Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 5 (2020)

    Research Pages: 1 - 4

    Evaluation of Effects of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on the Growth Performance of Boer Cross, Jamunapari Cross and Local Khari Breeds of Goat in Jagatpur Farm, Chitwan, Nepal

    Raman Ghimire, Yumi Shakya and Nirajan Bhattarai

    The popularity of exotic goats and its crosses with indigenous breeds has been increasing amongst the Nepali farmers as it improves productive and growth performance of indigenous breeds through cross breeding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on the growth performance of Boer crosses with Local khari and Jamunapari cross breeds of goats in Jagatpur Farm, Chitwan, Nepal. Data of 60 registered kids were recorded in Jagatpur Agro Farm for five-month period and was analyzed using general linear model (univariate) in IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The mean birth weight of Boer × Khari, Jamunapari × Boer and Local khari was 3.19 ± 0.09, 3.45 ± 0.08 and 3.21 ± 0.08 respectively. The effect of breed was significant on 3 month weight (p<0.001), 5 month weight (p<0.05) and pre-weaning average daily gain (p<0.05). Boer × Khari was heavier than Local Khari followed by Jamunapari cross in all the three aspects; 3 month weight, 5 month weight and pre-weaning average daily gain. Sex was significant on 3 month weight (p<0.05), 5 month weight (p<0.05), pre-weaning average daily gain (p<0.05) and overall average daily gain (p<0.05). Male had higher weight and weight gains than female. The mean 3 month weight, 5 month weight, pre weaning average daily gain and overall daily gain of male was 14.85 ± 0.48 kg, 23.88 ± 0.41 kg, 127.64 ± 4.84 g/d and 136.8 ± 2.43 g/d whereas female was 13.56 ± 0.49 kg, 22.2 ± 0.42 kg, 115 ± 4.98 g/d and 126.79 ± 2.5 g/d respectively. Parity and season had no significant (p>0.05) effects on any weights and daily gains. Similarly, post-weaning average daily gain was not significantly affected by any factors. It was concluded that cross breeding of Boer goat with Jamunapari and Khari breeds with ability to adapt to local conditions can add much more value to productive performance including body weights and weight gains. Similarly, the fixed effects such as sex, breed and parity should always be taken into consideration as it had significant effects in goat performance. Thus, cross breeding and effects of these factors need to be studied in more detail to determine impacts on productivity and profitability of the meat goat industry.

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Directional solar asymmetries in sound Pyrenean Catalan horses

    Parés Casanova Pere M* and López-Navarro

    Most published attempts to quantify equine hoof form are based on lineal and angular measurements. Here we applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of hoof outlines in a sample of 25 distal forelimbs (13 right and 12 left). Limbs belonged to sound “Cavall Pirinenc Català” horse, an equine meat local breed from Pyrenees, slaughtered in an abattoir. The outline of each hoof was represented by a set of two landmarks and 86 semi-landmarks. Results reflected directional asymmetric, e.g. consistent differences between medial and lateral contours for all four limbs. Right limbs tended to supinate (rotation of medial wall towards out), while left limbs tended to pronate (rotation of lateral wall towards in). Such morphological adjustments may be an important consideration for hoof practitioners and may imply an important reconsideration of “normal” feet evaluation.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    High-Throughput Sequencing for the Detection of the Bacterial Diversity in Milking Procedure in China Dairy Farms

    Cao Huihui, Yan Yanhua, Wang Lei, Zhou Yu, Wang Yan, Tang Xueying, Pang Xueliang, Zhang Ning, Dong Lixue, Zheng Baiqin

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    Research Pages: 1 - 4

    Feeding Value of Graded Levels of Wild Silver Leaf Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) On Growth (Bodyweight) Change of Horro Sheep Fed Basal Diet of Natural Pasture Hay

    Jalel Fikadu Yadeta and Mangistu Urge Leta

    This experiment was conducted at Nedjo ATVET College with the objective of evaluating the effects of graded levels of wild silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) on growth and body weight change Horro sheep fed a basal diet of natural pasture hay. Twenty intact male Horro sheep with intact milk teeth and an average initial weight of 18.28±1.47 kg (mean± SD) were used. The experimental sheep were blocked into 5 blocks of 4 animals based on initial body weight and randomly assigned to one of the four treatments within a block. The treatments were natural pasture hay ad libitum (T1) and wild silver leaf desmodium supplement at levels of 200(T2), 300(T3), 400(T4) g/head/d on dry matter bases. The basal diet had DM, CP and OM of 91.2, 75.5 and 9.3, respectively while the corresponding values for Desmodium were 89.8, 77.8 and 16.8. Desmodium supplementation resulted in significantly higher (p<0.01) final body weight and average daily gain (15.6, 38.9, 45.6 and 68.9 g/d in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively) (p<0.001) than the sheep in the control treatment. Therefore, supplementation with 400 g/d Desmodium improved body weight of sheep and correspondingly increased the net income from the sale of sheep at the end of the feeding trial. Therefore, in the present study supplementation of wild silver leaf desmodium to natural grass hay at 400 g appears to be the best level for Horro sheep in growth and daily body gain.

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    Haemetobichemistry, Pathomorphology and Therapy of Embelia tserium-cottom toxicity in Malnad Gidda Cattle

    Shridhar NB

    Toxicity episode of Embelia tserium-cottom was observed in Malnad Gidda cattle. The clinical signs were severe anorexia, constipation, ascites , anasarca, perineal edema, brisket edema and death in Malnad Gidda cattle which consumed the plant leaves. This study confirmed the plant as a cause for the clinical syndrome of perineal edema which was an obscure disease. There was a damage to kidney and liver with an increase in serum creatinine, BUN,AST and ALT. In post mortem it was observed that there was a damage to most of the vital organs like kidney, heart, liver, lungs had lesions followed by the histological changes. Ailing animals were treated with symptomatically with administration with balanced electrolytes, B-complex vitamins, activated charcoal, isoflupredone, frusemide etc with poor recovery rate.

    Volume 12, Issue 1 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Editorial Note on Veterinary Pathology Research

      Sane D Von*

      Veterinary pathology is divided into two branches, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Anatomical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases in animals based on the studies of gross examination, microscopic, and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies. Veterinary Clinical Pathology deals with the diagnostic laboratory work for the diagnosis of diseases and the control of therapy in animals. Veterinary pathologists are doctors who hold a specialization in the diagnosis of diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Note on Animal Nutrition

      Mark Venison

      As an international forum for hypothesis-driven scientific research, the Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition publishes original papers in the fields of animal physiology, biochemistry and physiology of nutrition, animal nutrition, feed technology and preservation (only when related to animal nutrition). Well-conducted scientific work that meets the technical and ethical standards is considered only on the basis of scientific rigor.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Editorial Note on Risk of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle

      Mark Venison

      Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1), encoded by the SLC11A1 gene, plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SLC11A1 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. We genotyped the SLC11A1 gene in 60 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy control animals. The influence in the exon 4 and intron 4 regions of SLC11A1 genetic variations on bTB susceptibility was subsequently investigated by association analysis. Our finding demonstrated that the g.107117166A>G and g.107117369C>T polymorphisms of the SLC11A1 gene associated with bTB in Holstein cattle. The susceptibility of cattle with the g.107117166A>G genotype compared with the GG genotype was 3.40 (95% CI: 1.10-10.51; p=0.048) fold higher. The g. 107117166A>G SNP located in the exon 4 of the SLC11A1 gene and the functional consequence was missense.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Editorial Note on Gastrointestinal functionality in animal

      Samar Jha

      Effective functionality of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its health, are important factors in determining animal performance. Several, complex mechanisms are involved in the regulation of GIT functionality and health, therefore it is crucial to deepen our knowledge of these interactions so that strategies for the modulation of GIT functionality and health, in context of improved animal performance, can be developed. The concept of “gut health” has started to attract significant interest within the animal science community, however a clear definition of gastrointestinal health and functionality and how it can be measured is lacking. Therefore, this review will present a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality and will address how optimal gastrointestinal functionality can promote animal performances and welfare. The key components of gastrointestinal functionality reviewed in this article are: diet, effective structure and function of the gastrointestinal barrier, host interaction with the gastrointestinal microbiota, effective digestion and absorption of feed and effective immune status. While the relationships between these areas is extremely complex, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to develop nutritional strategies that would allow farm animals to become more resilient to the environmental and physiological challenges that they will have to endure during their productive career. As the demand of animal products from the rapidly growing world human population is ever-growing, the aim of this review is to present animal and veterinary scientists and nutritionists, a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality that can be used to establish a multidisciplinary approach to increase animal health, welfare and performance.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Editorial Note on Sustainable animal feed technology

      Archana Bhatacharjee

      Animal food supplementation is the process of adding specific nutrients to animal food to augment levels of certain nutrients in the whole diet or make up for a deficiency. Supplements are also used to improve digestive functions, promotes vitality, regenerates liver and maintains balance of the body. We formulate a wide range of animal feed supplements which are known for excellent nutritional content. These animal feed supplements can be mixed with fodder and have an extra shelf life. Mineral Complex of Amino Acids is very useful in Veterinary, Poultry & Aquaculture. It acts as animal feed attractant in aquaculture and prevents wastage of animal feed.

      Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Awards Content-Veterinary 2021

        Theresa Sarah

        The award is to the experts who have made outstanding contributions to advancing in veterinary. It is the most significant award of the conference and tagged as a Scientific Service Achievement award. The eligibility criteria for achieving this award is that one should have a minimum of 20+ years of experience in the relative field in the public or private sector. The receiver of this award should have a dedicated fascination and should take initiative in researching the recent trends and developments towards the related subjects. You can nominate deserving of the award online.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        2021 Conference announcement-Veterinary 2021

        Theresa Sarah

        Conference Series organizes the 16th International Veterinary Congress, which focuses the current innovations, researches and trends in the Veterinary Science & Technology. Veterinary Congress 2021 points to many attractive scientific sessions which relates to the field of Veterinary Science and many more. Veterinary on June 14-15, 2021 at London, UK. The conference mainly focuses on the recent advancements in Veterinary and its branches, and many more. The conference attendees & participants will get captivated with exceptional events and the specialists in various fields and get a chance to pick up information in regard to the momentum look into. It gives stage to Scientists, PhD Scholars, seeking after alumni and understudy's representatives from the field of Veterinary Science to improve their abilities in each component of Veterinary Congress 2021.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Market Analysis-Veterinary 2021

        Theresa Sarah

        The worldwide market for Animal Nutrition is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly 5.2% over the next five years, will reach 72800 million US$ in 2024, from 53800 million US$ in 2019, according to a new study. According to IVA, the Veterinary Services industry is in the growth phase of its life cycle. The industry's contribution to the US economy is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 3.9% during the 10 years to 2017.
        The increasing focus by governments of various countries, to regulate and create awareness regarding Veterinary Researchers, has successfully resulted in the faster adoption of these tests across the world. The increasing R&D funding, along with the strong market presence by major players in the market, has created a strong entry barrier for new market participants. Innovation in product design, improvement in quality, and strong distribution partnerships are key parameters to retain a competitive edge in the market. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian (such as treatment of illness or surgery in animals) are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians (with a few designated exceptions, such as Para veterinary workers), and it is illegal for any person who is not registered to call themselves a veterinarian, prescribe any drugs, or perform treatment.


        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        Past Conference Report-Veterinary 2021

        Theresa Sarah

        Conference Series successfully hosted the 15th International Veterinary Congress during August 17-18, 2020, at Paris, France. The conference focused on the theme “Emphasizing Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Veterinary Research”. The conference was successful in gathering eminent speakers from various reputed organizations and their paramount talks enlightened the gathering.

        The conference focused on Health and Nutritional needs of Wild and Domestic Animals and the meeting engrossed in knowledgeable discussions on novel subjects like: Veterinary Science, Animal Nutrition and Diseases, Recent Developments, Veterinary Medicine, Animal Breeding and Genetics, Dairy Cattle Technology, Animal Biotechnology, Livestock Management and Companion Animal Behaviour, Poultry Production, Animal Models and Testing.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Young Researchers Forum -2021

        Theresa Sarah

        Veterinary 2021 aims to assemble the Researchers, principal investigators, specialists, and researchers operating beneath academe and health care trade, Business Delegates, Scientists and students across the world to attend 16th International Veterinary Congress during June 14-15, 2021 at London, UK to provide their research results, new thoughts, and practical development experiences. We invite all the participants from all across the globe to attend this conference which includes prompt keynote presentations, poster presentations, oral talks and exhibitions. We tend to hope that you just can grasp this the educational occasion to revitalize the enduring connections and flash with newspapers around the globe. Veterinary 2021 will have many lectures, Keynote lectures and a short note by eminent personalities from around the world. During this year’s Conference, we tend to hope that you simply can seize the chance to rekindle in-progress connections and spark a new one together with your colleagues from around the globe.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella in Fecal and Carcass Swab Samples of Small Ruminants at Addis Ababa Livestock Market

        Mitike Girma Sime

        A cross sectional study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella from small ruminants brought for sale at different markets of Addis Ababa and those slaughtered at abattoir. Different sample types (fecal, carcass swab, meat and feed) were collected and cultured for Salmonella using standard procedure by pre-enriching in Buffered Peptone Water and enriching in Rappaport- Vassiliadis enrichment Broth (RVB) and Tetrathionate broth (TTB). It was then streaked from both RV and TTB to Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD). Presumptive Salmonella colonies were confirmed by various biochemical tests and Salmonella Genus Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials. The overall occurrence of Salmonella in sheep and goat fecal samples at Addis Ababa livestock market was 4.08% (12/294) (95% CI: 1.8- 6.4%) and its occurrence in carcass swab samples collected from Addis Ababa public abattoir was 0.85% (1/117) (95% CI: 0.8-2.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in occurrence of Salmonella in sheep and goats (p>0.05). But nearly a significant difference (p=0.052) for the occurrence of Salmonella between the carcass swab of goats (3.12%) and sheep (0.0%) was seen. All the 13 Salmonella isolates were susceptible to the four drugs (amikacin, cefoxitin, chloroamphenicol and nalidixic acid) and 92.30% of the isolates were susceptibile to Ceftriaxone and Nitrofuranation. Resistance to streptomycin was observed in 84.62% of the Salmonella isolates followed by gentamicin (67%), tetracycline (54%) and trimethoprim (53%). Intermediate resistance was seen towards cephalothin, neomycin and ciprofloxacin in 23.08%, 15.38% and 15.38% of the isolates, respectively. All of the 13 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one of the 17 antimicrobials tested. Seven (53.85%) were resistant to 4-8 antimicrobials. In conclusion, Salmonella is more common in fecal samples of sheep than the carcass swab and most of the isolates were multidrug resistant. To hamper the burden of Salmonella infection and contamination in live animals and animal products, it is critical that risk reduction strategies should be implemented throughout the food chain.

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