Hydrology: Current Research

ISSN: 2157-7587

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 3 (2020)

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    Which Is Better? Ground Water or Surface Water

    Neha Airi

    For the most part, both ground water and surface water can give safe drinking water, as long as the sources are not contaminated and the water is adequately rewarded. Ground water is ideal over surface water for various reasons. Most importantly, ground water is solid during dry spells, while surface water can be immediately exhausted. Ground water is, as a rule, simpler and less expensive to treat than surface water, since it will in general be less dirtied. Through wells, ground water can be tapped where it is need, though surface waters are moved in lakes and streams. For instance, an enormous underground water source was as of late found in Sudan's Darfur district. The antiquated lake is 30,750 square kilometres, which is a similar size as Lake Erie, and will have the option to give truly necessary freshwater assets to individuals in the nation. The contention between Arab wanderers and African ranchers has, since 2003, caused in excess of 200,000 passing and constrained 2,000,000 individuals to escape their homes. The contention started when dry season and desertification constrained the Arab travellers to move to South Darfur, where the African ranchers were. As the war started over rivalry for assets, there is hypothesis that the disclosure of the water source will help with closure the continuous clash. For more data, you can peruse the BBC news story, "Water find 'may end Darfur war'". For more data about how the circumstance in Darfur, just as numerous different nations, disregards the human option to water, see the Human Rights certainty sheet. Ground water has a few different purposes, other than giving drinking water. Geothermal vitality utilizes ground water to deliver vitality proficient warming and cooling frameworks. A pool and recreational office in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, a wellbeing community complex in Sussex, New Brunswick, and Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario are instances of huge offices that are utilizing ground water to warmth and cool structures. In any case, there are a couple of worries about ground water. As populace and contamination increment, there turns out to be more weight on ground water. While ground water sources are more abundant than surface water sources, springs take more time to revive as a result of the period of time that it takes for water to arrive at the spring. Thus, springs can run dry. Surface water can likewise be exhausted, yet when ground water sources are drained, the overlying ground can conservative and die down, making harm structures on a superficial level. Too, when the ground water level abatements in beach front locales and on little islands, saline water can enter the water gracefully.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Is It Safe to Drink Groundwater Without Filtration

    Neha Airi

    With regards to drinking water, you should be cautious about the source. It is frequently accepted that groundwater and well water is sheltered to drink since it streams underground and doesn't interact with the surface contaminants. Groundwater is fundamentally water that gets leaked through the Earth's surface into the ground, going through permeable shakes, breaks and spaces. The water gets put away underground and wells are penetrated through these stone arrangements to gain admittance to this groundwater. Despite the fact that groundwater is esteemed safe to drink, you should have it tried for contaminations and synthetic compounds. It certainly won't have the surface poisons yet it might have the run-off contaminations in it.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Hydrology and Applications of Geophysics in Several Fields of Hydrology

    Neha Airi

    Hydrology (from Greek: "hýdōr" signifying "water" and "lógos" signifying "study") is that the logical investigation of the event, conveyance, and also the board of water on Earth and totally different planets, as well as the water cycle, water assets, and natural watershed flexibility. Geophysics tries to grasp wherever water happens; however water flows; however and why water conveyance changes when some time; the artificial and physical properties of water; and also the association of water to living beings. A professional of geophysics is understood as a hydrologist. Hydrologists area unit researchers considering earth or ecological science, common or natural planning and geographic. Exploitation totally effect logical methods and logical strategies, they gather and break down data to assist pay attention of water connected problems, as an example, ecological safeguarding, destructive events, and water management. Hydrology partitions into surface water geophysics, groundwater geophysics (hydrogeology), and marine geophysics. Areas of geophysics incorporate hydrometeorology, surface geophysics, hydrogeology, ooze bowl the executives, and water quality. Keywords: Water management;

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 20

    Total Colony Counts (TCC) By Flow Cytometry (FCM) Should Replace the Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) Test for Bacteriological Enumeration of Water - Some Recent Developments in Flow Cytometry: A Review

    Thavrin Manickum

    We currently use the gold standard HPC test method for bacterial enumeration of our raw, drinking and waste water; analysis times are relatively long: 1-3 d, as per the
    international standard reference method. Our tests are accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 requirements. The literature has indicated international use of the current HPC
    method for monitoring routine microbiological quality of drinking water; current tests for pathogen monitoring have poor sensitivity, accuracy and long analysis times, in
    general. The aim of this current review is to: Consider shortfalls of the HPC method, Discuss alternative methods for bacterial enumeration, Discuss features and
    applications of the automated -sample preparation flow cytometer, the BactoSense model, Highlight advantages of flow cytometry, which makes this technique the choice
    for the bacteriological enumeration in water, and Propose options for standardization of flow cytometry TCC test methods.
    Findings indicate that HPC is very inaccurate (~ -99% bias), and time-consuming (1-3 d), compared to flow cytometry (~ 99% accurate; ± 15-20 min analysis time). The
    evidence confirms a strong preference for the use of flow cytometry for Total Cell Counts/mL; the BactoSense is one viable instrument due to its automated sample
    preparation, speed of analysis, accuracy and precision. There was a significant gap regarding the standardization of current flow cytometry test methods. Options for
    standardization are ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation, the US EPA, ASTM, AOAC, and Standard Methods. Some key method validation parameters are: accuracy, bias,
    precision, specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, and the Uncertainty of measurement. The review has highlighted the potential of flow cytometry for the screening of Corona
    virus SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19. The BactoSense FCM appears to be a viable option for bacterial enumeration, as a TCC/mL measure, for drinking water, due to its
    sample preparation automation, speed of analysis, accuracy and precision. The current, and new, FCM test methods should be validated, standardized, or accredited for
    adoption for bacterial enumeration of water. Flow cytometry is the preferred test method for bacterial enumeration of water - it should replace the HPC method.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Hydrology and Latest Current Affairs

    Neha Airi

    Hydrology as a science of knowledge, management, and applying water resources, the cycling of water through different reservoirs (subsurface, surface, and atmosphere) and precipitations has a particular role to play in the modern age. This science with the comprehensive engagements in the various domains has a specific role to determine. Engineering and applied sciences, economy-social and environmental disciplines are the main aspects of this importance to discuss. Nowadays, the direction of hydrological science in current researches, needs, and future perspectives gets more attractions. Moreover, the interaction of hydrology and challenging worldwide issues including’s environmental phenomena’s: floods, droughts, unexpected rainfalls, snow melts, the disorder in water resources as the critical research subjects are raised. In this regard, climate change as a high- impact factor in hydrology is considerable in environmental research subjects.

    Volume 11, Issue 4 (2020)

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

      Why water conservation is important?

      Neha Airi

      Water Conservation is the act of utilizing water productively to diminish pointless water use. It incorporates all the arrangements, procedures and exercises to reasonably deal with the common asset of new water, to secure the hydrosphere, and to meet the ebb and flow and future human interest. Conservation is the consideration and security of these assets so they can endure for people in the future. It incorporates keeping up decent variety of species, qualities, and biological systems, just as elements of nature, for example, supplement cycling.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use

      Neha Airi

      Water Conservation is the act of utilizing water productively to diminish pointless water use. It incorporates all the arrangements, procedures and exercises to reasonably deal with the common asset of new water, to secure the hydrosphere, and to meet the ebb and flow and future human interest. Conservation is the consideration and security of these assets so they can endure for people in the future. It incorporates keeping up decent variety of species, qualities, and biological systems, just as elements of nature, for example, supplement cycling.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

      Impacts of Urbanization on water quality

      Neha Airi

      Somewhat, "urbanization" (individuals living respectively in gatherings), has been occurring since old occasions. As populaces rose and individuals aced methods to develop food in fixed areas, gatherings of individuals became settlements and afterward towns and urban communities. Water quality portrays the state of the water, including compound, physical, and organic attributes, typically concerning its appropriateness for a specific reason, for example, drinking or swimming.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Short Communication on Water Resources

      Neha Airi

      Water Resources are common assets of water that are conceivably helpful. Employments of water incorporate rural, modern, family, recreational and natural exercises. All living things expect water to develop and imitate.

      Book Review Pages: 1 - 2

      National Disaster Management Guidelines: Management of Urban Flooding

      Dr. Nilay Kanti Barman

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      The book entitled National Disaster Management Guidelines: Management of Urban Flooding has been making efforts to set up guiding principle for the management of different disasters and some cross cutting matters under the holistic supervision by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) with a procedure of extensive discussions with proficient from scientific, technical and academic institutions and humanitarian institutes.

      Volume 11, Issue 5 (2020)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Hydro-Climatic Variability and Trend Analysis of Modjo River Watershed, Awash River Basin of Ethiopia

        Melat Eshetu

        Climate change and variability is expected to trigger changes in temperature and precipitation series. This study aimed at assessing variability and trend of hydro-climatic variables at Modjo River watershed. Long-term climate data of 5 representative stations with in the watershed (1981-2010) and stream flow data of Modjo gauging station (1983 -2010) were used. Rainfall variability was analyzed using Coefficient of variation (CV), Precipitation concentration index (PCI) and Standardized anomaly index (SAI). Climate trends were evaluated using Sen’s slope estimator and Mann Kendall trend test methods. The study revealed Most of the stations showed low variation in annual rainfall (CV% <20) while the main (Kiremt) and short (Belg) season rainfall exhibited CV ranging from low to high. Both annual and seasonal rainfall showed a non-significant trend at all stations for the past 30 years. However, majority of stations showed an increasing trend in annual daily average temperature ranging from 0.2 to 0.6ºC per decade. Following increases in temperature and the subsequent rise in evapotranspiration, stream flow has shown a high significant declining trend. The temporal decline in stream flow at Modjo watershed could likely affect downstream Koka dam water reserve. Thus, any watershed management strategy that can optimize water conservation for sustainable crop production and option that can improve flow to the reserve is vital.

        Research Pages: 1 - 8


        Falak Naeem

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        In context of interaction of a developing country with the world, Pakistan is observed to be immersed in numerous conflict and issues which are social, economic and environmental in nature. Being located in an environmentally stressed zone, it is quite difficult for the nation to cope up with the challenges of food supply for growing population. Reviewing the overall scenario, this study is aimed to highlight the distorted concerns regarding the usage and conservation of the natural resource. In this research it is objectified to analyze the quality of water extracted from underground and consumed for the crop cultivation in adjoining fields. The selected districts of province of Punjab were Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh, as agriculture is the prime activity practiced by the people in this area. Water Quality for the period of Pre and Post monsoon of year 2014 and 2018 were investigated respectively. Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were taken as basic quality parameters for groundwater. Secondary data of 328 wells was collected from the Punjab Irrigation Department was first sorted, filtered and analyzed by applying Geo-informatics. IDW Technique of Interpolation was incorporated to represent the data in Arc Map environment. WAPDA irrigation water quality criteria states that all parameters should not exceed the value of 3 in their respective units. Out of 328 selected wells, the concentration of salinity was witnessed to be high in the post-monsoon period of 2014 with a value of 13.02 dS/m. Sodium Absorption Ratio was found in low limits in both of the years, showing a high value of 56.26 during pre-monsoon of 2014. Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) was detected as 18.1 me/L in 2014’s post-monsoon. Additionally, estimation of vegetation patterns assisted in assessment of impacts of the selected parameters. The intensification in concentration of these parameters have been reported to decrease soil fertility, crop growth, crop patterns and causes disturbance in soil pH. Hence, increased soil alkalinity or acidity is leading to reduction of the agricultural production from those fields in the study area. It is therefore concluded that strict implementation of laws for a proper check and balance system is urgently required. “Drip Irrigation” is highly recommended for sustainability of agricultural land and healthy food production.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Optimization of Irrigation Scheduling and Fertilizer Rate of Maize (Zea Mays L.) to Improve Yield and Water use Efficiency under Irrigated Agriculture.

        Ashebir Haile Tefera

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        Effective agricultural water management technologies improve crop and water productivity by allowing for a more efficient use of inputs, such as water and fertilizer, and by enhancing the yields and quality of the crops farmers grow.  The aim of the study was to determine the optimal irrigation scheduling and fertilizer rate for better water use efficiency under irrigated agriculture. The experiment was carried in the randomized completed block design experimental design with combination of five levels of irrigation treatments and three levels of fertilizer rate with three replications of the treatments. The result revealed that the plot received optimal irrigation interval of 14 days in combination of 25% more than the recommended fertilizer rate (292.24 kg/ha) had significantly higher effects on above ground biomass (18.25 t ha-1) and on grain yield (4.8 t ha-1 ) of irrigated maize in the study area. However, the maximum water use efficiency of 2.05 kg/m3 was obtained at the irrigation interval of14 days and highest level of fertilizer rate. Hence, the use of 14 days optimal irrigation interval and 25% more fertilizer than the recommended rate is advisable because the grain yield and crop water use efficiency had been improved in the study area. Therefore, the obtained results are valuable in improving maize yield and water use efficiency, but economic analysis should be included for further recommendation.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 2

        Short Communication on Physical Hydrology

        Niharika Bisht

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        Physical Hydrology is the study of the development, conveyance and properties of water. With the objective of making a prologue to actual hydrology; this story guide will examine the water cycle, protection of mass, watersheds, and the worldwide water balance.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Short Communication on Hydrogeology Research

        Land, Groundwater, Geography, wells, siphons, drains

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        Hydrogeology is the investigation of the land and hydrological measures that control groundwater stream and groundwater quality, and is thusly an essential part of any ecological geoscience program. Groundwater designing, another name for hydrogeology, is a part of designing which is worried about groundwater development and plan of wells, siphons, and drains.

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