Microphone arrays consist of multiple microphones functioning as a single directional input device: essentially, an acoustic antenna. Using sound propagation principles, the principal sound sources in an environment can be spatially located and distinguished from each other. Distinguishing sounds based on the spatial location of their source is achieved by filtering and combining the individual microphone signals.
Journals Related to Microphone Array
Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Signal Processing Magazine