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Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Review on Epidemiology of Strongylosis

    Asamrew Adino*, Asegid Girma and Nego Hurma

    Strongylosis is one of the most important internal parasitic diseases of equines caused by nematodes of strongylidae family affecting more than 80% equines in the world. The horse is host to a great number of gastrointestinal parasite species, of which nematodes of the family Strongylidae, commonly called strongyle nematodes or strongyles, are the most important. These parasites are ubiquitous and live as adults in the large intestine of equids. The main characteristic feature of strongyle nematodesis a well-developed buccal capsule, the shape and size of which are important for species identification. Strongyle nematodes of equids (horse, donkey, zebra) are classified into the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae, sometimes categorized as large and small strongyles, respectively. Strongylus vulgaris is one of the large strongly and the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites of equines. Large strongyles show major pathogenesis that is encompasses verminous arteritis, damage of visceral organs, embolism or thrombosis leading to death and is mainly attributed to migrating larvae of parasites. The larvae of Strongylus species are causes to large nodules in the wall of caecum and colon with a considerable hemorrhage and the nodules become rupture and release the worm into the lumen of the intestine. In the heavy burdens bleeding can occur and leads to the death of the animals. Inspite of substantial improvements in understanding the life cycle of strongylus and adopting latest diagnostic techniques and implementing the most modern treatment and control measures, the disease is still prevalent and could not be eradicated from any part of the world. The current strategy engaged in seasonal use of anthelmintics is the key to arrest the disease and overcome anthelmintic resistance. Using a mixed grazing system and removal of all horse feces from the fields twice weekly is highly effective for the control of strongyles.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Comparison of CIDT and INF-? Release Assay for Detection of BTB in a Dairy Farm Located at Holetta, Central Ethiopia

      Bezina Arega Emeru*, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid, Berhanu Abera and Melesse Eshete Hilemariam

      DOI: https://www.hilarispublisher.com/admin/index.php?page=ft-preview&id=100885

      Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is one of the main diseases caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. M. bovis can infect wide range of domestic and wild animals including human. In Ethiopia, the endemic nature of bovine tuberculosis in domestic animals has long been reported and recent studies also showed that BTB is endemic mainly in cattle, in large parts of the country with considerable magnitude. The disease found to be less prevalent in rural area with characteristics of small holder farms rearing mainly Zebu cattle. However, on urban and semi-urban areas, market oriented production system leads to farming of high grade dairy cattle over a longer period of time exhibiting high prevalence level of the disease.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Occurrence of Giardia in Apparently Healthy Cattle and Sheep in Selected Areas of Central Oromia, Ethiopia

        Dinka Ayana*, Bersissa Kumsa and Gebayehu Alkadir

        Background: Giardia is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoa causing giardiasis worldwide within the vast majority of domestic/wild mammals and humans. There is very few information on the occurrence Giardia in cattle and sheep in Ethiopia. This study was conducted from November, 2022 to August 2022 in three selected areas of central Ethiopia (Holeta, Bishoftu and Adama) to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in cattle and sheep, identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of the parasite and estimate the infection intensity or burden of the parasite.

        Materials and methods: 687 fecal samples were collected and examined by zinc sulfate floatation technique using Lugol’s iodine solution to identify cysts of Giardia. Pictures of Giardia cysts were captured using camera fixed to a microscope. The intensity of Giardia infection was estimated semi quantitatively by counting the average number of cysts in 10 randomly selected fields of the microscope. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 26 statistical software by employing descriptive statistics such as percentage, Chi square test, and logistic regression and Mann-Whitney test of non-parametric values.

        Results: Out of 687 fecal samples examined by coprology, 170 (24.7%) of cattle and sheep were infected with Giardia. The specific prevalence of Giardia in cattle and sheep was 27.4% and 15.5% respectively.

        Conclusions: Breed, body condition, study site/farm, production system and fecal consistency were found to be risk factors associated with the occurrence of Giardia infection in cattle while only agro ecology was found to be associated with the occurrence of Giardia infection in sheep. Majority of Giardia infections in both cattle and sheep were found to be mild. The study indicates that Giardia infections are widely distributed in cattle and sheep in the study areas and require proper control and prevention measures.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

        IOT and AI Based Smart Cattle Health Monitoring

        Karthik Darvesh*, Nikhil Khande, Sanmay Avhad and Maahi Khemchandani

        Cattle health monitoring is essential in the modern world, because of the high demand for dairy products. Regular monitoring is essential to extend the lifecycle of cattle and maintain the quality of dairy products. Unfortunately, observing the health of cattle regularly is difficult in large farms where workers do not have enough time to do so. This paper described IOT devices such as skin temperature, heart rate, and motion sensor. Using this device, you can monitor cattle’s heart rate, activity level, heat stress, the surrounding temperature, and sleep tracking. The IOT system is integrated with the cloud. A machine learning algorithm predicts the health status of cattle based on the sensor’s real time data, observing the real time health status will alert the user if cattle suffer from a health issue, and a mobile app is developed to observe data visualization. Cattle health monitoring systems are designed to monitor the health of individual cattle and quickly diagnose and treat sick cattle.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Studies of Ectoparasites Bionomics among Household Animals in Ebonyi State

        Uhuo Cosmas Augustus*, Oliver Odikamnoro Onyemeze, Onwe Chikaodili Simeon, Eze Gideon Chinedu, Nwokporo Nkiruka, Obealor Ogochukwu and Mary A Ben Chukwu

        All over the world, ectoparasites is a serious menace to livestock, as well as human. Their parasitic activities include transmission of pathogenic organisms while feeding on the host tissues, establishment of their parasitic larval stage at the sub-dermal region of the skin, thereby creating a room for invasion of infectious organism. The study of tick’s ectoparasites bionomics among household animals in Ebonyi state was conducted in Ebonyi central district in 2019 using standard entomological techniques. A total of 300 animals were examined at different predilection sites and hygiene for ectoparasite bionomics. The result revealed that of the 539 (179.7%) ectoparasite recovered, sheep had the highest prevalence 215 (39.80%) followed by goats 191 (35.40%) and lastly dog 133 (24.66%). There was a mixed infestation among the animals examined of which sheep was infested with 55 (47.83%) ticks, goat 50 (43.48%) and dog 40 (34.78%). These ectoparasites had a high infestation rate in the animals assessed with very poor hygiene and nutritional standard, therefore control and treatment of these infested animals should be taken seriously because of the damage caused on these animals. The study also revealed that most ectoparasites were choice specific in infestation. It is therefore recommended that further research on the occurrence and spread of ectoparasites diseases should be carried out to cover other areas of Ebonyi state.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

        Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Sheep in Three Agroecological Zones in W est Shewa Zone, Oromia State, Central Ethiopia

        Waktole Terfa*, Bersisa Kumsa, Dinka Ayana, Hora Bekele, Anna Maurizio, Cinzia Tessarin and Rudi Cassini

        Background: Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the globally occurring most important diseases that include the groups of cestodes, trematodes, the coccidian and gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly the strongyles are the most pathogenic parasites and limit the production of sheep, goats, cattle, equine.

        Methods: Across sectional study was carried out in West Shewa zone of the Oromia regional state from August 2019 to November 2021. Flotation and McMaster techniques were used to recover and quantify Nematode, Monezia eggs and Eimeria oocysts from 659 rectally collected faeces. The parasite causing the infection was identified by the floating method, and the infection intensity was calculated by the modified McMaster method. The severity of infection was classified as mild (50-799 EPG), moderate (800-1200 EPG), or severe (>1200 EPG). Coproculture was conducted to identify strongyle species.

        Results and discussion: Out of 659 overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep was 546 (82.7%) (95% CI=79.8-85.6). Among the gastrointestinal parasites genera found in the study, Strongyle spp. 354 (53.72%), Eimeria sp. 375(56.90%), Monezia 120 (18.21%), Strongyloides sp. 113 (17.15%) and Trichuris spp. 76 (11.53%) were identified. The EPG/OPG count showed 2080.96, 1424.78, 240.64, 107.91 and 17.45 burdens of Eimeria, Strongyle spp., Monezia, Strongyloides and Trichuris spp. respectively in decreasing order. Among the positive fecal samples, 204 (30.96%) had single infection and while 342(51.89%) samples had mixed infections. Among sheep population (28.07%) had showed a light infection, followed by (21.85%) heavy infection and (6.98%) moderate infection intensity with gastrointestinal nematodes. The most frequently occurring nematodes were Trichostrongylus spp. (33.4%), followed by Haemonchus spp. 581 (30.7%), Bunosstomum spp. 387 (20.5%), Osephagostomum spp. 158 (8.4%) and Teladorsagia 84 (4.4%), whereas, Chabertia spp. 49 (2.6%) was the least identified gastrointestinal nematode. Among the potential risk factors considered in the study, body condition, season, age and sex were associated with the occurrence of Nematode species; season, age, study areas and body condition with the occurrence of Eimeria species whereas only body condition and agro ecology were associated with the occurrence of Monezia infections (p<0.05). In general, the occurrences of high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the study area suggest that they are major constraints for production and productivity of sheep.

        Conclusion: The present study indicated that gastrointestinal parasitic strangle nematodes, Monezia and Eimeria are highly prevalent in sheep in the study areas. This study identified that season, study area, age and body condition of the sheep as risk factors for GIT parasites in sheep were significantly associated with the prevalence of git strongyle nematode, Eimeria and Monezia species infections of sheep.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 13

          A Compressive Review on Newcastle Disease Virus in Ethiopia

          Tesfa Mossie* and Dessie Abera

          Newcastle disease is an acute viral disease that affects both domestic and wild bird species around the world. It is a costly and widespread disease in most poultry-producing countries, including Ethiopia. Newcastle disease virus is a member of the genus orthoavulavirus, species avian orthoavulavirus (AOAV-1), and a new subfamily Avulavirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae that causes Newcastle disease. The virus is a non-segmented, single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus. The virus's genome contains six open reading frames that encode six structural proteins and two non-structural proteins. The virus's two major surface glycoproteins are hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein mediates virus binding to host target cells, whereas the fusion protein facilitates viral envelope fusion with the cellular membrane of the target cells. Based on serological and phylogenic examination of the virus, fifteen distinct avian orthoavula virus serotypes are present. Strains are further grouped into three main pathotypes depending on their virulence and clinical signs: velogenic, mesogenic, and lentogenic. Newcastle disease is the most challenging avian disease in Ethiopia, resulting in significant economic losses for the poultry sector. The disease causes abrupt death with a 100% fatality rate to subclinical infection in chickens. The economic losses are associated with high mortality, morbidity, disease containment measures, outbreak eradication, and decreased egg production from breeder flocks. Regular outbreaks of the disease have posed a severe threat and confronted Ethiopia's burgeoning chicken sector. In endemic nations, there is a need to strengthen prevention and control strategies for Newcastle disease. As a result, this review article provides current scientific information on the Newcastle disease virus, including pathogenesis, antigenic variants, genetic diversity, current taxonomic classification, epidemiology, and various diagnostic techniques, in order to highlight the disease's control and prevention directions. Its goal is to combine numerous study findings from various sites and assess the disease's state in Ethiopia. Finally, to emphasize the poultry industry's economic importance in the country and to make recommendations for efficient management and prevention measures.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 11

          Epidemiology and Public Health Significance of Campylobacteriosis

          Asamrew Adino Gezahegn*

          DOI: 10.37421/2157-7579.2023.14.180

          Emerging food borne pathogens are significant causes of morbidity and mortality both in developing nations as well as developed. Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial food borne diarrheal disease and distributed all over the world. Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of Campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV related deaths due to Campylobacter, epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non-chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of Campylobacteriosis. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of Campylobacteriosis in developing countries. The aim of this review paper is to assess the global and national epidemiology and public health significance of Campylobacter with emphasis on the prevention and control options in developing countries following the experience of developed countries.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Association between Genital Ulceration and Body Condition of Olive Baboon (Papio Anubis) In the Lake Manyara National Park

          Emmanuel H. Lyimo* and Benedicto Njavile

          Genital ulceration disease in olive baboon (Papio anubis) caused by Treponema Pallidum, the disease causes moderate to severe genital ulceration in the population of an olive baboon. The study on the association between genital ulceration and body condition of olive baboons was conducted in the Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The study investigated the body condition of affected and non-affected olive baboons across an observation of 599 and reveals the proportion of affected and non-affected in the surveyed population. A pair of binoculars (10 x 50) were used whenever the located individual was observed healthy or with a clinical sign.

          QGIS version 3.1 was used to map baboon distribution in the study area. R-studio version 2.3.1 was used to test the association between body condition and affected olive baboon. Results revealed that a total number of 104 individuals, 56 males 47 females were affected. Results also indicated that there is a positive association between the body condition and the affected baboon, R=0.23, while there is a negative association on non-affected individuals’ correlation R=-0.45.

          The proportion shows significant variation between affected and non-affected individuals, χ2=53.772, df=17, P=0.001. On the other hand, the affected baboons revealed more emaciation, alopecia hand, rough hair signs compared to non-affected individuals. The most affected sex was female however there is no significant variation of sex in affected individuals χ2=65.03, df=51, P= 0.08941. It is concluded that Treponema pallidum infection with genital lesion associated with body condition is common in baboons of Lake the Manyara National Park.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

            Prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria

            Turaki Usman Aliyu, Lawan Adamu*, Ismaila Alhaji Mairiga, Falmata Kyari, Muhammad Modu Bukar, Ogo Isaac, Ndudim, Bitrus Yakubu, Shitu Ismail

            Four hundred and twenty-six (426) donkeys were sampled using the convenience sampling technique in markets, loading areas, and
            watering points to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms
            present in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria. Fifty-three ticks and 426 blood samples were collected
            from donkeys for the identification of piroplasms using microscopy and molecular techniques. The prevalence of piroplasms observed in
            the blood samples of donkeys via microscopic examination was 12 (2.81 %; CI = 1.62%, 4.86%) for B. caballi and none for T. equi while
            multiplex PCR (MPCR) showed a prevalence of114 (26.76%; CI = 22.78%, 31.16%). Out of which 33 (7.75 %; CI = 5.75, 10.68)
            represent T. equi and 78 (18.31%; CI = 14.93%, 22.26%) represent B. Caballi and 3 (0.07%; CI = 0.24, 2.04) represents a mixed infection of
            B. caballi and T. equi. The prevalence of piroplasms in the internal organ of ticks was 21 (77.8%; CI =59.25%, 89.39%) in the primary
            screening of ticks by PCR out of the 27 DNA extracted from the 53 ticks sampled. Out of 53 ticks sampled Riphicephalus had a
            prevalence of 52 (98.11%; CI = 90.05%, 99.67%) and Amblyomma varigatum had a prevalence of 1 (1.89%; CI = 0.33%, 9.95%) and are the
            species of ticks found on the donkeys in the studied areas. Phylogenetic analysis was performed after the 18SrRNA gene from 20 positive
            samples (10 each from blood and ticks) were sequenced. The sequencing analysis suggested a 99-100% similarity of T. equi with the other T.
            equi in the gene bank and after blasting alignment and analysis of the genes, accession numbers from the gene bank were assigned. The
            accession numbers were MH355571, MH355572, MH355573, MH355574 and MH355575. It was also found that the group D isolates of T.
            equi were closely related to the T. equi reported in Nigerian waterbucks. This is the first report of equine piroplasms sequencing from
            the studied areas to the best of our knowledge.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Mini Review on Comparison of Production Process and Nutritive Value of Atella and BrewersÔ?? Grain; In Ethiopian Context

            Badasa Jalata*

            A shortage of proteinaceous feed supplements in Ethiopia is very common. To overcome this problem non-conventional type of feeds are
            recommended and presented in this review article. It is shown the gaps, processes and ways the proteins source feeds can be valorized in
            the semi-urban and rural community of the country

              Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

              Management and Treatment of Back Sore Wound on Donkey at Demote Gale Veterinary Clinic, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

              Moges Eriso Blate*

              A four years age male (jack) Donkey from wolaita Zone zagare kebele was presented to Damot Gale woreda Veterinary clinic on 02 February 2022, with the history of wound on the back; improper harnessing, padding, overloading and overworking. The main clinical signs were wound on back due to overloading for long distances without proper harness (padding) were the most cause of donkeys back sore wound. This case revealed that there is no variation in the treatment offered to donkeys with different risk factors sex, age, cause of sore and body condition score. Majority of donkeys with back sore wound was not gained any treatment. This infers that back sore is the major health and welfare problems of donkeys that compromise performances of working donkeys. After Bathe the wound with cold, clean water and ensuring treatments (wound spray) and procaine penicillin the wound of donkey heals in the best possible way followed by donkeys with the back sore should get sufficient rest and Regular and continuous community education about the proper use of harness on their donkeys should be given.

                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 7

                Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infectious Bursal Disease in Local Chicken of Backyard Production System in Selected Districts of Ilubabor Zone, South Western Ethiopia

                Moti Wakgari

                Gumboro is commonly reported from different parts of Ethiopia. However, in local chicken flocks of Ilubabor, there is no known sero-status of the disease. To address this information gap, a cross-sectional study was conducted in local backyard chicken flocks of three districts of Ilubabor Zone where chick mortality and morbidity were a big problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate seroprevalence of IBDV by using Indirect Enzyme Linked-Immune Sorbent Assay and to assess its risk factors. A total of 480 chickens were sampled from randomly clustered 160 flocks and serum samples were processed at Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center. Out of 480 serum samples tested, 207 were positive and the overall chicken level seroprevalence of the IBDV antibody in the study area was found to be 43.13% (95% CI: 38.69-47.56) and flock-level seroprevalence was 45.63%(73/160) (95% CI: 37.91-53.34) with almost all test positive flock chickens were seropositive. Multivariable analysis at chicken level showed that the odds of IBDV seroprevalence was significantly high in Metu and Bilo Nopa districts, in purchased chickens, in female chickens, in adult chickens and at flock level in chickens mixed with exotic breeds, in flocks having greater than 5 chickens. This study shows that IBDV is circulating in chicken population of Ilubabor at a high prevalence level. Therefore, further study on serotypes and strains of IBDV identification should be carried out to design suitable control and prevention measures

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

                  The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations

                  Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji

                  Animal welfare is a complex concept with three areas of concern which include whether the animal is functioning well (eg good health, productivity etc), whether the animal is feeling well (eg absence of pain etc) and whether the animal is able to perform its natural/speciesspecific behaviour that are thought to be important to them (eg grazing). The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) also gave these three states in its definition, in the veterinary training resource ‘Concepts in Animal Welfare’

                  Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

                  Impacts of Climatic Factors on Milk Yield Performance and Mastitis Incidence in Holstein Cattle Reared under Subtropical Condition

                  Ahmed Dawod

                  This study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic factors, including temperature-humidity index (THI) and rainfall level (RFL) regarding the parity on the incidence of mastitis, milk yield, and composition in Holstein cattle in Egypt. A total of 2496 lactating cows were used from different 4 dairy farms located in Egypt. One hundred dairy cows were selected from each dairy herd for detection of the effect of different climatic factors and parity on milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC).The data grouped according to parity into 1, 2, and >2 parity groups. Also, the animals grouped according to THI into low (80) THI level and regrouped according to RFL into low (5 mm) rainfall per month. Obtained results revealed an increase in daily milk yield, milk protein %, fat %, and SCC with the increase of parity. Also, high THI significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased daily milk yield (29.45 kg) and increased SCC (415 × 103 cell/mL). In high THI and low RFL climatic conditions, multiparous cows were prone to the occurrence of clinical mastitis compared to primiparous ones (p≤ 0.001); especially during mid and late lactation stages. In conclusion, high THI and low RFL impaired dairy performance and increased the frequency of clinical mastitis

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                    Client's Satisfaction and its Predictors with Delivery of Veterinary Services in Peri-Urban Area in North Western Ethiopia

                    Birhan Agmas

                    Client satisfaction in veterinary service is seen as a desired outcome of veterinary services to assess the quality of health care for livestock. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of customer satisfaction with veterinary service rendered inperi-urban areas, in North Western Ethiopia. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken from August to December 2018 with the purpose of assessing satisfaction of farmers/clients towards veterinary services in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied for selecting study districts and kebeles. Simple random sampling was used to select individual household veterinary services clients. A total of 422household service users were interviewed from three districts. The collected data was entered into Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by using the SPSS version 20.0. Statistical significance was taken at P–value ≤0.05 as cut of the point. The overall client satisfaction and dissatisfaction level with the veterinary health services in the study area was 24.88% and 75.12% respectively. Furthermore, satisfaction with the veterinary clinic service was found to have a significant association with service availability, service quality/ effectiveness, client needs met, vaccine availability, getting help, awareness campaign, consultancy service on animal husbandry practices and in-time availability of veterinary officers those. In conclusion, the survey analysis indicated that poor veterinary service clients’ satisfaction in northwestern Ethiopia and hence the veterinary service management should undertake this weak service and plan for a better service delivery.

                    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

                    A Case Report: Tetanus Treatment Protocol in a Cart-horse

                    Abdi Feyisa*

                    Tetanus is a fatal disease of horses and humans instigated by Clostridium tetani. The agent is known for producing potential toxins responsible for spastic paralysis. A cart-horse with a complaint of shivering, unable to take in feed and water, and hesitant to walk is described in this case report. The physical examination was indicated an increased in respiratory rates (32breaths/min). The third eyelid of the horse was prolapsed (right side) and had stiffened gait and locked jaws (unable to take water and feed and ropy saliva). A deep puncture due to nail was seen on the sole of the left forelimb. The findings were concluded as tetanus. The treatment protocols executed wound management, neutralizing circulating toxin, reducing further hyper-excitability, contractility, and bacterial propagation. The concurrent administration of Procaine penicillin G, Tetanus antitoxin (TAT), Acepromazine, and other supportive therapy was conveyed successful recovery within
                    two weeks. Hence, tetanus could be cured if treated early and following the proper protocol.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

                    Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

                    Edget Alembo

                    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi –square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27(52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32(64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21(41.2%) and 22(43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p<0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.

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