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Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Major Post-Partum Reproductive Health Problems of Small Holder Dairy Cows in and Around Nekemte Town, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

    Husen Balcha, Diriba Lemma* and Birhanu Abera

    The study was performed in small holder dairy cows in and around Nekemte town from October, 2011 to May, 2012 to determine major postpartum reproductive health problems in the area through retrospective data analyses, questionnaire survey and clinical follow-up study. A total of 2295 recorded reproductive cases were examined in the retrospective study of which, reproductive health problems accounted over all prevalence of 11.2% (N=256). Of the 256 affected dairy cows, retained fetal membrane accounted for 4.84%, where as abortion, dystocia, prolapse (uterine or vaginal) and metritis accounted for 2.48%, 1.83%, 0.9% and 0.8%, respectively.

    Of a total of 385 cows included in the questionnaire survey (N=355) and clinical follow-up (N=30), 102 (25.1%) were found with major reproductive health problems. The major reproductive health problems obtained were retained fetal membrane, followed by dystocia, repeat breeding, abortion and metritis with prevalence rates of 10.9%, 7.5%, 3.1%, 1.82%, and 1.04%, respectively.

    The prevalence rates of major reproductive health problems were significantly different with respect to breed, (p=0.013), age (p=0.000), body condition (p=0.028), management (p=0.000) and parity number (p=0.0183) of dairy cows. Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence of the major reproductive health was higher in adult cows (OR=3.6; 95%CI=1.72, 7.55), primi para cows (OR=4.3; 95%CI=2.17, 8.5), cows kept intensively (OR=3.2; 95%CI=1.93, 5.4), cows with poor body condition (OR=0.65; 95%CI=0.390, 1.066) and those exotic breeds (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.13, 3.14) than those corresponding animals. In Conclusion, retained fetal membrane, dystocia, repeat breeding, abortion and metritis were found to be the major reproductive health problems in and around Nekemte town, west of Ethiopia.

    Research Pages: 1 - 6

    Infectious Bursal Disease in Unvaccinated Chickens Reveals Higher Sero-Prevalence and Presence of Associated Risk Factors in Jimma Town, Southwestern, Ethiopia

    Yoseph Tilahun, Yoseph Deneke, Gebrerufael Girmay* and Shubisa Abera

    A cross sectional study was conducted in apparently healthy unvaccinated backyard and small scale chicken from November 2019 to May 2020 at Jimma town, Ethiopia to estimate sero-prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and its risk factors. Infectious bursal disease is highly contagious disease challenging the poultry industry world-wide. It is among the obstacle in the chicken production in Ethiopia. A total of 384 chickens were selected from purposively selected 100 poultry farms to estimate the sero-prevalence of IBD and to identify its risk factors. Data analysis was performed using stata software. Out of 384 serum samples tested, 206 were positive for indirect ELISA and overall prevalence of the disease was found to be 53.6% and flock-level prevalence with at least one seropositive chicken in the flock. The result of logistic regression analysis showed that age and isolation practice were significant risk factors for occurrence of IBD. Results of questionnaire survey revealed that majority of the respondents lack sufficient knowledge about IBD. Prevalence of IBD has statistically significant difference among owner age, educational level and experiences of rearing chicken. Hence, proper vaccination program and awareness creation of farmers on benefits of practicing isolating sick chickens should be implemented.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Nutrients and Diet Related to Animals

    Shubi Raja*

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    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Roles and Responsibilities of Veterinarian

    Shubi Raja*

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    Research Pages: 1 - 3

    Anthelmintic Resistance to Commonly Used Drugs in Naturally Infected Sheep in and Around Bekoji

    Diriba Lemma*, Birhanu Abera and Eyob Eticha

    The study aimed at assessing parasite control practices in use and to determine existence of gastro intestinal nematodes resistance for Albendazole, Tetraclozash and Ivermectin, in naturally infected sheep under field conditions. In Lemu Bilbilo district, sheep of both sexes randomly select from small holder farmers from different Pa’s were used for the study. Before the actual experiment, screening was done to identify sheep naturally infected with Gastro intestinal nematodes and Eggs per Gram (EPG) greater than 200 were eligible for inclusion in the field experiment following guidelines by Coles, et al. Accordingly a total of 48 animals grouped into four treatment groups Albendazole, Tetraclozash, Ivermectin and control (left untreated). Albendazole, Tetramisole and Ivermectin were found 90.53%, 98.1% and 96.59% respectively.

    The percentage reduction of faecal egg count (95% confidence intervals) for Albendazole, Tetraclozash and Ivermectin were, 95.83%, (95.1-84.4) 98.1% (99- 90.99) and 96.59% (97.01-91.3) respectively. Resistance is suspected on albendazole based on the findings, it was concluded that development of anthelmintic resistance could be prevented by avoid frequent and unnecessary treatments anthelmintics, opting instead for strategic deworming.

    Animal Nutrition and Welfare (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

      Coccidial Experimental Infection of Broiler Chickens and Effects of Treatment with Conyza aegyptiaca Ethanolic Extract on Haematological and Carcass Parameters

      Emmanuel Tana Toah, Sop Foka Eric Igor, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric* and Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia3

      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s6.004

      Background and objective: Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and affects poultry industries worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of C. aegyptiaca ethanolic extract on broiler chicken coccidiosis.

      Methods:Six groups of chicks in a complete randomized design were used for the study. Each chick among five groups was orally challenged with 2 × 104 Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts. The first three groups received the decoction of C. aegyptiaca orally at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg respectively, while the fourth group received anticox. The fifth group was the negative control. Chickens were sacrificed at the end of the treatment and haematological parameters such as white blood cell count, lympocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count were determined using an automatic counter. For carcass performance, the chickens were weighed after de-feathered with and without internal organs (non-conventional and conventional yields respectively). Meat samples were collected from the thigh muscles and chest for the evaluation of chemical and technological properties.

      Results: There was a significant improvement on the haematological (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells and differential counts, haemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpsular volume) and carcass (chemical and technological) parameters, especially in the IME400 mg/kg, positive and the normal control compared to the negative control.

      Conclusion: Results from this study could be used for developing phytoelements that can serve as an alternative to synthetic anti-coccidial drugs.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Study on Subclinical Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors In and Around Ejersa Lafo Woreda Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

      Temesgen Kassa Getahun*

      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s6.005

      A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2017 to December 2017 to assess the status of subclinical mastitis in Ejersa lefo District Oromia region Ethiopia. Study animals were selected using simple random sampling technique. Out of 384 examined (Borena 9, cross breed 45 and local breed 330) 111 cow were found to be affected with subclinical mastitis with prevalence of 28.9%. The result from the severity grading of the infection indicates that out of 111 positive cows 70 (63.3%) cows had weak infection, 17 (15.3%) had distinct positive and 24 (21.6%) cows had strong positive infection. The highest occurrence of subclinical mastitis was recorded in local breed (82.9%), old age group (83.7%), sixth parity (36%), and first lactation stage (36.9%). Cows having poor teat hygiene and kept in poor barn hygiene were 82% and 79.5% infected with subclinical mastitis. In this study subclinical mastitis was major mammary gland health problems of the dairy cows, which cause huge loss of milk production that assure serious attention in creating awareness and prevention strategy.

      Animal viruses and immunity (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Evaluation of T. evansi Using Different Diagnostic Techniques with Experimentally Infected (Dromedary) Camels

        Falmata Kyari, Albert Wulari Mbaya, Abdullahi Abubakar Biu, Lawan Adamu* and Ali Abbagana Benisheik

        DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s8.010

        Trypanosoma evansi is a parasitic protozoan that allows surra disease to spread across subtropical and tropical regions of the universe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic techniques using experimentally infected (dromedary) Camels. Thirty-five apparently healthy adult camels of both sexes were used in this experiment. The camels were administered intravenously with 0.5 ml of blood infected with T. evansi via the lateral abdominal vein. Blood samples were obtained from the camels on days 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 after infection to evaluate the detection rate of the various diagnostic tests. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-Curve) was used for the evaluation of the sensitivity of the diagnostic techniques; BCT=50.0%, CATT/T. evansi=71.84%, MI=61.63%, PCR=81.43%, TBS=68.37% and WBF=68.37% respectively. On day 4, no T. evansi were detected for the following techniques; WBF, BCT, TBS, and MI. While the detection rate of the CATT/T. evansi and PCR techniques were 70% and 100% respectively. The detection rate of WBF, TBS, BCT, MI, CATT/T. evansi and PCR on day 24 of the experimental analysis were not statistically different. The prevalence rate of WBF was significantly lower (p>0.01) compared with PCR (WBF=60%, CI=44%, 74%; PCR=91%, CI=78%, 97%). The association between the different diagnostic techniques and detection of T. evansi infection in experimentally infected Camels was strong and significant (Chi-squared=13.720, degree of freedom (df)=5, p=0.0175). In conclusion, PCR has the highest detection rate and is the most sensitive technique. The association between the different diagnostic techniques and detection of T. evansi infection in experimentally infected Camels was strong and significant.

        Veterinary Gene Therapy (2021)

          Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

          A Note on Germline Transgenesis in Animals

          Tommy Cobbett*

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          Research Pages: 1 - 4

          Sero Epidemiology of Cattle Brucellosis and Associated Risk Factors in Amibara District of Afar Region, Ethiopia

          Fekadu Gutema* and Juhar Tesfaye

          Bovine brucellosis is the most common but under reported bacterial diseases known to create a serious socio-economic problem in both intensive and extensive livestock production systems. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and associated risk factors of cattle brucellosis in Amibara district of Afar region, Ethiopia from October 2019 to May 2020. A total of 181 cattle sera were collected and screened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and reactive samples were further confirmed by Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Risk factors associated with cattle brucellosis were assessed during serum sample collection using data collection format. As a result, the overall seroprevalence of cattle brucellosis was 10.5% and 2.2% by RBPT and CFT respectively. Assessment of potential risk factors showed that, Age (x2=6.77, p=0.021), number of parity (x2=9.433, p=0.004), abortion history (x2=16, p=0.002) and history of placental retention (x2=19.1, p=0.003) showed statistically significant association with brucellosis seropositivity in cattle. Based on firth’s bias reduced logistic regression analysis, only multiparous animal (OR=10.68, P=0.0042, 95% CI=-1.19-7.595) and animals with placental retention (OR=72.72, P=0.0026, 95% CI=1.46-9.272) showed statistically significantly association with brucella infection in cattle. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicate the presence of brucellosis in cattle in Amibara district of Afar region, Ethiopia. Hence, implementing preventive measures such as developing vaccination strategy, regular screening and culling of the reactive animal is important to create diseases free herd.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          A Brief Note on Molecular Docking

          Stan Peters*

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          Volume 12, Issue 8 (2021)

            Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

            A Brief note on Animal Virus

            Anteneh Wondimu*

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            Opinion Article Pages: 1 - 2

            A Brief Note on Animal Husbandry

            Sarah Marlene*

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            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            A Brief Note on Animal Nutrition

            Anteneh Wondimu*

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            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            A Brief Note on Animal Welfare

            Mbong Erica Malla*

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            Volume 13, Issue 5 (2022)

              Volume 13, Issue 6 (2022)

                Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

                Management and Treatment of Back Sore Wound on Donkey at Demote Gale Veterinary Clinic, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

                Moges Eriso Blate*, Xiaogang Gao, Fengwei Liu, Yaqiong Jia, Ran Meng and Xunming Ji

                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.131

                A four years age male (jack) Donkey from Wolaita Zone Zagare Kebele was presented to Damot Gale Woreda Veterinary clinic on 02 February 2022, with the history of wound on the back; improper harnessing, padding, overloading and overworking. The main clinical signs were wound on back due to Overloading for long distances without proper harness (padding) were the most cause of donkeys back sore wound. This case revealed that there is no variation in the treatment offered to donkeys with different risk factors sex, age, cause of sore and body condition score. Majority of donkeys with back sore wound was not gained any treatment. This infers that back sore is the major health and welfare problems of donkeys that compromise performances of working donkeys. After Bathe the wound with cold, clean water and ensuring treatments (wound spray) and procaine penicillin the wound of donkey heals in the best possible way followed by Donkeys with the back sore should get sufficient rest and Regular and continuous community education about the proper use of harness on their donkeys should be given.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                Dog Restraining Technology Package for the Implementation of a Mass Canine Rabies Vaccination Campaign in Developing Countries

                Anmaw Shite Abat*, Saddam Mohammed, Girma Birhan, Mastewal Birhan, Destaw Asfaw, Wassie Molla, Kalkidan Getnet, Haileyesus Dejene, Takele Adugna, Ashenafi Asefa, Bemrew Admassu and Feleke Shite

                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.132

                Dog bites are a serious and often underestimated public health problem and associated with physical and psychological trauma, they cause wound infection by different microorganisms and the risk of rabies transmission. Tens of thousands of people in developing nations die of rabies each year, and tragically dogs are the vectors in over 98 percent of human rabies cases. Ethiopia has a high dog population and is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries. One of the strategies of rabies control and prevention is mass dog vaccination campaign. For successful implementation of vaccination campaign and to reduce the risk of dog bite, using effective dog restraint tool is crucial. For this purpose, we developed dog restraining technology package which contains three tools namely dog muzzle mask, dog catching net and dog restraining crush. These dog restraint tools are easy to use or apply on dogs, safe for vet practitioner and animal owners. They are also cost effective, very easy to maintain, can be made from easily accessible locally available materials. After developing the technology package, it was tested in different veterinary clinics and on field and it works perfectly. The stakeholders were also trained on how to prepare and use the technology. After the training, we hand over one technology package for each Gondar administrative zone that can be used as a model, and facilitate the dissemination, implementation and sustainability of the technology. The stakeholders who have taken the training and used the technology reported that situation of working with dogs was easy after the training: doing clinical examination, taking vital signs, giving interventions (drug, vaccine) and undertaking surgical procedures on dogs. They also reported that the decrement of dog bite and improvement of welfare of dogs after the technology transfer.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 1

                Comparing Begait, Hararghe Highland and Somali Goat Productivity and Production for Better Utilization, Ethiopia

                Mahilet Dawit*, Bruh Asmelash, Negasi Ameha and Yosef Tadese

                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.130

                Begait, Hararghe highland and Somali goats are known and economically important indigenous breed in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to compare the traits of Begait, Hararghe high land and Somali goat for better utilization. Performance data also collected from 58 Hararghe highland and 58 Somali goats at Haramaya University goat farm. Total of 60 household were interviewed to access the status and performance of Begait goat at farmer level production system. Feed shortage, disease, vet facility and limitation of browsing area were the challenges in ascending order in the production area of Begait goat. The reproductive and production characteristics of Begait goat were: 19.30 ± 0.73 kidding interval, 4.76 ± 0.119 age at poverty, 12.51 ± 0.203 age at first calving, 6.11 ± 0.129 months weaning age, 26.07 ± 0.51 kg yearling weight, and 6.11 ± 0.129 kg weaning weight. Whereas for the Hararghe highland goats were: 19.19 ± 0.45 kgYearling weight, 3.5 ± 0.07 months weaning age, 12.69 ± 0.28 kg weaning weight, 10.55 ± 0.17 months kidding interval and 2.39 ± 0.06 kg birth weight. Somali goat reproductive and production performance characteristics were also: 20.72 ± 0.32 kg yearling weight, 3.63 ± 0.070 months weaning age, 15.83 ± 2.03 kg weaning weight, 9.88 ± 0.13 months kidding interval and 2.99 ± 0.14 kg birth weight. The Begait goats were found as prolific breed area where there is shortage of feed and water, and high prevalence of disease. The productivity and Reproduction Performance of Somali goats were slightly higher than Hararghe highland goat. But, the Begait goat had good productivity and production performance than both breeds.

                Case Report Pages: 1 - 1

                Surgical Removal of Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle and Economic Losses to Farmers

                Fekadu Gutema* and Beksisa Urge

                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.133

                Background: Even though livestock are the main stay of the livelihood of the majority of the human population, the presence of many infectious and non-infectious diseases have resulted in low productivity, stunted growth, and signification loss of economic gain among the producer. Of the non-infectious diseases of livestock, ingestion of indigestible foreign bodies is extremely common especially in developing countries like Ethiopia.

                Case presentation: A 2 years old male Jersey Bull (body weight: 215kg) owned by Holeta Agricultural research center was presented to Animal health research and veterinary clinic department with enlarged abdomen, inability to walk, frequent abdominal distention, reduced feed intake, progressive weight loss and dullness. Based on the clinical examination and case history, the Jersey Bull was suspected to have Indigestible foreign body in its rumen. After taking all the necessary preoperative precautionary measures, rumenotomy was conducted and all indigestible foreign body was removed.

                Conclusion: After opening the rumen, indigestible foreign materials like plastic bag, rope, curled clothes and others were removed. This indigestible foreign body is known to induce significant negative impact on the wellbeing of the animals and economic gain of the county. Therefore, overall animal health management improvement and provision of good quality feeds are the best way to prevent its occurrence whereas, rumenotomy is the best surgical intervention to handle confirmed case.

                Case Report Pages: 1 - 1

                Management of Compound Fracture of the Radius and Ulna Using Pop and Splints in a Nigerian Indigenous Breed of Dog

                Hope Philip Mana*, Aliyu Haruna and Ali Mutah Abba

                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.134

                Background: This particular case illustrate the possibility of managing a compound fracture using POP and splints in a dog. Conventionally, management of such fractures requires the use of either intramedullary pin or bone plates as internal fixatives or Illizarov apparatus, Octopod and Taylor spatial frame as external fixatives. Due to the expensive nature of using such fixatives, some clients sometimes have no option than either to take back their pets unattended to or abandon their pets in the hospital for someone else to adopt and manage the underlying condition. As a result, we improvised this particular technique which is affordable to low income clients and less traumatic to the dog, with less hospital stay.

                Presentation of case: A case of compound fracture of both radius and ulnar which occurs from trauma as a result rodent’s trap was presented to the small animal unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Maiduguri with the chief complaint of trauma and severe bleeding which was haphazardly managed before presentation. It was then referred to the Surgery and Radiology unit of the hospital, where it was managed using external fixatives consisting of Plaster of Paris and splints around the unaffected area, where the affected area was sutured and treated as open wound until it healed.

                Discussion: Fracture repair progression involves some complex cascades of events at cellular level right from the inflammatory stage to the hard callus stage. Furthermore, management of compound fractures requires the use of internal and, or external fixatives which are relatively expensive to some dog owners, hence the need to improvise less expensive procedure that will aid the repair process without any obstruction. In this case, the fractured bones were closely managed post operatively for six (6) weeks. The Plaster of Paris and the splints used in this procedure were removed and the dog was able to bear weight on the affected limb with ease. The dog was discharged home, twelve weeks after, there was no any sign of wound dehiscence, mal union or non-union, hence the fracture healed completely.

                Volume 13, Issue 7 (2022)

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

                  Association between Genital Ulceration and Body Condition of Olive Baboon (Papio Anubis) In the Lake Manyara National Park

                  Emmanuel H. Lyimo* and Benedicto Njavile

                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.138

                  Genital ulceration disease in olive baboon (Papio anubis) caused by Treponema Pallidum, the disease causes moderate to severe genital ulceration in the population of an olive baboon. The study on the association between genital ulceration and body condition of olive baboons was conducted in the Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The study investigated the body condition of affected and non-affected olive baboons across an observation of 599 and reveals the proportion of affected and non-affected in the surveyed population. A pair of binoculars (10 x 50) were used whenever the located individual was observed healthy or with a clinical sign.

                  QGIS version 3.1 was used to map baboon distribution in the study area. R-studio version 2.3.1 was used to test the association between body condition and affected olive baboon. Results revealed that a total number of 104 individuals, 56 males 47 females were affected. Results also indicated that there is a positive association between the body condition and the affected baboon, R=0.23, while there is a negative association on non-affected individuals’ correlation R=-0.45.

                  The proportion shows significant variation between affected and non-affected individuals, χ2=53.772, df=17, P=0.001. On the other hand, the affected baboons revealed more emaciation, alopecia hand, rough hair signs compared to non-affected individuals. The most affected sex was female however there is no significant variation of sex in affected individuals χ2=65.03, df=51, P= 0.08941. It is concluded that Treponema pallidum infection with genital lesion associated with body condition is common in baboons of Lake the Manyara National Park.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 1

                  Mini Review on Comparison of Production Process and Nutritive Value of Atella and Brewers? Grain; In Ethiopian Context

                  Badasa Jalata*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.136

                  A shortage of proteinaceous feed supplements in Ethiopia is very common. To overcome this problem non-conventional type of feeds are recommended and presented in this review article. It is shown the gaps, processes and ways the proteins source feeds can be valorized in the semi-urban and rural community of the country.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                  Prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria

                  Turaki Usman Aliyu*, Lawan Adamu, Ismaila Alhaji Mairiga, Falmata Kyari, Muhammad Modu Bukar, Ogo Isaac Ndudim, Bitrus Yakubu and Shitu Ismail

                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.137

                  Four hundred and twenty-six (426) donkeys were sampled using the convenience sampling technique in markets, loading areas, and watering points to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms present in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria. Fifty-three ticks and 426 blood samples were collected from donkeys for the identification of piroplasms using microscopy and molecular techniques. The prevalence of piroplasms observed in the blood samples of donkeys via microscopic examination was 12 (2.81 %; CI = 1.62%, 4.86%) for B. caballi and none for T. equi while multiplex PCR (MPCR) showed a prevalence of114 (26.76%; CI = 22.78%, 31.16%). Out of which 33 (7.75 %; CI = 5.75, 10.68) represent T. equi and 78 (18.31%; CI = 14.93%, 22.26%) represent B. Caballi and 3 (0.07%; CI = 0.24, 2.04) represents a mixed infection of B. caballi and T. equi. The prevalence of piroplasms in the internal organ of ticks was 21 (77.8%; CI =59.25%, 89.39%) in the primary screening of ticks by PCR out of the 27 DNA extracted from the 53 ticks sampled. Out of 53 ticks sampled Riphicephalus had a prevalence of 52 (98.11%; CI = 90.05%, 99.67%) and Amblyomma varigatum had a prevalence of 1 (1.89%; CI = 0.33%, 9.95%) and are the species of ticks found on the donkeys in the studied areas. Phylogenetic analysis was performed after the 18SrRNA gene from 20 positive samples (10 each from blood and ticks) were sequenced. The sequencing analysis suggested a 99-100% similarity of T. equi with the other T. equi in the gene bank and after blasting alignment and analysis of the genes, accession numbers from the gene bank were assigned. The accession numbers were MH355571, MH355572, MH355573, MH355574 and MH355575. It was also found that the group D isolates of T. equi were closely related to the T. equi reported in Nigerian waterbucks. This is the first report of equine piroplasms sequencing from the studied areas to the best of our knowledge.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                  Impacts of Climatic Factors on Milk Yield Performance and Mastitis Incidence in Holstein Cattle Reared under Subtropical Condition

                  Ahmed Dawod*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.135

                  This study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic factors, including temperature-humidity index (THI) and rainfall level (RFL) regarding the parity on the incidence of mastitis, milk yield, and composition in Holstein cattle in Egypt. A total of 2496 lactating cows were used from different 4 dairy farms located in Egypt. One hundred dairy cows were selected from each dairy herd for detection of the effect of different climatic factors and parity on milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC).The data grouped according to parity into 1, 2, and >2 parity groups. Also, the animals grouped according to THI into low (<70), medium (70-80), and high (>80) THI level and regrouped according to RFL into low (<2 mm), medium (2-5 mm), and high (>5 mm) rainfall per month. Obtained results revealed an increase in daily milk yield, milk protein %, fat %, and SCC with the increase of parity. Also, high THI significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased daily milk yield (29.45 kg) and increased SCC (415 × 103 cell/mL). In high THI and low RFL climatic conditions, multiparous cows were prone to the occurrence of clinical mastitis compared to primiparous ones (p≤ 0.001); especially during mid and late lactation stages. In conclusion, high THI and low RFL impaired dairy performance and increased the frequency of clinical mastitis.

                  Review Article Pages: 0 - 7

                  The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations

                  Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.139

                  Animal welfare is a complex concept with three areas of concern which include whether the animal is functioning well (eg good health, productivity etc), whether the animal is feeling well (eg absence of pain etc) and whether the animal is able to perform its natural/speciesspecific behaviour that are thought to be important to them (eg grazing). The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) also gave these three states in its definition, in the veterinary training resource ‘Concepts in Animal Welfare’.

                  Volume 13, Issue 9 (2022)

                    Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

                    Review on Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about Rabies, Associated Factors and Post Exposure Management in Ethiopia

                    Abdurazak Kadi*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.130

                    Rabies is one of the seventeen major neglected tropical diseases with the highest human case fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is caused by an enveloped neurotropic, negative sense, non-segmented, single-stranded; a bullet shaped RNA virus that belongs to the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family, Mononegavirale order. Rabies virus enters the body through wounds or by direct contact with mucosal surfaces, but cannot cross intact skin. The virus replicates in the bitten muscle and gains access to motor end plates and rapidly ascends the nervous system to the brain by entering the pre-synaptic nerve ending through endocytosis, and may be associated with synaptic vesicles. Dog mediated rabies is known to account for over 90% of human exposure and death cases in Ethiopia and elsewhere. The differences in KAP score among participants were dependent on Variable such as sex, educational status, and source of information, monthly income, and residence. Recommended first aid procedures for post exposure include immediate and thorough flushing and washing of the wound for a minimum of 15 minutes with soap and water, as well as disinfecting the wound with detergent or other substances of proven lethal effect on the rabies virus. It may be noted that although no specific antivirals exist at present, the combination of prompt rabies PEP, wound care, infiltration of RIG into and around the wound, and multiple doses of rabies cell-culture vaccine is 100% effective in preventing human rabies. An increasing number of stray dogs and the absence of legislation to determine and certify the status of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs and lack of utilization of modern anti rabies vaccines create difficulty to control the disease in the country.

                    Volume 13, Issue 3 (2022)

                      Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

                        Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                          In-Vitro Anticoccidial Efficacy of Crude MethanolExtracts of Selected Medicinal Plants against EimeriaTenella

                          Anteneh Wondimu, Mohammed Abibaker, Samrawit Melkamu, Yehualashet Bayu

                          A study was carried out to evaluate in-vitro anticoccidial efficacy of methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera, Croton macrostachyus, and Hagenia abyssinica against Eimeria tenella. None-sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella isolated from experimentally infected chickens and exposed to crude extracts concentration of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, and 25mg/ml. Amprollium 1.5 mg mL-1 and 2.5% K2Cr2O7 used as positive and negative control, respectively. The result showed dose and time dependent sporulation inhibition, was seen in oocysts exposed to crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Croton macrostachyus and Moringa oleifera. The better efficacy was seen with Moringa oleifera. The higher and lower percentage of sporulated oocyst was (0%, 5%), (0%, 0.5%) in Vernonia amygdalina and Moringa oleifera, respectively. The study also showed that the exposure to higher concentration of crude extract (100mg/ml) produced greater proportion of oocyst wall distortion which was 6,000, 9,600 and 5,400 for Vernonia amygdalina, Croton macrostachyus and Azadirachta indica, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of this plants showed the presence of bioactive metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and glycosides and flavonoids, which may contributes for in vitro anticoccidal effects. These results are of a major importance as contamination of poultry houses with coccidian oocysts is very difficult to control and all attempts to eradicate infections with Eimeria spp. Therefore further studies aimed to confirm the pharmacological effects of these plants, toxicity evaluation and in vivo studies need to be done before the usage of these plants.

                          Research Pages: 1 - 5

                          Prevalence of Bovine Cysticercosis at Holeta Municipality Abattoir and Taenia Saginata at Holeta Town and its Surroundings, Central Ethiopia

                          Seifu Hailu

                          A cross section study was conducted during November 2011 to March 2012 to determine the prevalence of Cysticercosis in animals, Taeniasis in human and estimate the worth of Taeniasis treatment in Holeta town. Active abattoir survey, questionnaire survey and inventories of pharmaceutical shops were performed. From the total of 400 inspected animals in Holeta municipality abattoir, 48 animals had varying number of C. bovis giving an overall prevalence 12% (48/400). Anatomical distribution of the cyst showed that highest proportions of C. bovis cyst were observed in tongue, followed by masseter, liver and shoulder heart muscles. Of the total of 190 C. bovis collected during the inspection, 89(46.84%) were found to be alive while other 101 (53.16%) were dead cysts. Of the total 70 interviewed respondents who participated in this study, 62.86% (44/70) had contract T. saginata Infection, of which, 85% cases reported using modern drug while the rest (15%) using traditional drug. The majority of the respondent had an experience of raw meat consumption as a result of traditional and cultural practice. Human Taeniasis prevalence showed significant difference (p0.05). An inventory of pharmaceutical shop (pharmacies, drug stores and rural drug vendors) revealed a total of 925,000 adult taeniacidal drug doses worthing a total of 3,006,250 ETB (Ethiopian birrs) during five years of 2006 and 2010. Vermox and Niclosamide were the most frequently sold drug for the treatment of Taeniasis, while praziquantel was the least sold drug. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country.

                          Research Pages: 1 - 6

                          Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections of Sheep and Goats in Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon

                          Yamssi Cedric

                          Background: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection and management systems associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in sheep and goats from 12 villages in the Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions. Methods: A total of 704 animals consisting of 342 males and 362 females were examined for gastrointestinal parasites, out of which 383 were goats and 321 sheep aged 5 months to 7 years. Also, 463 of these animals were adult ruminants and 241 young (kids/lambs). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of stool samples were carried out using the McMaster technique. Results: The 704 stool samples examined, 630 samples were found positive with one or more gastrointestinal parasites giving an overall prevalence of 89.5%. Sheep recorded the highest prevalence (90.0%). Haemonchus species recorded the highest prevalence (18.7%) in sheep, followed by Trichostrongylus species with a prevalence of (13.7%) still higher in sheep; Strongyloides species showed a prevalence of 10.4% in goats, and Trichuris species showed the least prevalence (2.4%) in sheep. The mean intensity for Haemonchus species was higher in all the animal groups, 694.4 ±1904.2 in goats but 189.5±137.3 in sheep. Mixed infections of Haemonhus species and Eimeria species were most prevalent in sheep (19.9%). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus species, Strongyloides species and Eimeria species were significantly low in all the two animal groups in the study area. Adults were more infected compared to young stock animals (lambs and kids). Concerning the various management techniques, prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites was higher in free range grazing animals (95.5%), followed by tethered animals (84.5%). Animals confined in paddocks had a lower prevalence (76.8%). Conclusion: This study provides an important step in minimizing economic losses recorded in sheep and goats by providing information that will help farmers in these areas to practice the right traditional management techniques and strategic deworming methods, providing information on some medicinal plants that can be used to reduce the infection rate of these parasites on the ruminants.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                          Veterinary Medicine 2021-Award content

                          Theresa Sarah

                          The award is to the experts who have made outstanding contributions to advancing in veterinary. It is the most significant award of the conference and tagged as a Scientific Service Achievement award. The eligibility criteria for achieving this award is that one should have a minimum of 20+ years of experience in the relative field in the public or private sector. The receiver of this award should have a dedicated fascination and should take initiative in researching the recent trends and developments towards the related subjects. You can nominate deserving of the award online.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

                          Veterinary Medicine 202-Market analysis

                          Theresa Sarah

                          The veterinary care market is expected to foresee positive trends throughout the forecast period. Substantial market growth can be attributed to the rising initiatives undertaken by the regulatory authorities. Government authorities collaborate with veterinarians and develop schemes that assure the availability of optimum inventory at fields for treating the farm animals. Furthermore, veterinary care market growth can be tracked based on animal health product consumption. An increase in demand for animal health products showcases growth trends for the veterinary care market. There has been a considerable demand for animal health products in Asian countries, and the animal health market is predicted to grow at 5.2% during the forecast period. Similarly, Latin America animal health market size is projected to reach around USD 9 billion by 2025 from around USD 5.2 billion in 2018, at a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period. Thus, positive trends in the animal health market will have a subsequent impact on the veterinary market growth.

                          Animal Reproduction and Assisted Technologies (2021)

                            Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                            Status of Artificial Insemination Service in Ada’a Distric Oromia Regional State Ethiopia

                            Alem Gutema*, Gebregiorgis Asheber and Hagere Bedane

                            DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s7.007

                            The study was conducted in purposively selected seven areas of Ada’a district, with the objective of assessing the status of Artificial insemination service and constraints associated with the service in the study area. Structured questionnaires were prepared to interview farmers, artificial insemination technicians, animal health, and production professionals to collect data on the status of artificial insemination services and constraints associated with the service. Also retrospective data on mass insemination and insemination done by traveling on request was taken from district artificial insemination center record book. According to the data obtained from district artificial insemination technician s record book there is increase in number of insemination 2011 to 2015. The result of the study showed that; artificial insemination was efficiently used in cross bread 150 (69.77%) rather than local breed 65 (30.23%) in intensive farming system 145 (67.44%). The overall finding on the service per conception reveals that most of the cows were repeat breeder; 91 (42.33%) conceive on third insemination, 88 (40.93%) conceive on second time of insemination and only 36 (16.74%) were conceived on first insemination. Regarding time of insemination, 142 (66.05%) of livestock owners inseminate their cow at right time of insemination but, the rest 73 (33.95%) of households inseminate their cows in wrong time. The most outstanding constraints of artificial insemination service were lack of service in the vicinity, low efficiency, poor estrous detection systems, low efficiency of artificial insemination technician, and price for artificial insemination, lack of infrastructure and sex of calves in order of their importance.

                            Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021)

                              Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

                              Swine Erysipelas: It’s Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, Control, Preventive Measures and Comprehensive Review

                              Dessalew Habte*, Dessalew Tamir and Tadesse Tilahun

                              DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.12.100

                              Erysipelas is an infectious disease seen mainly in growing pigs and characterized clinically by fever, arthritis, skin lesions and sudden death. The disease may be acute, subacute, or chronic. Swine erysipelas is a disease caused by a specific micro organ Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae which is a zoonotic ubiquitous gram-positive bacterium that causes erysipelas in swine, mammals, birds and erysipeloid in humans. People in contact with animals, animal products or animal wastes are at greatest risk. The acute form of swine erysipelas may have been confused for other diseases in pigs which are characterized by acute symptoms such as sudden death (for example, African swine fever). It can be diagnosed by its clinical signs, necropsy findings, bacteriology, and anti-microbial response, molecular and serological examinations. It is recommended to increase awareness of the disease among animal and human practitioners as treatment is easy and available and vaccination is possible. However, the disease is still unknown to local veterinarians, clinical doctors, meat inspectors, butchers and laboratory personnel. Proper hygiene, regular pork inspection, use of protective wear among people working/ in contact with animals should be promoted. The disease causes high economic loss in pig rearing areas and influences the public health being a severe zoonotic disease. So the objective of this review is to create a better understanding of the disease for proper control and prevention of the disease.

                              Health Management of Livestock and Poultry (2021)

                                Case Report Pages: 1 - 6

                                Dog Bite on the Thigh Region of Village Chicken Hen: A Case Report

                                Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal*, Amina Ibrahim, Dauda Laku, Zainab Bukola Yusuf and Hope Mana

                                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s5.001

                                Background: Village chickens are mostly reared under the extensive management system; they are left to scavenge freely for food and other needs from the surrounding which predisposes them to several vices including bites from predators such as dogs.

                                Presentation of case: An adult village chicken hen was presented to the University of Maiduguri Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Poultry clinic), on an emergency basis, patient was traumatized by an aggressive dog. The hen had extensive and multiple lesions on the left thigh extending to the hips, laceration of the skin connecting the thigh to the abdomen, exposing the peritoneum, and flapped skin involved the outer left thigh region and inguinal region. The case was managed as an emergency surgery by suturing of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic medication, tetanus injections and anti-rabies vaccination.

                                Discussion: Injuries from dog bites can be of several severities depending on the region of the body involved. The treatment of choice for injuries sustained from dog bites are usually achieved by means of direct suture and grafting of flaps which depends on the nature of wound and the surgeon’s decision. This may be followed with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.

                                Conclusion: This case shows a case of a village chicken hen victim of dog bite, with lesions limited to the thigh, the hips and laceration of the skin connecting the thigh to the abdomen. The patient was followed up for a month, the prognosis was good, and the lesions showed good wound healing without any post-surgical complications.

                                Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

                                Newcastle Disease Outbreak and Intervention in a Chicken Flock with Unknown History: A Case Report

                                Abdi Feyisa* and Bethel Befekadu

                                DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2021.s5.002

                                Newcastle Disease (NCD) is a highly contagious and economically damaging viral disease that affects chickens all over the world. It is marked by high mortality, which in unvaccinated flocks reaches 100%. This case study describes an NCD outbreak at a small-scale poultry farm in the Bela sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This farm began with 75 chickens with no previous flock history. When the owners visited the veterinary teaching hospital in Bishoftu, 15 chickens were died and 10 chickens were sick with a history of reduced feed intake, coughing, wing dropping, neck twisting, and incoordination. In addition, there were greenish watery diarrhea and depression. Hemorrhages in the trachea, gut, proventriculus, and cloaca were discovered during post-mortem examinations for gross pathological evaluation on two of the sick chickens. To save the lives of the remaining chickens and prevent economic losses, enrofloxacin oral suspension (1 ml per one liter of drinking water) was administered to 10 chickens with evident clinical signs for 5 days in a row. All fifty eight chickens were administered resergen oral immune stimulant suspension at a dose of 1 g/5 lit until excellent progress was warranted. Finally, the remaining 27 chickens healed completely and began producing eggs. Thus, to avoid economic harm to the farm or perhaps the country, poultry farming should be done using flocks that have a recognized history.

                                Volume 13, Issue 8 (2022)

                                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

                                  Sero Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers towards the Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia in Selected Districts of West Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State

                                  Misgana Amenu, Hussen Bedu*, Tolesa Neggasa and Tefere Benti

                                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.5.142

                                  Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) remains a huge threat to cattle production in sub–Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted between September, 2020 to June, 2021 to determine seroprevalence, to identifying animal and herd level risk factors and to estimate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of farmers toward CBPP disease, in districts of Kofele and Siraro. A total of 384 animals were randomly selected with no history of vaccination against CBPP and serum samples were collected and tested by competitive ELISA. Questionnaire survey from 74 cattle owner was collected and data obtained from both serological and questionnaire surveys were analyzed by using SPSS software version 25. The results indicated that, the overall animal and herd level seroprevalence of CBPP were 16.14% (62/384) and 43.24% (32/74) respectively. Among the potential risk factors analysed by Univariate logistic regression analysis, those p-value less than 0.25 were analysed by Multivariate logistic regression and this showed that in age group sampled adult cattle (OR=1.642, CI95%:1.110-2.43, P=0.021) were 1.64 times to be affected than young. Animals which had history of respiratory problems (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.1, P=0.000) were 2.5 times more likely to be seropositive than those hadn’t history of respiratory problems, poor body condition animals (OR=8.4, 95% CI: 1.5-10, P=0.001) were 8.4 times more likely to be seropositive than good body condition and cattle that found in lowland area (OR=2.6, 95%CI: 1.34-4, P = 0.001) were 2.6 times more likely to be affected by CBPP disease than animals found at highland area. As well as the likelihood of getting risk of infection with CBPP disease of female (OR=2.6; 95% CI: 1.45-3, P=0.014) is 2.6 times than male. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP was high, so appropriate implementation of appropriate prevention and control is needed. The questionnaire result indicates majority of farmers were practicing poor animal husbandry that created favourable conditions for the distribution of the disease in the community. Therefore, to deal with CBPP disease, further farmers should be made aware of about the disease and its importance through veterinary extension education.

                                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

                                  Effects of Storage on Stability of Haematological Parameters in Horse

                                  Yoseph Cherinet* and Meron Ayalew

                                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.5.140

                                  The delay between blood sampling and measurement can have an impact on hematology results, and sample delivery between laboratories can also have an impact. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes that occur in hematological values at T0, T6, T24 and T48 hours of storage in horse blood samples stored at 4˚C in EDTA-coated tubes. For this purpose, 30 horse blood samples were collected. All samples were immediately analyzed using manual method to determine the base line values (T0). Then the samples were refrigerated for T6h, T24h, T48 hours and reanalyzed for hematological parameters respectively. Results showed that there were no statistical significant changes from the base line values in all hematological parameters: PCV, Hgb, WBC counts, and RBC counts, MCV, MCH and MCHC all through T48. Therefore, further studies based on large number of study animals and using more advanced hematological analyzers needed to conclude the stability of hematological parameters in horse.

                                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 1

                                  Assessment of Major Constraints of Small Scale Intensive Chicken Farms in and around Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia

                                  Gemechis Regasa*, Hagazi Fantay Tadesse and Getachew Derbew Belay

                                  DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2022.13.141

                                  A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of identifying the major constraints of small scale intensive chicken farms in and around Nekemte. All available small scale intensive chicken farms at Nekemte (n=43) were assessed. Data were collected using a semi structured questionnaire on possible chicken farm constraint from chicken farm workers up on interview. Recorded data were entered to Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Disease, Chicken feed, farm management and market were the major constraints. Newcastle disease has been identified as the most prevalent disease (occurred in 37.2% farms) followed by fowl cholera (13.9%) with Marek’s disease being the least (6.97%). High price of chicken feed (in 53.4% farms) and shortage in supply (in 11.6% farms) were identified as feed related challenges. 55.81% chicken farms used pot charcoal to brood chicken during early stages. Chicken farms have also faced market challenges due to longer fasting periods (in 30.23% farms), inappropriate market chain (in 25.58% farms) and low price of chicken products as compared to costs for production (in 20.93% farms). In general, assessed small scale intensive chicken farms were having constraints related with disease, chicken feed, management and market. Therefore, government should encourage chicken feed manufacturers, increase veterinary service, design appropriate market chain and provide trainings to farm workers on farm management practices in order to minimize chicken farm constraints and assure feed security in general.

                                  Case Series Pages: 1 - 5

                                  Prevalence and Seasonal Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Nematode of Goats in Haramaya, Ethiopia

                                  Anteneh Wondimu*

                                  DOI: 10.37421/2155-6113.2022.13.125

                                  Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main constraints to goat production worldwide. A cross-sectional study longitudinal study from were conducted in Haramaya, Ethiopia to determining the prevalence and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. A total of 384 fecal samples were randomly collected and analyzed using standard parasitological methods of floatation and ova culture. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was 73.7% (283/384). The result showed higher percentage prevalence in young (76.2%) than adult’s age group (73.0%). The difference in gastrointestinal nematode infection between female (79.6%) and male goats (59.09%) was statistically significant (p=0.001). The Egg Per Gram (EPG) count result showed 69.6%, 7.4%, 23.0% of the goats were lightly, moderately and heavily infected with gastrointestinal nematodes respectively. The overall genera of nematode identified and counted from coproculture in the study areas were trichostrongylus spp (54.6%), teladorsagia (17.6%), haemonchus spp (14.4%), muellerius capillaris (7.6%), oesophagostomum spp. (1.7%), nematodirus spp (1.7%), strongyloides papillosus and cooperia (0.9%), chabertia (0.5%) and trichuris (0.1%). Based on the monthly mean EPG count recorded during the short and long rain seasons with peaks occurring in may and september of the year. To mitigate the burden of gastrointestinal nematode parasites: Good management practices considering breed, sex, age, pasture rotation, housing of animals during peak time and optimizing anthemintic usage through deworming of goats during season where parasitic load is peak in host animal is very crucial.

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