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Journal of Electrical & Electronic Systems

ISSN: 2332-0796

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Titanium Changes Generated at Different DC

    Xiao Quan Mao and Zhi Ping Zheng

    Objective: To investigate the optimal DC voltage that titanium morphology was created with micro arc oxidation. Methods: The titanium was cut into 10 mm, 10 mm, 1 mm and they were grind and polished respectively. DC voltage that treated titanium was used single variable control: 200V, 250V, 300V, 350V, 400V, 450V; treatment time: 5S; the treatment temperature was less than 40?, Electric current and other conditions were same Results: The morphology on titanium surface was multipore structure, and the pore size was different after titanium treated with micro arc oxidation. The average pore size of MAO250V, MAO300V and MAO350V groups were bigger than 1 μm, MAO200V, MAO400V and MAO450V groups were less than 1 μm, the porosity was 17.4% at MAO200V group, 37% at MAO250V, MAO300V and MAO350V groups, 25.2%, 20.7% at MAO400V and MAO450V group; thickness was from 0.63 μm at MAO200V to 6.87 μm at MAO450V group. There was significant between the groups in the pore size and thickness Conclusion: Morphology could meet the needs of clinic at 250-350V DC voltage.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Economic Battery Sizing for Reliable Quantized Solar PV Power Output

    H Senal Perera, J Rohan Lucas*

    Generation of power from Solar PV inherently possesses a set of reliability issues. These issues are magnified with increasing penetration, and mitigation provides increased compatibility, especially for power systems with lower inertia. This paper addresses the intermittency issues. It provides and sustains a more deterministic output obtained by a quantized prediction input utilizing a demand response system. Utilization of the proposed method would allow Solar PV to be considered semi-dispatchable when connected to the grid. It would add virtual inertia, as well as improving the ability to safely operate in stand-alone mode. An algorithm is incorporated as an alert system in a ‘worst case scenario’ as a safety measure in the rare case of not being able to meet commitment. The financial impact due to the addition of the device has been evaluated and the levelized cost of generation is shown to be 16.5 LKR/kWh. For rooftop solar, the cost- benefit ratio is shown to be above 1.3 after implementation. A battery sized at 2.7% of rated daily energy (1.5 Ah for a system operating at 450 V) is shown to be sufficient for a PV system generating a daily peak energy of 25 kWh to effectively convert Solar PV into a semi-dispatchable source. This allows special benefits from the utility service provider, which increases the feasibility of the incorporation.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Design and Simulation of Single Phase PV Grid-Tie Inverter with Net Metering

    Muhammad Imran Akbar, Madiha Chaudhary and Rida Rasheed

    The ever increasing demand for electricity and the shortcomings of finite sources is making the world to move towards renewable energy sources. In this report, the detailed analysis of the system comprising of single phase photovoltaic grid-tie inverter with net metering is deliberated. To inject solar generated waveform into the grid, one has to synchronize both waveforms of solar output and utility grid. The electronic device which synchronizes two waveforms of different power resources is called grid-tie inverter. Net meter senses the current from both sides i.e. from grid and inverter and gives a display of either the power is drawn from the grid or it is injected into the grid. The whole circuit was simulated at first then it was successfully implemented as a prototype.

      Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 7

      Emerging Smart Technologies for Site-Specific Crop Management: Practices and Trends

      Muhammad Irfan Mughal

      Agricultural practices have fed humans for tens of thousands of years and various crops have been cultivated but the ever increasing world population demands more crop yields. Precision agriculture has given a new meaning to cultivating crops and livestock in farming. Site-specific crop management is a precision agriculture method, which utilizes differential management approach by monitoring and recording variability in crop fields. This approach is basically about applying the right farm input in right amount to right site at the right time. Sensors, Geo-spatial technologies and variable rate applications are the common static digital technologies employed in site-specific crop management, which are termed as traditional technologies in this work. Traditional technologies have enabled automation in crop management. In recent decades, smart technologies like artificial intelligence, internet of things and other smart technologies are greatly researched and employed in crop management for making it autonomous and intelligent. In this review, a study of traditional technologies’ existing trends and practices in site-specific crop management is conducted. Different experimental setups, trends, advantages and drawbacks of emerging smart technologies are investigated. It was observed that AI and IoT are the leading smart technologies in site-specific crop management. Furthermore, challenges in adopting smart technologies are discussed. It was concluded that emerging smart technologies rely on smart data and specific frameworks are needed for smart data collection and sharing with other stakeholders of the agro value chain for improving food production and security.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

      A comparative study of various convert Topologies of Electric vehicles consider V2G Applications

      Hamid Rahim*

      The motive of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) is to optimize the way we produce, transport, and use electricity by turning electric cars into virtual power plants. According to this concept, we can maintain the stability of our power system by using Vehicle to Grid implementation. V2G offers many advantages like real power and reactive power compensation, load control, filter current harmonics, etc. Wind, grid, and PV system also need batteries for storage purposes. Grid uses batteries power during peak hours and transients. Electric vehicles have a battery bank that can be used for this purpose. For V2G applications battery of the electric vehicle should be highly efficient, must be having deep cycling capability, high energy density and a longer life. A set of challenges, benefits, power-flow methods, and charging-discharging techniques are discussed in this paper. This review article briefly explains and compares the control of different topologies adopted for V2G and G2V scheme. Additionally, our research shows that Vehicle to Grid application is advantageous only if efficient battery chargingdischarging techniques are used. Index Terms—Vehicle-to-Grid(V2G); Bi-directional converter; Single-Stage Converter; Electric vehicle; DC-DC converter ;DC-AC converters; Unidirectional & Bidirectional power flow; Battery storage systems

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