Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 7

    Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infectious Bursal Disease in Local Chicken of Backyard Production System in Selected Districts of Ilubabor Zone, South Western Ethiopia

    Moti Wakgari

    Gumboro is commonly reported from different parts of Ethiopia. However, in local chicken flocks of Ilubabor, there is no known sero-status of the disease. To address this information gap, a cross-sectional study was conducted in local backyard chicken flocks of three districts of Ilubabor Zone where chick mortality and morbidity were a big problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate seroprevalence of IBDV by using Indirect Enzyme Linked-Immune Sorbent Assay and to assess its risk factors. A total of 480 chickens were sampled from randomly clustered 160 flocks and serum samples were processed at Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center. Out of 480 serum samples tested, 207 were positive and the overall chicken level seroprevalence of the IBDV antibody in the study area was found to be 43.13% (95% CI: 38.69-47.56) and flock-level seroprevalence was 45.63%(73/160) (95% CI: 37.91-53.34) with almost all test positive flock chickens were seropositive. Multivariable analysis at chicken level showed that the odds of IBDV seroprevalence was significantly high in Metu and Bilo Nopa districts, in purchased chickens, in female chickens, in adult chickens and at flock level in chickens mixed with exotic breeds, in flocks having greater than 5 chickens. This study shows that IBDV is circulating in chicken population of Ilubabor at a high prevalence level. Therefore, further study on serotypes and strains of IBDV identification should be carried out to design suitable control and prevention measures

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

      Prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria

      Turaki Usman Aliyu, Lawan Adamu*, Ismaila Alhaji Mairiga, Falmata Kyari, Muhammad Modu Bukar, Ogo Isaac, Ndudim, Bitrus Yakubu, Shitu Ismail

      Four hundred and twenty-six (426) donkeys were sampled using the convenience sampling technique in markets, loading areas, and
      watering points to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms
      present in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria. Fifty-three ticks and 426 blood samples were collected
      from donkeys for the identification of piroplasms using microscopy and molecular techniques. The prevalence of piroplasms observed in
      the blood samples of donkeys via microscopic examination was 12 (2.81 %; CI = 1.62%, 4.86%) for B. caballi and none for T. equi while
      multiplex PCR (MPCR) showed a prevalence of114 (26.76%; CI = 22.78%, 31.16%). Out of which 33 (7.75 %; CI = 5.75, 10.68)
      represent T. equi and 78 (18.31%; CI = 14.93%, 22.26%) represent B. Caballi and 3 (0.07%; CI = 0.24, 2.04) represents a mixed infection of
      B. caballi and T. equi. The prevalence of piroplasms in the internal organ of ticks was 21 (77.8%; CI =59.25%, 89.39%) in the primary
      screening of ticks by PCR out of the 27 DNA extracted from the 53 ticks sampled. Out of 53 ticks sampled Riphicephalus had a
      prevalence of 52 (98.11%; CI = 90.05%, 99.67%) and Amblyomma varigatum had a prevalence of 1 (1.89%; CI = 0.33%, 9.95%) and are the
      species of ticks found on the donkeys in the studied areas. Phylogenetic analysis was performed after the 18SrRNA gene from 20 positive
      samples (10 each from blood and ticks) were sequenced. The sequencing analysis suggested a 99-100% similarity of T. equi with the other T.
      equi in the gene bank and after blasting alignment and analysis of the genes, accession numbers from the gene bank were assigned. The
      accession numbers were MH355571, MH355572, MH355573, MH355574 and MH355575. It was also found that the group D isolates of T.
      equi were closely related to the T. equi reported in Nigerian waterbucks. This is the first report of equine piroplasms sequencing from
      the studied areas to the best of our knowledge.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Mini Review on Comparison of Production Process and Nutritive Value of Atella and BrewersÔ?? Grain; In Ethiopian Context

      Badasa Jalata*

      A shortage of proteinaceous feed supplements in Ethiopia is very common. To overcome this problem non-conventional type of feeds are
      recommended and presented in this review article. It is shown the gaps, processes and ways the proteins source feeds can be valorized in
      the semi-urban and rural community of the country

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

        Edget Alembo

        A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi –square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27(52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32(64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21(41.2%) and 22(43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p<0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

        Client's Satisfaction and its Predictors with Delivery of Veterinary Services in Peri-Urban Area in North Western Ethiopia

        Birhan Agmas

        Client satisfaction in veterinary service is seen as a desired outcome of veterinary services to assess the quality of health care for livestock. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of customer satisfaction with veterinary service rendered inperi-urban areas, in North Western Ethiopia. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken from August to December 2018 with the purpose of assessing satisfaction of farmers/clients towards veterinary services in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied for selecting study districts and kebeles. Simple random sampling was used to select individual household veterinary services clients. A total of 422household service users were interviewed from three districts. The collected data was entered into Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by using the SPSS version 20.0. Statistical significance was taken at P–value ≤0.05 as cut of the point. The overall client satisfaction and dissatisfaction level with the veterinary health services in the study area was 24.88% and 75.12% respectively. Furthermore, satisfaction with the veterinary clinic service was found to have a significant association with service availability, service quality/ effectiveness, client needs met, vaccine availability, getting help, awareness campaign, consultancy service on animal husbandry practices and in-time availability of veterinary officers those. In conclusion, the survey analysis indicated that poor veterinary service clients’ satisfaction in northwestern Ethiopia and hence the veterinary service management should undertake this weak service and plan for a better service delivery.

        Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

        A Case Report: Tetanus Treatment Protocol in a Cart-horse

        Abdi Feyisa*

        Tetanus is a fatal disease of horses and humans instigated by Clostridium tetani. The agent is known for producing potential toxins responsible for spastic paralysis. A cart-horse with a complaint of shivering, unable to take in feed and water, and hesitant to walk is described in this case report. The physical examination was indicated an increased in respiratory rates (32breaths/min). The third eyelid of the horse was prolapsed (right side) and had stiffened gait and locked jaws (unable to take water and feed and ropy saliva). A deep puncture due to nail was seen on the sole of the left forelimb. The findings were concluded as tetanus. The treatment protocols executed wound management, neutralizing circulating toxin, reducing further hyper-excitability, contractility, and bacterial propagation. The concurrent administration of Procaine penicillin G, Tetanus antitoxin (TAT), Acepromazine, and other supportive therapy was conveyed successful recovery within
        two weeks. Hence, tetanus could be cured if treated early and following the proper protocol.

          Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

          Impacts of Climatic Factors on Milk Yield Performance and Mastitis Incidence in Holstein Cattle Reared under Subtropical Condition

          Ahmed Dawod

          This study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic factors, including temperature-humidity index (THI) and rainfall level (RFL) regarding the parity on the incidence of mastitis, milk yield, and composition in Holstein cattle in Egypt. A total of 2496 lactating cows were used from different 4 dairy farms located in Egypt. One hundred dairy cows were selected from each dairy herd for detection of the effect of different climatic factors and parity on milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC).The data grouped according to parity into 1, 2, and >2 parity groups. Also, the animals grouped according to THI into low (80) THI level and regrouped according to RFL into low (5 mm) rainfall per month. Obtained results revealed an increase in daily milk yield, milk protein %, fat %, and SCC with the increase of parity. Also, high THI significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased daily milk yield (29.45 kg) and increased SCC (415 × 103 cell/mL). In high THI and low RFL climatic conditions, multiparous cows were prone to the occurrence of clinical mastitis compared to primiparous ones (p≤ 0.001); especially during mid and late lactation stages. In conclusion, high THI and low RFL impaired dairy performance and increased the frequency of clinical mastitis

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

          The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations

          Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji

          Animal welfare is a complex concept with three areas of concern which include whether the animal is functioning well (eg good health, productivity etc), whether the animal is feeling well (eg absence of pain etc) and whether the animal is able to perform its natural/speciesspecific behaviour that are thought to be important to them (eg grazing). The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) also gave these three states in its definition, in the veterinary training resource ‘Concepts in Animal Welfare’

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