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Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

    Management and Treatment of Back Sore Wound on Donkey at Demote Gale Veterinary Clinic, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Moges Eriso Blate*, Xiaogang Gao, Fengwei Liu, Yaqiong Jia, Ran Meng and Xunming Ji

    A four years age male (jack) Donkey from Wolaita Zone Zagare Kebele was presented to Damot Gale Woreda Veterinary clinic on 02 February 2022, with the history of wound on the back; improper harnessing, padding, overloading and overworking. The main clinical signs were wound on back due to Overloading for long distances without proper harness (padding) were the most cause of donkeys back sore wound. This case revealed that there is no variation in the treatment offered to donkeys with different risk factors sex, age, cause of sore and body condition score. Majority of donkeys with back sore wound was not gained any treatment. This infers that back sore is the major health and welfare problems of donkeys that compromise performances of working donkeys. After Bathe the wound with cold, clean water and ensuring treatments (wound spray) and procaine penicillin the wound of donkey heals in the best possible way followed by Donkeys with the back sore should get sufficient rest and Regular and continuous community education about the proper use of harness on their donkeys should be given.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Dog Restraining Technology Package for the Implementation of a Mass Canine Rabies Vaccination Campaign in Developing Countries

    Anmaw Shite Abat*, Saddam Mohammed, Girma Birhan, Mastewal Birhan, Destaw Asfaw, Wassie Molla, Kalkidan Getnet, Haileyesus Dejene, Takele Adugna, Ashenafi Asefa, Bemrew Admassu and Feleke Shite

    Dog bites are a serious and often underestimated public health problem and associated with physical and psychological trauma, they cause wound infection by different microorganisms and the risk of rabies transmission. Tens of thousands of people in developing nations die of rabies each year, and tragically dogs are the vectors in over 98 percent of human rabies cases. Ethiopia has a high dog population and is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries. One of the strategies of rabies control and prevention is mass dog vaccination campaign. For successful implementation of vaccination campaign and to reduce the risk of dog bite, using effective dog restraint tool is crucial. For this purpose, we developed dog restraining technology package which contains three tools namely dog muzzle mask, dog catching net and dog restraining crush. These dog restraint tools are easy to use or apply on dogs, safe for vet practitioner and animal owners. They are also cost effective, very easy to maintain, can be made from easily accessible locally available materials. After developing the technology package, it was tested in different veterinary clinics and on field and it works perfectly. The stakeholders were also trained on how to prepare and use the technology. After the training, we hand over one technology package for each Gondar administrative zone that can be used as a model, and facilitate the dissemination, implementation and sustainability of the technology. The stakeholders who have taken the training and used the technology reported that situation of working with dogs was easy after the training: doing clinical examination, taking vital signs, giving interventions (drug, vaccine) and undertaking surgical procedures on dogs. They also reported that the decrement of dog bite and improvement of welfare of dogs after the technology transfer.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 1

    Comparing Begait, Hararghe Highland and Somali Goat Productivity and Production for Better Utilization, Ethiopia

    Mahilet Dawit, Bruh Asmelash, Negasi Ameha and Yosef Tadese

      

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 1

    Surgical Removal of Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle and Economic Losses to Farmers

    Fekadu Gutema and Beksisa Urge

       

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 1

    Management of Compound Fracture of the Radius and Ulna Using Pop and Splints in a Nigerian Indigenous Breed of Dog

    Hope Philip Mana, Aliyu Haruna and Ali Mutah Abba

       

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Review on Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about Rabies, Associated Factors and Post Exposure Management in Ethiopia

    Abdurazak Kadi*

    Rabies is one of the seventeen major neglected tropical diseases with the highest human case fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is caused by an enveloped neurotropic, negative sense, non-segmented, single-stranded; a bullet shaped RNA virus that belongs to the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family, Mononegavirale order. Rabies virus enters the body through wounds or by direct contact with mucosal surfaces, but cannot cross intact skin. The virus replicates in the bitten muscle and gains access to motor end plates and rapidly ascends the nervous system to the brain by entering the pre-synaptic nerve ending through endocytosis, and may be associated with synaptic vesicles. Dog mediated rabies is known to account for over 90% of human exposure and death cases in Ethiopia and elsewhere. The differences in KAP score among participants were dependent on Variable such as sex, educational status, and source of information, monthly income, and residence. Recommended first aid procedures for post exposure include immediate and thorough flushing and washing of the wound for a minimum of 15 minutes with soap and water, as well as disinfecting the wound with detergent or other substances of proven lethal effect on the rabies virus. It may be noted that although no specific antivirals exist at present, the combination of prompt rabies PEP, wound care, infiltration of RIG into and around the wound, and multiple doses of rabies cell-culture vaccine is 100% effective in preventing human rabies. An increasing number of stray dogs and the absence of legislation to determine and certify the status of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs and lack of utilization of modern anti rabies vaccines create difficulty to control the disease in the country.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 13

    A Compressive Review on Newcastle Disease Virus in Ethiopia

    Tesfa Mossie* and Dessie Abera

    Newcastle disease is an acute viral disease that affects both domestic and wild bird species around the world. It is a costly and widespread disease in most poultry-producing countries, including Ethiopia. Newcastle disease virus is a member of the genus orthoavulavirus, species Avian orthoavulavirus (AOAV-1), and a new subfamily Avulavirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae that causes newcastle disease. The virus is a non-segmented, single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus. The virus's genome contains six open reading frames that encode six structural proteins and two non-structural proteins. The virus's two major surface glycoproteins are hemagglutininneuraminidase and fusion protein. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein mediates virus binding to host target cells, whereas the fusion protein facilitates viral envelope fusion with the cellular membrane of the target cells. Based on serological and phylogenic examination of the virus, fifteen distinct avian orthoavula virus serotypes are present. Strains are further grouped into three main pathotypes depending on their virulence and clinical signs: velogenic, mesogenic, and lentogenic. Newcastle disease is the most challenging avian disease in Ethiopia, resulting in significant economic losses for the poultry sector. The disease causes abrupt death with a 100% fatality rate to subclinical infection in chickens. The economic losses are associated with high mortality, morbidity, disease containment measures, outbreak eradication, and decreased egg production from breeder flocks. Regular outbreaks of the disease have posed a severe threat and confronted Ethiopia's burgeoning chicken sector. In endemic nations, there is a need to strengthen prevention and control strategies for Newcastle disease. As a result, this review article provides current scientific information on the Newcastle disease virus, including pathogenesis, antigenic variants, genetic diversity, current taxonomic classification, epidemiology, and various diagnostic techniques, in order to highlight the disease's control and prevention directions. Its goal is to combine numerous study findings from various sites and assess the disease's state in Ethiopia. Finally, to emphasize the poultry industry's economic importance in the country and to make recommendations for efficient management and prevention measures.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

      Prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria..

      Turaki Usman Aliyu, Lawan Adamu, Ismaila Alhaji Mairiga, Falmata Kyari, Muhammad Modu Bukar, Ogo Isaac Ndudim, Bitrus Yakubu, Shitu Ismail

          

      Review Article Pages: 0 - 7

      The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations..

      Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji

         

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Review on Epidemiology of Strongylosis

        Asamrew Adino*, Asegid Girma and Nego Hurma

        Strongylosis is one of the most important internal parasitic diseases of equines caused by nematodes of strongylidae family affecting more than 80% equines in the world. The horse is host to a great number of gastrointestinal parasite species, of which nematodes of the family Strongylidae, commonly called strongyle nematodes or strongyles, are the most important. These parasites are ubiquitous and live as adults in the large intestine of equids. The main characteristic feature of strongyle nematodesis a well-developed buccal capsule, the shape and size of which are important for species identification. Strongyle nematodes of equids (horse, donkey, zebra) are classified into the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae, sometimes categorized as large and small strongyles, respectively. Strongylus vulgaris is one of the large strongly and the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites of equines. Large strongyles show major pathogenesis that is encompasses verminous arteritis, damage of visceral organs, embolism or thrombosis leading to death and is mainly attributed to migrating larvae of parasites. The larvae of Strongylus species are causes to large nodules in the wall of caecum and colon with a considerable hemorrhage and the nodules become rupture and release the worm into the lumen of the intestine. In the heavy burdens bleeding can occur and leads to the death of the animals. Inspite of substantial improvements in understanding the life cycle of strongylus and adopting latest diagnostic techniques and implementing the most modern treatment and control measures, the disease is still prevalent and could not be eradicated from any part of the world. The current strategy engaged in seasonal use of anthelmintics is the key to arrest the disease and overcome anthelmintic resistance. Using a mixed grazing system and removal of all horse feces from the fields twice weekly is highly effective for the control of strongyles.

        Case Series Pages: 1 - 5

        Prevalence and Seasonal Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Nematode of Goats in Haramaya, Ethiopia

        Anteneh Wondimu*

        Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main constraints to goat production worldwide. A cross-sectional study longitudinal study from were conducted in Haramaya, Ethiopia to determining the prevalence and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. A total of 384 fecal samples were randomly collected and analyzed using standard parasitological methods of floatation and ova culture. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was 73.7% (283/384). The result showed higher percentage prevalence in young (76.2%) than adult’s age group (73.0%). The difference in gastrointestinal nematode infection between female (79.6%) and male goats (59.09%) was statistically significant (p=0.001). The Egg Per Gram (EPG) count result showed 69.6%, 7.4%, 23.0% of the goats were lightly, moderately and heavily infected with gastrointestinal nematodes respectively. The overall genera of nematode identified and counted from coproculture in the study areas were trichostrongylus spp (54.6%), teladorsagia (17.6%), haemonchus spp (14.4%), muellerius capillaris (7.6%), oesophagostomum spp. (1.7%), nematodirus spp (1.7%), strongyloides papillosus and cooperia (0.9%), chabertia (0.5%) and trichuris (0.1%). Based on the monthly mean EPG count recorded during the short and long rain seasons with peaks occurring in may and september of the year. To mitigate the burden of gastrointestinal nematode parasites: Good management practices considering breed, sex, age, pasture rotation, housing of animals during peak time and optimizing anthemintic usage through deworming of goats during season where parasitic load is peak in host animal is very crucial.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

          Review on Biofilm Forming Microbials in Cases of Bovine Mastitis and its Impact on Treatment

          Darge Lulu Hordofa

          Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that are attached to a surface and play a significant role in the persistence of bacterial infections in both animals and humans. Biofilm bacteria are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses resulting in chronic infection of bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defenses. There is paucity of information regarding biofilm bacteria in bovine mastitis of veterinary importance and their role in disease pathogenesis. Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the udder and represents one of the most difficult dairy diseases to control. Biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. Recently biofilm need attention due to its possible relation with mastitis causing pathogens and with the increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune defense system. As a consequence of the presence of biofilms, the mastitis infection is more difficult to treat and eradicate, making this problem a more relevant pressing issue. Thus, we believe that a deeper knowledge of these structures in mastitis can help to determine the best control strategy to be used in veterinary practice in order to reduce losses in the dairy industry and to ensure milk safety and quality. The aim of this paper was to review the existing research and consequently to provide an overview of the role of microbial biofilms in bovine mastitis infections in Ethiopia.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Association between Genital Ulceration and Body Condition of Olive Baboon (Papio Anubis) In the Lake Manyara National Park

          Emmanuel H. Lyimo and Benedicto Njavile

          Genital ulceration disease in olive baboon (Papio anubis) caused by Treponema Pallidum, the disease causes moderate to severe genital ulceration in the population of an olive baboon. The study on the association between genital ulceration and body condition of olive baboons was conducted in the Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The study investigated the body condition of affected and non-affected olive baboons across an observation of 599 and reveals the proportion of affected and non-affected in the surveyed population. A pair of binoculars (10 x 50) were used whenever the located individual was observed healthy or with a clinical sign. QGIS version 3.1 was used to map baboon distribution in the study area. R-studio version 2.3.1 was used to test the association between body condition and affected olive baboon. Results revealed that a total number of 104 individuals, 56 males 47 females were affected. Results also indicated that there is a positive association between the body condition and the affected baboon, R=0.23, while there is a negative association on non-affected individuals’ correlation R=-0.45. The proportion shows significant variation between affected and non-affected individuals, χ 2=53.772, df=17, P=0.001. On the other hand, the affected baboons revealed more emaciation, alopecia hand, rough hair signs compared to non-affected individuals. The most affected sex was female however there is no significant variation of sex in affected individuals χ 2=65.03, df=51, P= 0.08941. It is concluded that Treponema pallidum infection with genital lesion associated with body condition is common in baboons of Lake the Manyara National Park.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

            Prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria

            Turaki Usman Aliyu, Lawan Adamu*, Ismaila Alhaji Mairiga, Falmata Kyari, Muhammad Modu Bukar, Ogo Isaac, Ndudim, Bitrus Yakubu, Shitu Ismail

            Four hundred and twenty-six (426) donkeys were sampled using the convenience sampling technique in markets, loading areas, and
            watering points to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors, morphological and molecular characterization of piroplasms
            present in the blood of infected donkeys from Gombe and Yobe States, Nigeria. Fifty-three ticks and 426 blood samples were collected
            from donkeys for the identification of piroplasms using microscopy and molecular techniques. The prevalence of piroplasms observed in
            the blood samples of donkeys via microscopic examination was 12 (2.81 %; CI = 1.62%, 4.86%) for B. caballi and none for T. equi while
            multiplex PCR (MPCR) showed a prevalence of114 (26.76%; CI = 22.78%, 31.16%). Out of which 33 (7.75 %; CI = 5.75, 10.68)
            represent T. equi and 78 (18.31%; CI = 14.93%, 22.26%) represent B. Caballi and 3 (0.07%; CI = 0.24, 2.04) represents a mixed infection of
            B. caballi and T. equi. The prevalence of piroplasms in the internal organ of ticks was 21 (77.8%; CI =59.25%, 89.39%) in the primary
            screening of ticks by PCR out of the 27 DNA extracted from the 53 ticks sampled. Out of 53 ticks sampled Riphicephalus had a
            prevalence of 52 (98.11%; CI = 90.05%, 99.67%) and Amblyomma varigatum had a prevalence of 1 (1.89%; CI = 0.33%, 9.95%) and are the
            species of ticks found on the donkeys in the studied areas. Phylogenetic analysis was performed after the 18SrRNA gene from 20 positive
            samples (10 each from blood and ticks) were sequenced. The sequencing analysis suggested a 99-100% similarity of T. equi with the other T.
            equi in the gene bank and after blasting alignment and analysis of the genes, accession numbers from the gene bank were assigned. The
            accession numbers were MH355571, MH355572, MH355573, MH355574 and MH355575. It was also found that the group D isolates of T.
            equi were closely related to the T. equi reported in Nigerian waterbucks. This is the first report of equine piroplasms sequencing from
            the studied areas to the best of our knowledge.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Mini Review on Comparison of Production Process and Nutritive Value of Atella and BrewersÔ?? Grain; In Ethiopian Context

            Badasa Jalata*

            A shortage of proteinaceous feed supplements in Ethiopia is very common. To overcome this problem non-conventional type of feeds are
            recommended and presented in this review article. It is shown the gaps, processes and ways the proteins source feeds can be valorized in
            the semi-urban and rural community of the country

              Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

              Management and Treatment of Back Sore Wound on Donkey at Demote Gale Veterinary Clinic, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

              Moges Eriso Blate*

              A four years age male (jack) Donkey from wolaita Zone zagare kebele was presented to Damot Gale woreda Veterinary clinic on 02 February 2022, with the history of wound on the back; improper harnessing, padding, overloading and overworking. The main clinical signs were wound on back due to overloading for long distances without proper harness (padding) were the most cause of donkeys back sore wound. This case revealed that there is no variation in the treatment offered to donkeys with different risk factors sex, age, cause of sore and body condition score. Majority of donkeys with back sore wound was not gained any treatment. This infers that back sore is the major health and welfare problems of donkeys that compromise performances of working donkeys. After Bathe the wound with cold, clean water and ensuring treatments (wound spray) and procaine penicillin the wound of donkey heals in the best possible way followed by donkeys with the back sore should get sufficient rest and Regular and continuous community education about the proper use of harness on their donkeys should be given.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Dog Restraining Technology Package for the Implementation of a Mass Canine Rabies Vaccination Campaign in Developing Countries

              Anmaw Shite Abat*, Saddam Mohammed, Girma Birhan, Mastewal Birhan, Destaw Asfaw, Wassie Molla, Kalkidan Getnet, Haileyesus Dejene, Takele Adugna, Ashenafi Asefa, Bemrew Admassu and Feleke Shite

              Dog bites are a serious and often underestimated public health problem and associated with physical and psychological trauma, they cause wound infection by different microorganisms and the risk of rabies transmission. Tens of thousands of people in developing nations die of rabies each year, and tragically dogs are the vectors in over 98 percent of human rabies cases. Ethiopia has a high dog population and is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries. One of the strategies of rabies control and prevention is mass dog vaccination campaign. For successful implementation of vaccination campaign and to reduce the risk of dog bite, using effective dog restraint tool is crucial. For this purpose, we developed dog restraining technology package which contains three tools namely dog muzzle mask, dog catching net and dog restraining crush. These dog restraint tools are easy to use or apply on dogs, safe for vet practitioner and animal owners. They are also cost effective, very easy to maintain, can be made from easily accessible locally available materials. After developing the technology package, it was tested in different veterinary clinics and on field and it works perfectly. The stakeholders were also trained on how to prepare and use the technology. After the training, we hand over one technology package for each Gondar administrative zone that can be used as a model, and facilitate the dissemination, implementation and sustainability of the technology. The stakeholders who have taken the training and used the technology reported that situation of working with dogs was easy after the training: doing clinical examination, taking vital signs, giving interventions (drug, vaccine) and undertaking surgical procedures on dogs. They also reported that the decrement of dog bite and improvement of welfare of dogs after the technology transfer.

                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 7

                Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infectious Bursal Disease in Local Chicken of Backyard Production System in Selected Districts of Ilubabor Zone, South Western Ethiopia

                Moti Wakgari

                Gumboro is commonly reported from different parts of Ethiopia. However, in local chicken flocks of Ilubabor, there is no known sero-status of the disease. To address this information gap, a cross-sectional study was conducted in local backyard chicken flocks of three districts of Ilubabor Zone where chick mortality and morbidity were a big problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate seroprevalence of IBDV by using Indirect Enzyme Linked-Immune Sorbent Assay and to assess its risk factors. A total of 480 chickens were sampled from randomly clustered 160 flocks and serum samples were processed at Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center. Out of 480 serum samples tested, 207 were positive and the overall chicken level seroprevalence of the IBDV antibody in the study area was found to be 43.13% (95% CI: 38.69-47.56) and flock-level seroprevalence was 45.63%(73/160) (95% CI: 37.91-53.34) with almost all test positive flock chickens were seropositive. Multivariable analysis at chicken level showed that the odds of IBDV seroprevalence was significantly high in Metu and Bilo Nopa districts, in purchased chickens, in female chickens, in adult chickens and at flock level in chickens mixed with exotic breeds, in flocks having greater than 5 chickens. This study shows that IBDV is circulating in chicken population of Ilubabor at a high prevalence level. Therefore, further study on serotypes and strains of IBDV identification should be carried out to design suitable control and prevention measures

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

                  The State of Farm Animal Welfare in Nigeria: Challenges and Recommendations

                  Oluwapelumi Victoria Boluwaji

                  Animal welfare is a complex concept with three areas of concern which include whether the animal is functioning well (eg good health, productivity etc), whether the animal is feeling well (eg absence of pain etc) and whether the animal is able to perform its natural/speciesspecific behaviour that are thought to be important to them (eg grazing). The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) also gave these three states in its definition, in the veterinary training resource ‘Concepts in Animal Welfare’

                  Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

                  Impacts of Climatic Factors on Milk Yield Performance and Mastitis Incidence in Holstein Cattle Reared under Subtropical Condition

                  Ahmed Dawod

                  This study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic factors, including temperature-humidity index (THI) and rainfall level (RFL) regarding the parity on the incidence of mastitis, milk yield, and composition in Holstein cattle in Egypt. A total of 2496 lactating cows were used from different 4 dairy farms located in Egypt. One hundred dairy cows were selected from each dairy herd for detection of the effect of different climatic factors and parity on milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC).The data grouped according to parity into 1, 2, and >2 parity groups. Also, the animals grouped according to THI into low (80) THI level and regrouped according to RFL into low (5 mm) rainfall per month. Obtained results revealed an increase in daily milk yield, milk protein %, fat %, and SCC with the increase of parity. Also, high THI significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased daily milk yield (29.45 kg) and increased SCC (415 × 103 cell/mL). In high THI and low RFL climatic conditions, multiparous cows were prone to the occurrence of clinical mastitis compared to primiparous ones (p≤ 0.001); especially during mid and late lactation stages. In conclusion, high THI and low RFL impaired dairy performance and increased the frequency of clinical mastitis

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                    Client's Satisfaction and its Predictors with Delivery of Veterinary Services in Peri-Urban Area in North Western Ethiopia

                    Birhan Agmas

                    Client satisfaction in veterinary service is seen as a desired outcome of veterinary services to assess the quality of health care for livestock. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of customer satisfaction with veterinary service rendered inperi-urban areas, in North Western Ethiopia. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken from August to December 2018 with the purpose of assessing satisfaction of farmers/clients towards veterinary services in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied for selecting study districts and kebeles. Simple random sampling was used to select individual household veterinary services clients. A total of 422household service users were interviewed from three districts. The collected data was entered into Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by using the SPSS version 20.0. Statistical significance was taken at P–value ≤0.05 as cut of the point. The overall client satisfaction and dissatisfaction level with the veterinary health services in the study area was 24.88% and 75.12% respectively. Furthermore, satisfaction with the veterinary clinic service was found to have a significant association with service availability, service quality/ effectiveness, client needs met, vaccine availability, getting help, awareness campaign, consultancy service on animal husbandry practices and in-time availability of veterinary officers those. In conclusion, the survey analysis indicated that poor veterinary service clients’ satisfaction in northwestern Ethiopia and hence the veterinary service management should undertake this weak service and plan for a better service delivery.

                    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

                    A Case Report: Tetanus Treatment Protocol in a Cart-horse

                    Abdi Feyisa*

                    Tetanus is a fatal disease of horses and humans instigated by Clostridium tetani. The agent is known for producing potential toxins responsible for spastic paralysis. A cart-horse with a complaint of shivering, unable to take in feed and water, and hesitant to walk is described in this case report. The physical examination was indicated an increased in respiratory rates (32breaths/min). The third eyelid of the horse was prolapsed (right side) and had stiffened gait and locked jaws (unable to take water and feed and ropy saliva). A deep puncture due to nail was seen on the sole of the left forelimb. The findings were concluded as tetanus. The treatment protocols executed wound management, neutralizing circulating toxin, reducing further hyper-excitability, contractility, and bacterial propagation. The concurrent administration of Procaine penicillin G, Tetanus antitoxin (TAT), Acepromazine, and other supportive therapy was conveyed successful recovery within
                    two weeks. Hence, tetanus could be cured if treated early and following the proper protocol.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

                    Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

                    Edget Alembo

                    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi –square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27(52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32(64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21(41.2%) and 22(43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p<0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.

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