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Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering

ISSN: 2169-0022

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    MMT/Vinyl ester GFRP / CFRP Nano Composites Using High Shear Mixing for Mechanical, Thermal and Fire Retardation Properties

    Bommanna K, Radha H R

    This paper reports a first time use of combination of ultrasonication and twin screw extrusion for dispersing Montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay in vinylester resin matrix. Two sets of specimens of MMT/vinylester, namely, Type-1 using ultrasonication and Type-2 using combination of ultrasonication and twin screw extrusion were processed for comparative studies. XRD studies showed superior exfoliation of MMT in vinylester in Type-2 specimens compared to that of Type -1. DSC and TGA studies showed superior glass transition temperature and lower thermal degradation for Type-2. Based on these results, 4 wt % MMT/ vinylester / carbon and 4 wt % MMT / vinylester / glass specimens were fabricated using the combination of ultrasonication and screw extrusion. The addition of 4 wt % MMT to vinylester/carbon increased UTS by, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength and impact strength and fire retardation behaviour. The fractured specimens were studied using SEM.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      FABRICATION OF HELMET USING BASALT FIBER AND ANALYSIS OF STRESS, STRAIN AND TOTAL DEFORMATION BETWEEN BASALT FIBER AND POLYSTYRENE

      Paramkusham Samved

      Basalt fiber is artificial fiber which is made from basalt rock which is similar to glass fiber and carbon fiber. Basalt originates from volcanic eruptions after they get solidified. Basalt mainly consists of olivine, clino-pyroxene, plagioclase and opaque metal oxides. Raw materials are found easily and it has very easy manufacturing process. It has better physiomechanical properties and cheaper. This fiber has high hardness and good thermal properties. It has high stiffness and strength than glass fiber. These have many field applications and can replace many costly materials. These fibers have high potential to solve problems in cement and concrete industries. This project deal with fabricating of the component using basalt fiber and epoxy resin LY556 and hardener HY951 to the shape of component.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

      Role Of Chemical Crystallography On Material Sciences

      Anne Williams*, Rebbica T and Mosses R

      Crystallography is the investigation of the plan of molecules in materials.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

      Application Of Optical And Magnetic (EOM) Materials In Material Science

      Henery Harrius*, Anderia K and Natalia G

      Materials with novel and controlled electronic, optical, and magnetic properties have wide applications, including computers, lighting, detectors, drug, and sustainability.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 1

      Origin And Fundamental Concepts Of Nanotechnology

      Madhina Wilson* and Elsa Martin

      Nanotechnology, also abbreviated as nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and molecules scale for industrial applications.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        Magnesium Chloride Mediates Dentinogenesis in Normal Human Dental Pulp Cells via Activation of the p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/BMP-2/SMADs Signaling Pathways: An In Vitro Study

        Rania M Salem, Chang Zhang , Laisheng Chou

        Up-regulation of odontogenic differentiation and dentin formation in dental pulp are key factors in vital pulp therapy. In previous work, magnesium chloride (MgCl2 ) has been contemplated for its potentiality of enhancing cell attachment, proliferation rate and expression of dentin matrix proteins of normal human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). However, the mechanism by which MgCl2 stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2)/SMADS signaling pathways in dental repair remains rather obscure. This study was designed to study and compare the stimulatory effect of different concentrations of MgCl2 on expression of BMP-2, SMADs 1/5/9, phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), and non-phosphorylated p38 MAPK in signal transduction pathways of HDPCs. HDPCs were cultured with 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 4m m, 8mm concentrations of supplemental MgCl2 , 0 mm as the negative control group. Statistical analysis using Multi-Way Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) with Wilks’ lambda test. Results showed that 0.5, 1 mm, and 2mm supplemental MgCl2 concentrations elicited the highest up regulatory effect on expression of BMP-2, phosphorylated SMADs 1/5/9, p-p38 compared to the negative control all time points (P<0.0001). However, 4 mm and 8 mm supplemental MgCl2 concentrations downregulated BMP-2, phosphorylated SMADs 1/5/9, p-p38 expression at all-time intervals (P<0.0001). This is the first study to report that MgCl2 at the optimal concentrations of 0.5 mm-2 mm might stimulate the differentiation of HDPCs via p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2)/SMADS signaling pathways.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Ferromagnetism in (Ga, Mn) as Synthesized by Mn+ Ion Implantation and 5 MeV Si++ Ion Beam induced Recrystallization

          S K Dubey

          In this study, gallium arsenide samples were first implanted with 325 V Mn ke + ions for the fluence of 16 2 2 10 ions cm− × . These implanted samples were further irradiated using 2 5MeVSi + ion beams for the fluence of 16 2 1 10 ions cm− × at a substrate temperature of 350 0C for recrystallization. Super conducting quantum interface device (SQUID) measurements on asimplanted sample revealed the paramagnetic behavior. While, after irradiation with 2 5MeVSi + ions, SQUID measurements showed the hysteresis loop indicative of the ferromagnetic behavior. Ferromagnetic transition temperature after irradiation of (Ga,Mn). As samples measured from zero field cool and field cool measurements were found to be 292 Kelvin.

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 3

            Structural, Electronic, and Antioxidant Properties of Ablated Ceo2 Nanoparticles with Controlled Limiting Size

            Maxim Alexandrovich Pugachevskii*

            Ceria particles of nanodispersed composition have been obtained by laser ablation and subsequent treatment in an aqueous solution. Using techniques (TEM, XRD, Raman, EELS) of the nanostructural and electronic analysis, it is shown that the produced particles have structural defects that stabilize their internal structure. It is established that when the particle size decreases from 100 to 10 nm, the crystal lattice parameter lowers from 5.41 to 5.39 , and the elemental O/Ce composition changes from 1:1.83 to 1:1.76. The ablated CeO2 particles of nanodispersed composition exhibit high antioxidant activity due to the high concentration of functional defects on the surface of nanoparticles.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

            Unintended Changes of Ion-Selective Membranes CompositionÔ??Origin and Effect on Analytical Performance

            Agata Michalska, Krzysztof Maksymiuk , Emilia Stelmach

            Ion-selective membranes, as used in potentiometric sensors, are mixtures of a few important constituents in a carefully balanced proportion.
            The changes of composition of the ion-selective membrane, both qualitative and quantitative, affect the analytical performance of
            sensors. Different constructions and materials applied to improve sensors result in specific conditions of membrane formation, in
            consequence, potentially can result in uncontrolled modification of the membrane composition. Clearly, these effects need to be considered,
            especially if preparation of miniaturized, potentially disposable internal-solution free sensors is considered. Furthermore, membrane
            composition changes can occur during the normal operation of sensors—accumulation of species as well as release need to be taken into
            account, regardless of the construction of sensors used. Issues related to spontaneous changes of membrane composition that can occur
            during sensor construction, pre-treatment and their operation, seem to be underestimated in the subject literature. The aim of this work is
            to summarize available data related to potentiometric sensors and highlight the effects that can potentially be important also for other
            sensors using ion-selective membranes, e.g., optodes or voltammetric sensors.

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 5

            Electrospun Polyglycolic Acid-Poly(Carbonate-Urea) Urethane Scaffold as a Hybrid Tissue Engineered Vessel

            Clay Quint*

            Alternative small diameter vascular grafts are needed for patients that require surgical revascularization in patients lacking autologous vein. In this study, a Polyglycolic Acid (PGA)-Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) electrospun scaffold seeded with human dermal fibroblasts was placed in a biomimetic perfusion system to generate a hybrid tissue engineered vessel. The outer layer was an electrospun PGA that was co-electrosprayed with sacrificial polyethylene oxide (PEO) microparticles to increase porosity. The PGA-TPU scaffold remained static for 1 week, then circumferential strain amplitude was incremented from 1% to 5% over 6 weeks. The hybrid tissue engineered vessel had an outer cellular layer with collagen deposition replacing the biodegradable PGA and the inner residual polyurethane layer remained relatively acellular. The tensile properties of the hybrid tissue engineered vessel demonstrated a significant reduction in the elastic modulus compared to the PGA-TPU scaffold, but the ultimate tensile strength, extension to break, and burst pressure remained stable. Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the degradation of the PGA and a reduction of polyurethane crosslinking in the hybrid TEV compared to the PGA-TPU. Thus, a biomimetic perfusion system can be used to evaluate the biocompatibility of an electrospun polyurethane scaffold in vitro, to understand the mechanical changes of the polyurethane scaffold after exposure to circumferential stretch, and to generate a hybrid tissue engineered vessel with suitable characteristics for implantation.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

            Development and characterization of pectin and chitosan based biocomposite material for bio-medical application

            Lingayya Hiremath, Shaila Vantagodi, Shivaprada S Hegde, Anitha G S , Keshamma E

            Pectin and Chitosan are the naturally occurring polymers which possess various beneficial properties. Pectin and Chitosan are abundantly available versatile polysaccharides with wide range of applications. The inherent properties of Pectin and Chitosan could be exploited to develop a biocomposite material which can be used as wound dressing material. Pectin is generously available in plant materials mainly citrus fruit peel. In th[e present study, Pectin was extracted from orange peels by Citric Acid and Alcohol Precipitation method as this method retains the Pectin properties and increases the yield of Pectin extraction. Characterization of Pectin extract by solubility tests and SEM analysis revealed the presence of Pectin. The extracted Pectin is sufficient enough to enhance the gelling ability of the biocomposite material. The extracted Pectin along with Chitosan extra pure was used for development of Pectin Chitosan biocomposite materials with the help of suitable solvents. The biocomposite material was prepared by using lactic acid or glycerol by solvent casting method. The biocomposite material was further characterized by SEM analysis which revealed that the surface of the material was smooth and heterogeneous. Also, antibacterial test against Bacillus subtilis confirms that the Pectin and Chitosan retains its antibacterial property in biocomposite materia.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Surface Defect Classification in Silicon Wafer Manufacturing Using Linear-Based Channeling and Rule-Based Binning

              Hao Hu*, Kari Ullako, Xin Lai and Mingming Chao

              Surface defect control is the serious science in semiconductor industry. Surface defects found at the end product of silicon wafer manufacturing are generated by human, fab facility, equipment and process. Generally, the surface defects found on a silicon wafer could be classified as grown-in Crystal Originated Particles (COPs), Surface-Adhered Foreign Particles (SFPs), and Process-Induced Defects (PIDs). Making the correct defect classification by the surface scanning instrument is of paramount because it provides the opportunity for finding defect root cause, which is part of yield enhancement process. This article reveals a novel defect classification approach by optimizing the linear-based channeling and rule-based binning algorithms applied in KLA surface scanning counter, a commercially available surface defect metrology tool.

              Short Commentary Pages: 1 - 3

              Synthesis and Characterization of New Heterocyclic Based Organic Crysta

              Arpitha Kumari*, Ganesh Sanjeev, Boja Poojari, and Soumya P V

              Synthesis of 3-[3-(2,3-dichlrophenyl)prop-2-enyl]-2H-chromen-2-one is a heterocyclic organic crystal using Claisen-Schmidth condensation reaction. Functional group present in the sample was investigated by their vibrational modes using FTIR spectrometer. Thermal stability of crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. UV absorption of crystal was determined by Shimadzu UV- 1800 spectrometer wavelength range from 400 to 4000cm-1.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

              Evolution of Compact Flexible Antennas Using Exotic Nano, Metamaterials for Wearable and Bio Medical Applications

              Amita Agnihotri*

              Recent innovations in engineered materials have been leveraged to augment the field of flexible electronics. Flexible electronic devices are often lightweight, portable, less expensive, environment friendly, and disposable. Flexible electronics systems require the integration of flexible and stretchable antennas operating in specific frequency bands to provide wireless connectivity, which is necessity in today’s informationoriented society. The markets for flexible wireless devices are rapidly increasing partly due to the demands in wearable and implantable devices for health-monitoring systems and daily-life wireless devices. For this reason, the need for flexible printed antennas has increased in recent years, especially for biomedical applications. This paper focuses on the need for flexible antennas, materials, and processes used for fabricating the antennas, various material properties influencing antenna performance, and specific biomedical applications accompanied by the design considerations. After a comprehensive treatment of the above-mentioned topics, the paper will also focus on inherent challenges and future prospects of flexible antennas. Finally, an insight into the application of flexible antenna on future wireless solutions is discussed

              Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

              Study on the Spinning Forming Process of a Bowl-Shaped Part with Hastelloy X Raw Material

              M. GHadimi Dafrazi*, B. Barooghi Bonab and M. Mahdi Bali

              One of the basic needs in the defense industry is the manufacturing of thin-slice and high-plasticity pieces, but thin-slice pieces with complex geometric shapes can often not be manufactured by conventional ways or cost more than conventional ones. Usually, the method of manufacturing these pieces is to use the spinning. In addition to quality and precision in size, these pieces must be of high strength, which makes them difficult to manufacture. In this study, spinning with thermal methods in High Temperature Furnace was used to form a bowl. The Hastelloy x alloy was used for fabrication. All tensile, hardness and microstructure tests were performed on the formed part by optical microscopy after forming and heating processes. After completing the process of manufacturing, the quality of its dimensions were also measured by a 3D optical scanner. The Hastelloy x alloy loses its plasticity after 45% cold-working, which significantly reduces elongation and increases hardness. The furnace at 1177°C was used to increase the workability. The use of the furnace results in full recrystallization of the microstructure, reducing the hardness by 62 percent, increasing by 6 times the elongation, and by 40 percent the yield stress, which provides the conditions for further cold work. Experimental examination of surface quality using optical scanners shows that the average thickness distribution obtained for this experiment is 0.13. This value represents only a difference of less than 15% with the value obtained by software 0.15, indicating that the dimension produced is in good agreement with the sample.

              Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

              KOH Activated Hollow Hierarchical Porous PolyanilineBased Nanospheres as Efficient Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitors

              Shehnaz Shehnaz*

              Hollow nanostructured materials have gained attraction due to their advantages in stability, enlarged surface area and enhanced electrochemical performance toward supercapacitors. In this study, we describe the synthesis of hollow polyaniline spheres (HPS) by one pot polymerization process using FeCl3 as a catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agents under hydrothermal conditions. The HPS are further activated by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heat treatment under N2. The obtained results have demonstrated that activated HPS samples possess unique well- balanced hierarchical porous structure with mesopores and micropores combination. Besides, activated HPS own easy-accessibly large surface area and high conductivity, which can result in ultrafast electrolyte ion transport and endow carbon materials outstanding capacitive performance. Furthermore, the KOH activated HPS exhibits a larger specific surface area of 311 m2 g–1, specific capacitance of 945 F g–1 at scan rate 2 mV s–1, high energy density 126 Wh kg├ó??1 at 1 A g├ó??1 current density and capacitance retention (96%) after completing 1000 cycles in 1.0 M KOH aqueous solution, indicating that HPS are a promising electrode material for high performance supercapacitor application

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                THE IMPACTS OF TRIPLE-A SUPPLY CHAIN ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN ETHIOPIAN TEXTILE SHARE COMPANY

                Endris Ali

                This study aimed to investigate the impacts of triple-A supply chain (SC) on SC performance in Bahir Dar & Kombolcha textile Share Company, Ethiopia. The study used survey questionnaires as a data collection instrument. Statistical package for social science to purify measurement items through exploratory factor analysis & Partial least square structural equation model used to test whether SC agility, SC adaptability and SC alignment have individual and/or joint effects on SC performance. The finding indicates that SC adaptability, SC alignment and SC agility have a positive and significant effect on SC performance. The result also indicates that the joint triple-A SC had the strongest impact on SC performance.

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties on Synthesized AA 6061 Reinforced with B4C

                Hartaj Singh, Kapil Singh, Sachit Vardhan

                Aluminium metrics based aluminium alloys have numerous applications in the field of modern technology. The aluminium alloys having three
                platforms of industrial applications which are widely used in electronics goods, ground transportation such as automobile, aerospace
                engineering and marine as well as military purposes. Aluminium alloys having low density, lightweight, excellent malleability and high
                strength are the key potency of these alloys. At present, the aluminium alloys are the capability to full fill the current demand of the modern
                industry. To enhance the mechanical properties of this aluminium alloys can be developed by reinforcing with ceramics such as SiC,
                MgO, Gr and so on are used to achieve the desirable properties of the
                materials. The present works investigated on Al 6061/B4C composites have been synthesized with different weight percentages of B4C (0, 1, 5,
                and 15%) along with varied particulate sizes of 50, 100 and 150 μm were used. The cast composites were produced
                via stir casting method and the addition of B4C particles in the base matrix has been analysis by SEM. The mechanical property such as
                Vickers hardness and UTS has been studied and the values of ultimate tensile strength have been optimized using the Taguchi method

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

                Pretreatment, Recycling, and Regeneration Strategies of Cathode Active Materials from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

                Meng Zhou* , Steven Liaw, Quanwen Sun, and Rong He

                Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have paved the way for the creation of portable consumer electronics and electric vehicles. The demands for LIBs of various chemistries show no sign of slowing. Many valuable metals, like Lithium and Cobalt, are contained in batteries, located primarily on the cathode component. The burden from increasing demand of LIBs has attracted attention to reuse the valuable active materials from the cathodes. This paper reviews the recent development of reusing spent LIBs in three categories: Pretreatment, Recycling and Regeneration. Pretreatment covers discharging, dismantling of the spent LIBs and separation of the useful part from waste; Recycling focuses on the recovery of value materials, four strategies (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and electrochemical process) are discussed in details; Regeneration revives the spent electrodes, the mostly used methods are organized, including solid state synthesis, hydrothermal treatment, sol-gel and co-precipitation method. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each method, aim to organize the state-of-the-art technologies and provide a guideline for future development.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                Development of Non-Woven Composite Materials using Reclaimed Fibers for Sound Absorption

                Alemayehu Assefa

                Sound absorption behavior is an important requirement for the human life today, since noise affects the capability of day to day activities and even causes various health problems. Sound absorbent textile materials, especially non-woven composite structure of reclaimed materials have low production costs, low specific gravity and are aesthetically appealing. In this research the use of reclaimed cotton and polyester fiber for the development of sound absorptive non-woven composite materials has been explored. Three different blend ratios of reclaimed cotton and polyester fibers that is 25:75, 40:60 and50:50 have been used. The reclaimed cotton and polyester non-woven composites are characterized for their physical properties, such as thickness, areal density, bulk density, porosity and sound absorption characteristics in the frequency range of 250HZ-2000HZ. The values of sound absorption coefficient and noise reduction coefficient obtained signify that the reclaimed polyester fiber non-woven composite possess very good sound absorption behavior in the entire frequency range. Before compressed reclaimed cotton/polyester nonwoven composite of 25:75 blend ratio with high bulk density and low porosity is found to give the excellent performance when used by provided that air gap behind the reclaimed cotton/polyester non-woven composites.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                Application of the 3D-DGI Method for Selection of the Ô??BestÔ?Ł ADC & Amplifier Combination From the Measured Trendless Sequences

                RR Nigmatullin, RK Sagdiev

                3D-DGI (Discrete Geometrical Invariants) method allows to reduce initial rectangle matrices N×M (N-is number of data points, M < N is number of columns) to a matrix M× P (P=13), where P – represents a set of invariants combined from of the first, second, third and the fourth moments inclusive. This “universal” platform allows to compare any random trendless sequences (TLS) with each other. The further analysis shows that one can extract only two significant parameters/criteria (free from treatment and model errors) for comparison of TLS recorded from the given set of ADCs. The experimental data set represented 15 rectangle matrices with parameters N=20000, M=150 (filtered in the region 1.1-5.0 kHz) and 15 matrices that were not subjected to the filtration procedure. The proposed algorithm given in the paper allows to select the “best” ADC&Amplifier combination from the given ones based on analysis of their TLS(s) and proposed criteria. The authors think that the algorithm can find a wide application in the industrial electronics based on the simplicity, reproducibility and reliability of the proposed procedure.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                  Research on Poisson Ratio of Molded Pulp Material Based on DICM and Uniaxial Tensile Test

                  Temesggen Feleke Fera*

                  Green packaging, also known as sustainable packaging, is the use of materials and manufacturing methods for the packaging of goods that has a low impact on both energy consumption and on the environment. As a new type of green packaging materials, molded pulp is widely used in packaging industry. Molded pulp products have a widely range of materials, such as wood pulp, sugarcane pulp, recycled corrugated pulp, recycled newspaper pulp etc. The mechanical properties of molded pulp material are the basis of structural optimum design of the molded pulp products. An attempt were made by this paper on the relationship between Poisson's ratio and fiber structure, molding process and thickness, uniaxial tensile test and digital image correlation method were carried on samples made from wood pulp, bamboo pulp, sugarcane pulp, white mixed pulp, black mixed pulp, recycled corrugated paper pulp, recycled newspaper pulp and corrugated base paper. The fiber structure of the different molded pulp materials was observed by scanning electron microscope. The Poisson's ratio of each sample was analyzed. The result shows the Poisson's ratio of pulp material were related to fiber structure and drying method. Pulp material dried outside mould has smaller Poisson's ratio, while the pulp material dried inside mould has larger Poisson's ratio. SEM images shows that the molded pulp material has layered phenomenon. The outer layer is dense and the inner layer is loose. The research results can provide guidance for the production, design and numerical simulation analysis of molded pulp products.

                    Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                    PHOTON MASS

                    S Orlov*

                    The atomic structure is presented on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation. The feasibility and calculation of the values of the density and mass of electromagnetic particles are proposed. A calculation is made, which proves that the photon must have mass. In the calculations, some physical characteristics of electromagnetic particles that are accepted by modern physics are refuted.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                      An Investigation of Novel Nano Material Silver Nano Dots Synthesis and Characterization Using Simple Sugar Fructose

                      A.G.J. Patriciaa

                      Silver nano dots are new and smart materials for application in medical field. Their sizes are in the range of <=10 nm and have unique structural, chemical, physical properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, in devices used in medical procedures. In this report we present the chemical process in which the silver nano dots are synthesized using a simple ingredient fructose as reducing which is a less expensive and is a rapid phase method. It is a very feasible method to harvest silver nano dots in the lab at a very rapid pace than the conventional methods and without toxic side effects. The size of the silver nano dots were found to match the size of biological molecules and exhibited unique properties which can find a wide array of applications in the field of medicine and industrial electronics. UVVIS study, XRD analysis, FTIR studies and TEM analysis was done to establish the fact that silver nano dots can be synthesized using simple chemical sugar like fructose. Based on the size of the silver nano dots created in the lab and their ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier in the human system they can be applied for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                      Strengthening and Toughening of 3D Printing High Entropy Alloy

                      Shan Cecilia Cao, Amy XY Guo, Zhiming Lin, Wei Xiong and Shuai Zhan

                      By comparing the differences between high-entropy alloys and traditional alloys, this paper highlights the outstanding advantages of highentropy alloys in modern 3D printing, and introduces the characteristics, defects and corresponding solutions of different types of 3D printing technologies. DED uses a laser, electron beam, or arc to melt the powder or wire form during deposition. SLM is to melt metal powder on a powder bed and use high-energy lasers to print geometrically complex products. EBM uses electron beam to melt metal powder. In addition, the constituent elements, processing conditions and working temperature are also important factors in determining the mechanical properties of high-entropy alloys. By adding or reducing elements and conducting some treatment, the properties of high-entropy alloys such as tensile strength, compressive properties, fracture strength and plastic strain can be found changed.

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

                      Shear Stresses during the Flow of Structured Suspensions: Accounting for the Formation of Trimers

                      AI Levinsky*

                      A semi-empirical equation has been derived that describes the dependence of the shear stress on the shear rate during the flow of a onecomponent suspension. The suspension is considered as consisting of three fractions: single grains, their dimers and trimmers, between which equilibrium is established, depending on the shear rate. The equation is based on Krieger's formula generalized to the case of multicomponent suspensions. The derived equation well approximates the experimental data, including systems for which pseudoplastic behavior is replaced by dilatant behavior and vice versa.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                      Formability Assessment of Hot Rolled Steel Grades Used for Tubular Hydroforming Application

                      Elakkiya Mani*

                      Tubular hydroforming, the process which uses high pressure to form desired complex shape quickly and easily is the future of automotive industry and is quickly becoming a worthy challenger to the conventional metal stamping and welding. The growing demand for light weight parts in the various fields like automotive, aircraft and aerospace industries have increased the scope for tubular hydroforming in the last few years. The primary advantages of the process are improvement in structural stiffness and crash behavior due to lack of welds and reduced cost assembly.

                      Hydroforming application demands a clear understanding of material process property relationships. Design, material selection, manufacturing and processing of tubes for this particular application remains critical. Proper understanding of material properties and its forming behavior is the basic necessity for material selection. The effect of material properties on hydroforming process of tubes was investigated. Experimental and FEA studies on free expansion of tubes have been carried out in different materials and materials were ranked based on the suitability for hydroforming. The effect of strain rate on formability of steel sheets was discussed.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

                      Material Selection for Electrodes of Electrodynamic Screen (EDS): A Self Cleaning Technology for Solar Collectors

                      Annie Rabi Bernard and Malay Mazumder*

                      The Electrodynamic Screen (EDS) is a self cleaning surface technology that can be retrofitted or integrated onto the optical surface of solar collectors, which when activated, can charge dust and remove it off the surface without using water or robotic parts. The EDS film’s electrodes enable the cleaning action and hence have to account for both conductivity and transparency to be included in the solar collectors. We present the different materials explored to serve this purpose, the reason for their selection, pros and cons of each material and results obtained upon testing their environmental durability and viability. The results from standardized accelerated weathering tests which validate the outdoor durability of the final electrode materials are also reported.

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

                      Sintering Processes and Dielectric Properties of Ceramic Material (Ba0.4Ca0.6) Ti4O9

                      Asad Ali*, Sarir Uddin, Abid Zaman and Zafar Iqbal

                      Dielectric properties of (Ba0.4Ca0.6) Ti4O9 ceramic material prepared by mixed oxide solid state route were studied. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the calcined powder of (Ba0.4Ca0.6) Ti4O9 at 900°C crystalizes in the phase of complex peroveskite type. Dielectric properties measurement was carried out by LCR meter at the range of (1 MHz to 100 MHz) and (1 GHz to 2 GHz) frequencies. The εr value of (Ba 0.4 Ca0.6 )Ti4O9 sintered ceramic sample increased with increasing frequency. In the present work, a controlled mixed oxide solid state processing route was used to prepared microwave dielectric material (Ba0.4Ca0.6) Ti4O9 and microwave dielectric properties were measured at relatively lower and higher frequencies.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                      Heat Treatment Effect on Microstructural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Nickel Aluminium Bronze Alloy Manufactured by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Technique

                      Fathia Alkelae* and Shinya Sasaki

                      High density nickel-aluminium bronze alloy (Cu9Al4Fe3Ni) was manufactured using Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Technique (L-PBF), it was investigated regarding the effect of different heat treatment conditions on its mechanical, microstructural and tribological behaviour. Correlations between the microstructures generated (k phases) and the behaviour observed were established. Regardless the heat treatment applied (annealing, tempering, quenching and tempering), friction coefficient, wear loss and hardness have been shown to decrease with increasing heat treatment temperature, while tensile strength and the elongation improved compared to the as-built sample. On the other hand, correlations using increased precipitates content resulting from different heat treatments confirmed the improvement of the material’s mechanical properties at the expense of the tribological ones. A possible interpretation of this results maybe the role of precipitates in impeding dislocations motion leading to increased shear forces, thus deteriorating the embeddability of the soft α phase along with detachment of the hard κ phases allowing a three body abrasive wear to occur. However, in a process similar to strain hardening, hardness and tensile strength are shown to improve with increased precipitation.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                      A Preprocessing Filter to Improve Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle (SPION): Based Early Tumor Detection

                      Mehdi Baqri*, Sri Kamal K andala and David Fuentes

                      The early detection of aggressive forms of ovarian cancer before they metastasize is critical for reducing overall mortality from the disease. Super Paramagnetic Relaxometry (SPMR) is an imaging technique useful for visualizing early stage tumors with high sensitivity and specificity. It uses Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) to detect targeted Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) that visualize tumors ten times smaller than what conventional imaging techniques can. However, the ultra-sensitivity of SQUIDs increases their risk of distortion due to far-field artifacts. Therefore, a preprocessing filter was developed to mitigate far-field, low-frequency disturbances to SQUID signal acquisition. This is based on the hypothesis that correcting SQUID signal acquisition using a magnetometer for far-field detection will increase the accuracy of SPMR for early tumor detection. The hypothesis was tested in three steps. First, it was shown that the Magnetometer (MAG) could specifically detect far-field noise and effectively avoid Nanoparticle (NP) signatures. Second, low-frequency noise was induced to show that far-field artifacts in the MAG signal correlated with distortions in the SQUID channels. Therefore, a preprocessing filter was developed to parse through and parameterize MAG signal extrema to SQUID signal distortions. A series of further optimization steps included anchoring the MAG signal to respective channels, modelling and subtracting the component of structural (environmental) relaxation and constraining a general subtraction window. Third, success was measured by the image reconstruction accuracy of sources with various NP concentrations, using the HSPMR dipole-fitting technique. Overall, the MAG-filter increased reconstruction accuracy more effectively with decreasing NP signal; accuracy increased the most at very low concentrations (~ 1ug). This preliminary data indicate that the filter increases SPMR sensitivity for low NP concentrations representative of small cell clusters, typical of early disease stages. Future work will optimize this initial filter to work uniformly and effectively across different NP concentrations (and tumor sizes) and translate this technology to highly sensitive early tumor detection.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

                      Temperature Dependent Properties of Electrodeposited [email protected] CdS Rod Like Heterostructures in Air and Argon Ambient

                      Manorama G. Lakhe* and Nandu B. Chaure

                      CuInTe2 (CIT) layers have been electrodeposited onto CdS coated FTO substrates at deposition potential -0.8 V verses Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The samples were annealed at four different temperatures viz, 350°C, 400°C, 450°C and 500°C for 20 minutes in air ambient, controlled argon ambient and Rapid Thermal Processesing (RTP) in presence of argon ambient for 5 shots. Samples were characterized by various characterization techniques to study structural, microstructural, morphological, compositional, chemical properties and concentration gradient of ionic species. Highly crystalline samples were obtained upon annealing the CIT layers in controlled argon ambient in tube furnace and RTP as a counter part of air annealed samples. Raman data shows removal of tensile strain upon annealing the samples in controlled argon ambient. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images shows increase in grain size for samples annealed at 350°C and 400°C in controlled argon atmosphere and in RTP. The high resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images shows further improvement in grain size in controlled argon atmosphere. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images show rod like columnar morphology. XPS study shows the presence of Cu+, In3+, Te2- and Te4+ states of copper, indium and tellurium. Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF SIMS) data shows almost uniform concentration of In and Te throughout the CIT layers annealed in controlled argon atmosphere. ToF SIMS data gives unique insight of concentration gradient of individual ionic species throughout the CIT layers and at CdS/CIT interface.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                      Physical and Mechanical Properties of Flax Fiber and its Composites

                      Parul Singh and YG Bala

                      Flax fiber (Linum usitatissimum L) is the natural fiber which is good in mechanical properties such as impact resistance with specific strength. Now days, natural fibers are used in various field such as aircraft industries, automobile industries and textile industries. Due to low specific weight having comparable good mechanical properties these fibers is used in these industries. Flax fiber behavior changes with the hydro and thermal conditions due to hydrophilic nature. This paper is review about change in mechanical properties due to temperature and water absorption. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was performed to study the evolution of the glass transition temperature in function of the water uptake for composite samples immersed in distilled water at 30°C. Flax fiber have better fatigue resistance than other natural fiber. Flax fiber stiffness evolution is found that elastic modulus may increase or decrease over fatigue life in the fiber-direction.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      A Study on Solar Power Systems in Robotics

                      Keshav K. Singh*, Madhavi Singh and Akash Singh

                      DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2169-0022.2022.11.21

                      Automation and artificial intelligence have improved product accuracy, quality, and processing time during the previous couple of decades due to huge advancements in robotics technology. The shortage of energy supplies for global demand is currently the most critical aspect in the modern world. Electrification is a clear propensity to improve the performance and sustainability of the transportation system due to environmental concerns and regulatory pressures. Robots provide significant benefits in a wide range of applications. The introduction of robots into industrial environments and other applications leads in a significant increase in efficiency and productivity. Solar photovoltaic technology is a key research topic for converting solar energy into usable electricity. Solar robots use electrical energy stored in batteries to power their mechanical, electrical, and electronic equipment, which execute a variety of activities for both industrial and commercial purposes. Robots can function in dangerous environments for extended periods without human assistance and with excellent precision.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                      Design and Development of 2D Woven Auxetic Fabric Based on Double Arrow Geometry using Semi-Empirical Model

                      Shivangi Shukla*, Shreyansh Jain and B.K. Behera

                      DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2169-0022.2022.11.22

                      Auxetic materials are materials that expand in the transverse direction when stretched longitudinally, giving them some unique properties in comparison to conventional materials. In textiles, both auxetic and non-auxetic yarns can be used to weave auxetic fabrics. This article demonstrates the modeling of a double arrow auxetic geometry for estimation of Poisson’s ratio and subsequent development of a woven construction to examine the potential of this geometry to produce an auxetic fabric. The fabric structure is modified to incorporate the double arrow auxetic geometry using a combination of loose and tight weaves, as well as elastic and inelastic yarns. The fabric structure is modeled semi-empirically. To determine the effect of yarn elasticity on the auxeticity of the fabric structure, three different counts of cotton spandex yarns were used. It was observed that when the different weft counts were used, the coarser weft count exhibited NPR over a wide strain range. The semi-empirical model of double arrow geometry fits the experimental data well.

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