Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Edget Alembo

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi –square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27(52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32(64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21(41.2%) and 22(43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p<0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Client's Satisfaction and its Predictors with Delivery of Veterinary Services in Peri-Urban Area in North Western Ethiopia

    Birhan Agmas

    Client satisfaction in veterinary service is seen as a desired outcome of veterinary services to assess the quality of health care for livestock. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of customer satisfaction with veterinary service rendered inperi-urban areas, in North Western Ethiopia. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken from August to December 2018 with the purpose of assessing satisfaction of farmers/clients towards veterinary services in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied for selecting study districts and kebeles. Simple random sampling was used to select individual household veterinary services clients. A total of 422household service users were interviewed from three districts. The collected data was entered into Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by using the SPSS version 20.0. Statistical significance was taken at P–value ≤0.05 as cut of the point. The overall client satisfaction and dissatisfaction level with the veterinary health services in the study area was 24.88% and 75.12% respectively. Furthermore, satisfaction with the veterinary clinic service was found to have a significant association with service availability, service quality/ effectiveness, client needs met, vaccine availability, getting help, awareness campaign, consultancy service on animal husbandry practices and in-time availability of veterinary officers those. In conclusion, the survey analysis indicated that poor veterinary service clients’ satisfaction in northwestern Ethiopia and hence the veterinary service management should undertake this weak service and plan for a better service delivery.

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

    A Case Report: Tetanus Treatment Protocol in a Cart-horse

    Abdi Feyisa*

    Tetanus is a fatal disease of horses and humans instigated by Clostridium tetani. The agent is known for producing potential toxins responsible for spastic paralysis. A cart-horse with a complaint of shivering, unable to take in feed and water, and hesitant to walk is described in this case report. The physical examination was indicated an increased in respiratory rates (32breaths/min). The third eyelid of the horse was prolapsed (right side) and had stiffened gait and locked jaws (unable to take water and feed and ropy saliva). A deep puncture due to nail was seen on the sole of the left forelimb. The findings were concluded as tetanus. The treatment protocols executed wound management, neutralizing circulating toxin, reducing further hyper-excitability, contractility, and bacterial propagation. The concurrent administration of Procaine penicillin G, Tetanus antitoxin (TAT), Acepromazine, and other supportive therapy was conveyed successful recovery within
    two weeks. Hence, tetanus could be cured if treated early and following the proper protocol.

    Volume 12, Issue 7 (2021)

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Bacterial Protein Secretion with Particular Emphasis to Toxins

      Yitbarek Habtamu, Jaleta Shukab, and Fanos Tadessef

      Bacterial cells must transport proteins across their membranes for the biogenesis of membranes and cell walls, motility and nutrient
      scavenging and uptake, and is also involved in pathogenesis and symbiosis. The translocase is an impressively dynamic nanomachine that is
      the central component which catalyses trans-membrane crossing. This complex, multi-stage reaction involves a cascade of inter and intramolecular
      interactions that select, sort and target polypeptides to the membrane, and in addition, transport through the outer membrane
      requires ATP or other sources of energy to promote the movement of these polypeptides across or their lateral escape and integration into
      the phospholipid bilayer, with high fidelity and efficiency. Here, the review addresses the structure and function of the translocase
      nanomachine and different mechanisms of protein secretion and their transport. The general secretion Sec and twin arginine translocation
      pathways are the bacterial secretion systems most commonly used to transport proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Often, Sec or Tat
      systems transport unfolded and folded proteins first to the periplasmic space in Gram negative bacteria, where they are processed to obtain
      their final three-dimensional structure, before being transported across the outer membrane. There are different path ways in which some
      are sec dependent and others sec independent. Secretion types II, IV, V and VII are sec-dependent pathways while others like type I, III and VI
      pathways are sec-independent. Secreted proteins can play many roles in promoting bacterial virulence, from enhancing attachment
      to eukaryotic cells, to scavenging resources in an environmental niche, to directly intoxicating target cells and disrupting their functions.
      Therefore, the study of protein secretion systems will be an important focus in the field of bacterial pathogenesis, and virulence for the
      characterization of various bacterial pathogens.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Small Intestinal Helminthes of Sheep and Goats Slaughtered at Bishoftu Elfora Export Abattoir, Ethiopia

      Getu Hurisa , Lama Yimer

      Helminthes have been recognized as a major constraint to both small and large-scale small ruminant production in developing countries. A
      cross- sectional study was carried out in sheep and goats from November 2016 to April 2017 to identify the species and to estimate the burden
      of small intestinal helminthes parasites of sheep and goats in Bishoftu ELFORA export abattoir, with the objectives of evaluating the current
      status of helminthes. The study animals were 230 small ruminants in which 105 sheep’s and 125 goats slaughtered in Bishoftu ELFORA
      export abattoir. The study revealed that an overall infection was 83.5% and among the samples from sheep 105 (87.6%) and 100 (80%)
      from goats were detected positive for helminthes parasite with a no statistical significance (p >0.05) between the sheep and goat. It also
      statistically significant differences (P<0.05) among the risk factors of age and origin considered in relation to the prevalence of Intestinal
      helminthes. Three species of parasites namely Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Moniezia expansa were
      found infecting intestines of both sheep and goats. In the current study, a high infection with helminthes parasite was observed in small
      ruminants during the study period affecting health of those animals and appropriate control measure should be instituted

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Cross sectional study on the Prevalence and Identification of Mange Mites on Cattle in and around Nekemte Town, Easter Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

      Abriham Kebede, Shafi Hirpa

      A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015, with the objective of determining the prevalence and identification of species of mange mites in cattle in selected areas of in and around Nekemte town. A total of 384 cattle were examined for the presence of mange mites. The study involved both clinical and laboratory examinations of skin scraping samples from skin of the animals. Of the total 384 cattle examined, 86 (22.40%) were found to be infected with mange mites. The most commonly encountered mange mites were Sarcoptes (15.10%), Demodex (5.47%), and Psoroptes (1.82%). Statistically insignificant variations were observed among two age categories (young and adult), even though the highest prevalence was observed in young, 49(22.69 %) while the lowest, 37 (22.02 %) in the adult cattle. However, there was a statistically insignificant variation detected between Gender (P>0.05) even if it was higher in female, 72 (23.00%) than male, 14 (19.72 %), but statistically significant variations observed among body condition score (x2= 44.4667; p<0.05), while the highest prevalence were observed in poor body condition score 31 (57.41%) than the moderate 15 (15.31%) and good 40 (17.24%) body condition score. Likewise, there was statistically significant variation detected among the different sites of infestation (p<0.05). The frequent sites of mange mite lesions were on the shoulder, neck, face, ears, tail and leg. To reduce the high prevalence and impact of mange mites on cattle appropriate and strategic control measures; extension service aiming at creation of awareness about the importance and control of mange mite for smallholder farmers is needed. Therefore, strategies have to design by professionals, regional governments and farmers to fight diseases of cattle.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Participatory Epidemiology of Cattle Diseases in Arba Minch Zuria District, Gamo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: Particular Focus on Lumpy Skin Disease

      Edget Abayneh,Yebelayhun Mulugeta

      A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2019 to April 2020, in which participatory appraisal methods were applied to
      validate Arba Minch zuriya district farmers’ existing veterinary knowledge on Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and to determine their
      perception on rank, morbidity, mortality and seasonality of the disease. The participatory methods used were matrix scoring, proportional
      piling, pair wise ranking, seasonal calendars and clinical observation. A total of 48 informants were included in the study to collect in-depth
      information. Accordingly, it was indicated that LSD was a much known disease by its “nodules on skin” clinical manifestation. Ranking using
      proportional piling based on the impact on livelihood revealed that LSD was the fifth most important disease prioritized in all kebeles
      (W=0.638; P<0.05). The study also showed that the relative prevalence rate (PE-morbidity) of LSD in all age groups was 4.75%. The Agespecific
      incidence showed that LSD had the highest incidence in calves and lowest in adult. The results of current study also revealed that
      LSD had 2.15% case fatality rate (PE-fatality). Mortality rate in different age groups indicated that LSD had the highest mortality in calves
      and lowest in adult. The analysis of matrix scoring indicated that skin lesion was most important sign for LSD (W=0.370; P>0.05).
      Seasonal calendar indicated that the incidence of LSD was found to be high during short rainy season (Bone) than long rainy season
      (Balgo)(W=0.771; P>0.05). Thus, the concordance between informant groups, veterinary literatures and research works had proven that Arba
      Minch Zuria district farmers are knowledgeable about LSD. Hence, it is recommended that disease control intervention measures in the
      area should appreciate community involvement and should consider LSD as it was one of the important diseases and listed in all kebeles

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Comparative Performance of Buffalo Calves Fed on Whole Milk and Calf Starter

      Abdur Rahim, MK Rahman, M Sarkar, A Rahim, R Nandi, MM Hasan, RC Debnath

      The study was conducted to assess performance of Calf starter on buffalo calf rearing. The study was conducted at Monpura of Bhola District and Baufol of Patuakhali, Bangladesh during Januray, 2020 to June, 2020. A total of 30 buffalo calves of about 6-10 days of age were selected randomly from study area and divided in two groups; having fifteen (15) calves in each. Calves were maintained under uniform managemental condition except milk feeding. The calves were weighed initially just after birth and 15days apart thereafter by a platform digital balance. Each calf was weighed in the morning before feeding. Analysis of variance revealed that FCR of the values of control group (5.37) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of treatment group (4.09). Variable costs to raise buffalo calves during 75 days of experiment were higher in treatment group (Tk. 10089 ± 2840 than control group (Tk. 8830 ± 401). Results considering for daily weight gain and FCR, it indicates that overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Antigenic Characteristic and Immune Response of Host to Foot-and-Mouth Disease

      Ephrem Shimelis

      Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is the contagious viral disease of mammals and causing severe economic loss in susceptible clovenhoofed animals. It is categorized as list “A” disease according to OIE disease classifications. It is the causative agent of a highly infectious zoonotic vesicular disease that infects lung epithelial cells in respiratory tract of cloven-hoofed livestock including: sheep, goats, cattle and pigs. FMDV replication associated viral protein expression induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), in turn inducing autophagy to restore cellular homeostasis. The disease is characterize by fever, vesicular lesions and erosion in the mouth and on the tongue, muzzle, feet and teats and cause great economic losses in the affected countries and they involve an extensive threat for rapid and wide spreads. The virus enters a new susceptible animal either orally or via the respiratory tract (especially cattle). Aerosol transmission is the major means of animal-to-animal spread within premises.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Poultry Production and Marketing in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia

      Dirriba Mengistu, Belay Biru

      Poultry production has become the most popular particularly as a business sector, which can be kept and managed by family as an immediate source of income. Owned to these facts, this study was conducted in Borana zone with the objectives of assessing the prevailing poultry production system and its marketing system in Borana zone. For addressing this target, 125 sample households were drawn following two stage-sampling procedure followed by simple random sampling techniques to withdraw sample. In data collection, checklists and questionnaires were used to collect information from market actors, producers, and intermediaries enriched with secondary data information. Generally, the study assure that poultry production and introduction of exotic breeds become increasing without the characterization of the local breed. In fact, as the other agricultural activities, shortage of improved breeds and market problem were messing the existing production system. Thus, this study briefly argues the characterization of local breed for further breed improvement and popularization.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Mercury Contamination of Fish, Cattle and its Public Health Impacts: A Review

      Hordofa Noto

      Mercury is a toxic element and its type, dose and rate of exposure determines the level of toxicity. Bacteria can transform mercury into methylmercury, a highly toxic form of mercury. Contamination of water, soil, foods, and environment by mercury is matter for both animals and humans. Contaminated fodder and water with mercury is the main source of mercury in animal products. Humans acquire the mercury poison mainly through intake of fish and animal source foods contaminated with mercury. Animals poisoned by mercury exhibits abnormalities of central nervous system, coordination of movement and visual aberration. Generally, accumulation of mercury not only has pernicious effect on the cattle but also on the population who is consuming contaminated milk and meat with mercury.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Helminthiasis in Small Ruminants of different Ecoclimatic zones of Nepa

      Swoyam Prakash Shrestha*, Puja Bajracharya, and SP Shrestha

      Livestock farming is one of the important agriculture sectors in Nepal. Small ruminant production especially goat and sheep have become an additional source of income for most Nepalese people. However, the production of these livestock has been decreasing due to the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminth infection. This study was performed to determine the overall prevalence of specific GI helminth parasites from the collected fecal sample of small ruminants from four different eco-climatic zones of Nepal i.e. Rasuwa, Rupandehi, Syangja, and Kavre. A total of 274 fresh fecal samples were collected and were placed in a zip-lock poly bag to which few drops of 10% formalin soaked in cotton was added to safeguard the sample. The qualitative fecal examination was carried out by different methods i.e. using differential flotation methods for nematodes, cestodes, and using sedimentation methods for trematodes. Examination of the fecal sample revealed that among 274 samples, 72 (26%) was found to be infected with various gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Altogether six different types of helminth parasites were found. Infection of Trichuris sp was found highest i.e. 12.04% and infection of Strongylus sp was least i.e. 1.09%. The prevalence of mixed infection was 0.72%. The comparison between the prevalence of helminth parasites among four different areas of Nepal showed the highest occurrence of GI helminth in Kavre (33.86%) followed by Rasuwa (26.60%), Syangja (21.87%), and Rupandehi (19.98%). The presence of various species of gastrointestinal helminths within small ruminants is an important cause of morbidity and loss of production. From the study we can conclude the need of effective and quantitative parasitic examination on more farms in large scale for betterment of health and increase productivity of the animal.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6


      Dereje Abera, Adugna Fetene, Ahmedin Beshir, Yilkal Kebede, Yitbarek Getachew

      Trypanosomosis is protozoan disease that causes serious economic losses through reduced production and productivity in livestock sector, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gomma district southwestern part of Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis using buffy coat technique. Types and population of trypanosoma vectors in area were also described. Accordingly, 384 cattle were tested and among the animals 15 (3.9%) were infected with the one or more trypanosoma species that included Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense. Body condition of the animal showed significant association (P<0.05) with trypanosome infection. Relatively higher prevalence (8.8%) was seen in animals with poor condition than that of those with good (1.4%) and medium (1.14%) body condition. Host factors like age and sex were not associated with infection rate. The mean PCV values of parasitologically negative (26.49%) animals were higher than that of positive ones (23.53%). A total of 175 tsetse flies were collected and the density of Glossina species was 1.458 fly/trap/ day. Based on this assessment two species of tsetse flies including Glossina morsitans and Glossina tachinoides were recorded from the area. The present study revealed that prevalence (3.9%) of trypanosomosis and apparent tsetse density in the study area was somewhat lower in comparable with nearby districts. This may be due to vector control programs practiced in the area. Therefore, further controlling of trypanosomosis and its vector control and prevention strategies should be strengthen and continued.

      Volume 12, Issue 8 (2021)

        Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

        Impacts of Climatic Factors on Milk Yield Performance and Mastitis Incidence in Holstein Cattle Reared under Subtropical Condition

        Ahmed Dawod

        This study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic factors, including temperature-humidity index (THI) and rainfall level (RFL) regarding the parity on the incidence of mastitis, milk yield, and composition in Holstein cattle in Egypt. A total of 2496 lactating cows were used from different 4 dairy farms located in Egypt. One hundred dairy cows were selected from each dairy herd for detection of the effect of different climatic factors and parity on milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC).The data grouped according to parity into 1, 2, and >2 parity groups. Also, the animals grouped according to THI into low (80) THI level and regrouped according to RFL into low (5 mm) rainfall per month. Obtained results revealed an increase in daily milk yield, milk protein %, fat %, and SCC with the increase of parity. Also, high THI significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased daily milk yield (29.45 kg) and increased SCC (415 × 103 cell/mL). In high THI and low RFL climatic conditions, multiparous cows were prone to the occurrence of clinical mastitis compared to primiparous ones (p≤ 0.001); especially during mid and late lactation stages. In conclusion, high THI and low RFL impaired dairy performance and increased the frequency of clinical mastitis

        Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 7

        Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infectious Bursal Disease in Local Chicken of Backyard Production System in Selected Districts of Ilubabor Zone, South Western Ethiopia

        Moti Wakgari

        Gumboro is commonly reported from different parts of Ethiopia. However, in local chicken flocks of Ilubabor, there is no known sero-status of the disease. To address this information gap, a cross-sectional study was conducted in local backyard chicken flocks of three districts of Ilubabor Zone where chick mortality and morbidity were a big problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate seroprevalence of IBDV by using Indirect Enzyme Linked-Immune Sorbent Assay and to assess its risk factors. A total of 480 chickens were sampled from randomly clustered 160 flocks and serum samples were processed at Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center. Out of 480 serum samples tested, 207 were positive and the overall chicken level seroprevalence of the IBDV antibody in the study area was found to be 43.13% (95% CI: 38.69-47.56) and flock-level seroprevalence was 45.63%(73/160) (95% CI: 37.91-53.34) with almost all test positive flock chickens were seropositive. Multivariable analysis at chicken level showed that the odds of IBDV seroprevalence was significantly high in Metu and Bilo Nopa districts, in purchased chickens, in female chickens, in adult chickens and at flock level in chickens mixed with exotic breeds, in flocks having greater than 5 chickens. This study shows that IBDV is circulating in chicken population of Ilubabor at a high prevalence level. Therefore, further study on serotypes and strains of IBDV identification should be carried out to design suitable control and prevention measures

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

        The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations

        Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji

        Animal welfare is a complex concept with three areas of concern which include whether the animal is functioning well (eg good health, productivity etc), whether the animal is feeling well (eg absence of pain etc) and whether the animal is able to perform its natural/speciesspecific behaviour that are thought to be important to them (eg grazing). The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) also gave these three states in its definition, in the veterinary training resource ‘Concepts in Animal Welfare’

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