. The result shows the Poisson's ratio of pulp material were related to fiber structure and drying method. Pulp material dried outside mould has smaller Poisson's ratio, while the pulp material dried inside mould has larger Poisson's ratio. SEM images shows that the molded pulp material has layered phenomenon. The outer layer is dense and the inner layer is loose. The research results can provide guidance for the production, design and numerical simulation analysis of molded pulp products.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                  PHOTON MASS

                  S Orlov*

                  The atomic structure is presented on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation. The feasibility and calculation of the values of the density and mass of electromagnetic particles are proposed. A calculation is made, which proves that the photon must have mass. In the calculations, some physical characteristics of electromagnetic particles that are accepted by modern physics are refuted.

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