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Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Swine Erysipelas: It’s Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, Control, Preventive Measures and Comprehensive Review

    Dessalew Habte*, Dessalew Tamir and Tadesse Tilahun

    DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.12.100

    Erysipelas is an infectious disease seen mainly in growing pigs and characterized clinically by fever, arthritis, skin lesions and sudden death. The disease may be acute, subacute, or chronic. Swine erysipelas is a disease caused by a specific micro organ Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae which is a zoonotic ubiquitous gram-positive bacterium that causes erysipelas in swine, mammals, birds and erysipeloid in humans. People in contact with animals, animal products or animal wastes are at greatest risk. The acute form of swine erysipelas may have been confused for other diseases in pigs which are characterized by acute symptoms such as sudden death (for example, African swine fever). It can be diagnosed by its clinical signs, necropsy findings, bacteriology, and anti-microbial response, molecular and serological examinations. It is recommended to increase awareness of the disease among animal and human practitioners as treatment is easy and available and vaccination is possible. However, the disease is still unknown to local veterinarians, clinical doctors, meat inspectors, butchers and laboratory personnel. Proper hygiene, regular pork inspection, use of protective wear among people working/ in contact with animals should be promoted. The disease causes high economic loss in pig rearing areas and influences the public health being a severe zoonotic disease. So the objective of this review is to create a better understanding of the disease for proper control and prevention of the disease.

    Health Management of Livestock and Poultry (2021)

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 6

      Dog Bite on the Thigh Region of Village Chicken Hen: A Case Report

      Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal*, Amina Ibrahim, Dauda Laku, Zainab Bukola Yusuf and Hope Mana

      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s5.001

      Background: Village chickens are mostly reared under the extensive management system; they are left to scavenge freely for food and other needs from the surrounding which predisposes them to several vices including bites from predators such as dogs.

      Presentation of case: An adult village chicken hen was presented to the University of Maiduguri Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Poultry clinic), on an emergency basis, patient was traumatized by an aggressive dog. The hen had extensive and multiple lesions on the left thigh extending to the hips, laceration of the skin connecting the thigh to the abdomen, exposing the peritoneum, and flapped skin involved the outer left thigh region and inguinal region. The case was managed as an emergency surgery by suturing of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic medication, tetanus injections and anti-rabies vaccination.

      Discussion: Injuries from dog bites can be of several severities depending on the region of the body involved. The treatment of choice for injuries sustained from dog bites are usually achieved by means of direct suture and grafting of flaps which depends on the nature of wound and the surgeon’s decision. This may be followed with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.

      Conclusion: This case shows a case of a village chicken hen victim of dog bite, with lesions limited to the thigh, the hips and laceration of the skin connecting the thigh to the abdomen. The patient was followed up for a month, the prognosis was good, and the lesions showed good wound healing without any post-surgical complications.

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

      Newcastle Disease Outbreak and Intervention in a Chicken Flock with Unknown History: A Case Report

      Abdi Feyisa* and Bethel Befekadu

      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s5.002

      Newcastle Disease (NCD) is a highly contagious and economically damaging viral disease that affects chickens all over the world. It is marked by high mortality, which in unvaccinated flocks reaches 100%. This case study describes an NCD outbreak at a small-scale poultry farm in the Bela sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This farm began with 75 chickens with no previous flock history. When the owners visited the veterinary teaching hospital in Bishoftu, 15 chickens were died and 10 chickens were sick with a history of reduced feed intake, coughing, wing dropping, neck twisting, and incoordination. In addition, there were greenish watery diarrhea and depression. Hemorrhages in the trachea, gut, proventriculus, and cloaca were discovered during post-mortem examinations for gross pathological evaluation on two of the sick chickens. To save the lives of the remaining chickens and prevent economic losses, enrofloxacin oral suspension (1 ml per one liter of drinking water) was administered to 10 chickens with evident clinical signs for 5 days in a row. All fifty eight chickens were administered resergen oral immune stimulant suspension at a dose of 1 g/5 lit until excellent progress was warranted. Finally, the remaining 27 chickens healed completely and began producing eggs. Thus, to avoid economic harm to the farm or perhaps the country, poultry farming should be done using flocks that have a recognized history.

      Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Major Post-Partum Reproductive Health Problems of Small Holder Dairy Cows in and Around Nekemte Town, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

        Husen Balcha, Diriba Lemma and Birhanu Abera

        The study was performed in small holder dairy cows in and around Nekemte town from October, 2011 to May, 2012 to determine major postpartum reproductive health problems in the area through retrospective data analyses, questionnaire survey and clinical follow-up study. A total of 2295 recorded reproductive cases were examined in the retrospective study of which, reproductive health problems accounted over all prevalence of 11.2% (N=256). Of the 256 affected dairy cows, retained fetal membrane accounted for 4.84%, where as abortion, dystocia, prolapse (uterine or vaginal) and metritis accounted for 2.48%, 1.83%, 0.9% and 0.8%, respectively. Of a total of 385 cows included in the questionnaire survey (N=355) and clinical follow-up (N=30), 102 (25.1%) were found with major reproductive health problems. The major reproductive health problems obtained were retained fetal membrane, followed by dystocia, repeat breeding, abortion and metritis with prevalence rates of 10.9%, 7.5%, 3.1%, 1.82%, and 1.04%, respectively. The prevalence rates of major reproductive health problems were significantly different with respect to breed, (p=0.013), age (p=0.000), body condition (p=0.028), management (p=0.000) and parity number (p=0.0183) of dairy cows. Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence of the major reproductive health was higher in adult cows (OR=3.6; 95%CI=1.72, 7.55), primi para cows (OR=4.3; 95%CI=2.17, 8.5), cows kept intensively (OR=3.2; 95%CI=1.93, 5.4), cows with poor body condition (OR=0.65; 95%CI=0.390, 1.066) and those exotic breeds (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.13, 3.14) than those corresponding animals. In Conclusion, retained fetal membrane, dystocia, repeat breeding, abortion and metritis were found to be the major reproductive health problems in and around Nekemte town, west of Ethiopia.

        Research Pages: 1 - 6

        Infectious Bursal Disease in Unvaccinated Chickens Reveals Higher Sero-Prevalence and Presence of Associated Risk Factors in Jimma Town, Southwestern, Ethiopia

        Yoseph Tilahun, Yoseph Deneke, Gebrerufael Girmay and Shubisa Abera

        A cross sectional study was conducted in apparently healthy unvaccinated backyard and small scale chicken from November 2019 to May 2020 at Jimma town, Ethiopia to estimate sero-prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and its risk factors. Infectious bursal disease is highly contagious disease challenging the poultry industry world-wide. It is among the obstacle in the chicken production in Ethiopia. A total of 384 chickens were selected from purposively selected 100 poultry farms to estimate the sero-prevalence of IBD and to identify its risk factors. Data analysis was performed using stata software. Out of 384 serum samples tested, 206 were positive for indirect ELISA and overall prevalence of the disease was found to be 53.6% and flock-level prevalence with at least one seropositive chicken in the flock. The result of logistic regression analysis showed that age and isolation practice were significant risk factors for occurrence of IBD. Results of questionnaire survey revealed that majority of the respondents lack sufficient knowledge about IBD. Prevalence of IBD has statistically significant difference among owner age, educational level and experiences of rearing chicken. Hence, proper vaccination program and awareness creation of farmers on benefits of practicing isolating sick chickens should be implemented.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Nutrients and Diet Related to Animals

        Shubi Raja

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        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Roles and Responsibilities of Veterinarian

        Shubi Raja

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        Research Pages: 1 - 3

        Anthelmintic Resistance to Commonly Used Drugs in Naturally Infected Sheep in and Around Bekoji

        Diriba Lemma, Birhanu Abera and Eyob Eticha

        The study aimed at assessing parasite control practices in use and to determine existence of gastro intestinal nematodes resistance for Albendazole, Tetraclozash and Ivermectin, in naturally infected sheep under field conditions. In Lemu Bilbilo district, sheep of both sexes randomly select from small holder farmers from different Pa’s were used for the study. Before the actual experiment, screening was done to identify sheep naturally infected with Gastro intestinal nematodes and Eggs per Gram (EPG) greater than 200 were eligible for inclusion in the field experiment following guidelines by Coles, et al. Accordingly a total of 48 animals grouped into four treatment groups Albendazole, Tetraclozash, Ivermectin and control (left untreated). Albendazole, Tetramisole and Ivermectin were found 90.53%, 98.1% and 96.59% respectively. The percentage reduction of faecal egg count (95% confidence intervals) for Albendazole, Tetraclozash and Ivermectin were, 95.83%, (95.1-84.4) 98.1% (99- 90.99) and 96.59% (97.01-91.3) respectively. Resistance is suspected on albendazole based on the findings, it was concluded that development of anthelmintic resistance could be prevented by avoid frequent and unnecessary treatments anthelmintics, opting instead for strategic deworming.

        Animal Nutrition and Welfare (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Coccidial Experimental Infection of Broiler Chickens and Effects of Treatment with Conyza aegyptiaca Ethanolic Extract on Haematological and Carcass Parameters

          Emmanuel Tana Toah, Sop Foka Eric Igor, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric and Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia

          Background and objective: Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and affects poultry industries worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of C. aegyptiaca ethanolic extract on broiler chicken coccidiosis. Methods: Six groups of chicks in a complete randomized design were used for the study. Each chick among five groups was orally challenged with 2 × 104 Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts. The first three groups received the decoction of C. aegyptiaca orally at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg respectively, while the fourth group received anticox. The fifth group was the negative control. Chickens were sacrificed at the end of the treatment and haematological parameters such as white blood cell count, lympocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count were determined using an automatic counter. For carcass performance, the chickens were weighed after de-feathered with and without internal organs (non-conventional and conventional yields respectively). Meat samples were collected from the thigh muscles and chest for the evaluation of chemical and technological properties. Results: There was a significant improvement on the haematological (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells and differential counts, haemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpsular volume) and carcass (chemical and technological) parameters, especially in the IME400 mg/kg, positive and the normal control compared to the negative control.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Study on Subclinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors In and Around Ejersa Lafo Woreda Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

          Temesgen Kassa Getahun

          A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2017 to December 2017 to assess the status of subclinical mastitis in Ejersa lefo District Oromia region Ethiopia. Study animals were selected using simple random sampling technique. Out of 384 examined (Borena 9, cross breed 45 and local breed 330) 111 cow were found to be affected with subclinical mastitis with prevalence of 28.9%. The result from the severity grading of the infection indicates that out of 111 positive cows 70 (63.3%) cows had weak infection, 17 (15.3%) had distinct positive and 24 (21.6%) cows had strong positive infection. The highest occurrence of subclinical mastitis was recorded in local breed (82.9%), old age group (83.7%), sixth parity (36%), and first lactation stage (36.9%). Cows having poor teat hygiene and kept in poor barn hygiene were 82% and 79.5% infected with subclinical mastitis. In this study subclinical mastitis was major mammary gland health problems of the dairy cows, which cause huge loss of milk production that assure serious attention in creating awareness and prevention strategy.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          A Note on Advantages and Disadvantages of Animal Farming

          Shubi Raja

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          Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

          A Small Note on Issues of Animal Welfare

          Shubi Raja

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          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          A Brief Note on Nutrition Related to Animals

          Shubi Raja

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          Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

            Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

              Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

              In-Vitro Anticoccidial Efficacy of Crude MethanolExtracts of Selected Medicinal Plants against EimeriaTenella

              Anteneh Wondimu, Mohammed Abibaker, Samrawit Melkamu, Yehualashet Bayu

              A study was carried out to evaluate in-vitro anticoccidial efficacy of methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera, Croton macrostachyus, and Hagenia abyssinica against Eimeria tenella. None-sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella isolated from experimentally infected chickens and exposed to crude extracts concentration of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, and 25mg/ml. Amprollium 1.5 mg mL-1 and 2.5% K2Cr2O7 used as positive and negative control, respectively. The result showed dose and time dependent sporulation inhibition, was seen in oocysts exposed to crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Croton macrostachyus and Moringa oleifera. The better efficacy was seen with Moringa oleifera. The higher and lower percentage of sporulated oocyst was (0%, 5%), (0%, 0.5%) in Vernonia amygdalina and Moringa oleifera, respectively. The study also showed that the exposure to higher concentration of crude extract (100mg/ml) produced greater proportion of oocyst wall distortion which was 6,000, 9,600 and 5,400 for Vernonia amygdalina, Croton macrostachyus and Azadirachta indica, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of this plants showed the presence of bioactive metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and glycosides and flavonoids, which may contributes for in vitro anticoccidal effects. These results are of a major importance as contamination of poultry houses with coccidian oocysts is very difficult to control and all attempts to eradicate infections with Eimeria spp. Therefore further studies aimed to confirm the pharmacological effects of these plants, toxicity evaluation and in vivo studies need to be done before the usage of these plants.

              Research Pages: 1 - 5

              Prevalence of Bovine Cysticercosis at Holeta Municipality Abattoir and Taenia Saginata at Holeta Town and its Surroundings, Central Ethiopia

              Seifu Hailu

              A cross section study was conducted during November 2011 to March 2012 to determine the prevalence of Cysticercosis in animals, Taeniasis in human and estimate the worth of Taeniasis treatment in Holeta town. Active abattoir survey, questionnaire survey and inventories of pharmaceutical shops were performed. From the total of 400 inspected animals in Holeta municipality abattoir, 48 animals had varying number of C. bovis giving an overall prevalence 12% (48/400). Anatomical distribution of the cyst showed that highest proportions of C. bovis cyst were observed in tongue, followed by masseter, liver and shoulder heart muscles. Of the total of 190 C. bovis collected during the inspection, 89(46.84%) were found to be alive while other 101 (53.16%) were dead cysts. Of the total 70 interviewed respondents who participated in this study, 62.86% (44/70) had contract T. saginata Infection, of which, 85% cases reported using modern drug while the rest (15%) using traditional drug. The majority of the respondent had an experience of raw meat consumption as a result of traditional and cultural practice. Human Taeniasis prevalence showed significant difference (p0.05). An inventory of pharmaceutical shop (pharmacies, drug stores and rural drug vendors) revealed a total of 925,000 adult taeniacidal drug doses worthing a total of 3,006,250 ETB (Ethiopian birrs) during five years of 2006 and 2010. Vermox and Niclosamide were the most frequently sold drug for the treatment of Taeniasis, while praziquantel was the least sold drug. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country.

              Research Pages: 1 - 6

              Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections of Sheep and Goats in Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon

              Yamssi Cedric

              Background: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection and management systems associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in sheep and goats from 12 villages in the Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions. Methods: A total of 704 animals consisting of 342 males and 362 females were examined for gastrointestinal parasites, out of which 383 were goats and 321 sheep aged 5 months to 7 years. Also, 463 of these animals were adult ruminants and 241 young (kids/lambs). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of stool samples were carried out using the McMaster technique. Results: The 704 stool samples examined, 630 samples were found positive with one or more gastrointestinal parasites giving an overall prevalence of 89.5%. Sheep recorded the highest prevalence (90.0%). Haemonchus species recorded the highest prevalence (18.7%) in sheep, followed by Trichostrongylus species with a prevalence of (13.7%) still higher in sheep; Strongyloides species showed a prevalence of 10.4% in goats, and Trichuris species showed the least prevalence (2.4%) in sheep. The mean intensity for Haemonchus species was higher in all the animal groups, 694.4 ±1904.2 in goats but 189.5±137.3 in sheep. Mixed infections of Haemonhus species and Eimeria species were most prevalent in sheep (19.9%). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus species, Strongyloides species and Eimeria species were significantly low in all the two animal groups in the study area. Adults were more infected compared to young stock animals (lambs and kids). Concerning the various management techniques, prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites was higher in free range grazing animals (95.5%), followed by tethered animals (84.5%). Animals confined in paddocks had a lower prevalence (76.8%). Conclusion: This study provides an important step in minimizing economic losses recorded in sheep and goats by providing information that will help farmers in these areas to practice the right traditional management techniques and strategic deworming methods, providing information on some medicinal plants that can be used to reduce the infection rate of these parasites on the ruminants.

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

              Veterinary Medicine 2021-2021Conference Announcement

              Theresa sarah

              Pulses is conducting 2nd World Congress on Veterinary Medicine during May 26-27, 2021- Webinar. The Main objective of Veterinary Medicine 2021 is to bring the new research aspects and to discuss the different Veterinary Science & Technology.

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

              Veterinary Medicine 2021-Award content

              Theresa Sarah

              The award is to the experts who have made outstanding contributions to advancing in veterinary. It is the most significant award of the conference and tagged as a Scientific Service Achievement award. The eligibility criteria for achieving this award is that one should have a minimum of 20+ years of experience in the relative field in the public or private sector. The receiver of this award should have a dedicated fascination and should take initiative in researching the recent trends and developments towards the related subjects. You can nominate deserving of the award online.

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

              Veterinary Medicine 202-Market analysis

              Theresa Sarah

              The veterinary care market is expected to foresee positive trends throughout the forecast period. Substantial market growth can be attributed to the rising initiatives undertaken by the regulatory authorities. Government authorities collaborate with veterinarians and develop schemes that assure the availability of optimum inventory at fields for treating the farm animals. Furthermore, veterinary care market growth can be tracked based on animal health product consumption. An increase in demand for animal health products showcases growth trends for the veterinary care market. There has been a considerable demand for animal health products in Asian countries, and the animal health market is predicted to grow at 5.2% during the forecast period. Similarly, Latin America animal health market size is projected to reach around USD 9 billion by 2025 from around USD 5.2 billion in 2018, at a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period. Thus, positive trends in the animal health market will have a subsequent impact on the veterinary market growth.

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