Hydrology: Current Research

ISSN: 2157-7587

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    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Numeric Model for Flood Hazard Forecasting in an Urban River of Taza City, Morocco

    Badr Layan*, Mahmoud Zemzami and Brahim Bougdira

    DOI: 10.37421/2157-7587.2024.15.506

    Forecasting flood hazards is essential for locating vulnerable places, measuring flood effects, anticipating possible damages, and investigating mitigation options. Attempting to anticipate flood dynamics at various return periods, this work employed the river simulation model over the highly populated section of the Jaouna Wadi (River) in Taza city. The model's inputs included future floods calculated utilizing a rational method, physical variables approximated using standardized tables (Manning coefficient), and other inputs directly measured in the field. The stability of the model demonstrated that its parameters had been precisely assessed. The outputs were compared to the observed floods during the calibration phase, and any necessary corrections were performed to guarantee that the model reproduced results within a reasonable range. Our findings revealed that the covered channel was insufficient for evacuating water during decadal floods. Aside from this section, the 10-year floods flowed through the opened channel without spilling over its banks. The 100-year floods ran over the channel's banks, spreading large amounts of water to inhabited zones and cultivated fields. These results were in accordance with recent floods and also supported evidence from previous observations, indicating the accuracy of the prediction of the Wadi’s behavior. The study signifies that the model is a powerful tool for detailed flood risk assessment, especially in limited areas.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Developing Crop Coefficient for Plantation Sugarcane Using Lysimeter Experiment under Melkassa Climatic Conditions, Ethiopia

      Belay Yadeta*, Mekonen Ayana, Muluneh Yitayew and Tilahun Hordofa

      Sugarcane is one of the important industrial crops produced all over the tropical areas. Sugarcane production is highly expanding in developing countries like Ethiopia. However, sugarcane is characterized by very high crop evapotranspiration. This requires determination of its crop evapotranspiration to apply with accurate crop water requirement throughout the growth period. The main purpose of the current study was to determine sugarcane evapotranspiration and develop its crop coefficient using Lysimeter experiment. Weather parameters required for CROPWAT 8.0 model used to determine reference evapotranspiration were collected during the study time. The sugarcane evapotranspiration was computed throughout the growing period of the crop from lysimeter experiment. The result indicated that crop evapotranspiration obtained ranges from 1.63 to 7.13mm/ day. The study found that sugarcane crop coefficients were 0.42, 0.93, 1.26 and 1.05 at emergence, tillering, grand formation and ripening growth stages respectively. The variation of sugarcane crop coefficient obtained were 2%, 1% and 30% greater than FAO recommendation at emergence, grand formation and ripening growth stages respectively but 33% lower at Tillering growth stage. Therefore, from the findings so far it can be concluded that these crop coefficient values can be used in the sugarcane estates until further improvements are made.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment, Disinfection and Disinfection by Products

        Dessalegn Geleta Ebsa* and Wakjira Takala Dibaba

        Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) have heterogeneous structures, which are suspected carcinogens as a result of reactions between Natural Organic Matter and oxidants/disinfectants such as chlorine. Because of variability in DBPs characteristics, eliminate completely from drinking water by single technique is impossible and it have been considered as toxic contaminants of water. Disinfection By-product is another problem available in water supply treatment in the distribution system. The objective of this study was evaluating the performance of Jimma town water distribution networks of water treatment plant. Hence, the study was addressed, efficiency of conventional water treatment plant unit, chlorination and disinfection and disinfection by-product. To evaluate the water treatment plant simulation WatPro v4, tool was applied for disinfection and treatment plant performance. As per the discussion held with the Jimma water supply and sewerage authority and field visit, the major factors of water loss were identified. As per the calculation result, the treatment plant efficiency of the town was estimated as 69.75%. In case of giardia and viruses reduction (22.6% and 75.34%), that was the results obtained from the treatment plant simulation did not obey the surface water treatment rule. Despite its small amount, disinfection by products has been found in the town’s water treatment plant. As per the calculation obtained; the contact time of the water system did not meet the contact time requirement because 0.476<1. In general, the current water distribution network and treatment plant of Jimma town were in poor performance and were not conducted adequate water to the various demand categories of the town. Hence, it is important to rehabilitate and the treatment plant of the town in order to fulfill the required need.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Experimental Study of Rainfall-Runoff Process under a Calibrated Rainfall Simulator

          Yahaya Olotu, O. O. Olanrewaju, A. A. Rodiya and P. A. Adekunle

          DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2157-7587.2022.13. 399

          The relationship between rainfall-runoff is a complex hydrological process that requires technical-based approaches to investigate and understand the interaction of the hydrological variables. A calibrated rainfall simulator was developed to produce storms at seven (7) predetermined Rainfall Intensities (RIs) over two (2) Runoff Plots (RP). The Runoff Plot (RPA) is 0.72 m2 and RPB is 0.5 m2 was each inserted 0.3 m into the bare sandy loam. The results of the experimentation showed the first Rainfall Simulation Attempt (RSA) of RI value of 10.8 mm/hr was totally lost to infiltration without generation of surface runoff from the two runoff catchment plots. Subsequently, the RSA generated varying Surface Runoff Intensities (SRI) and with RPB producing higher SRI and volume compared to large catchment plots (RPA). Conversely, the relationship of rainfall-runoff showed co-linearity between the simulated rainfall and generated surface flow RPA and RPB with the determinant of coefficients of 0.9926 and 0.9942 at P<0.05. Therefore, the study’s finding is useful to develop a rainfall-runoff model under different runoff catchment areas for constructing Integrated Water Management Schemes (IWMS), hydraulic structures, and irrigation scheduling.
          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Spatial Distribution Effect of Eco-Hydrological Indicators on Water Resources Flow for the Conservation Planning in Eastern Sudan

          Solafa Babiker*

          This study aims to model and combine the eco-hydrological components to evaluate its impact on the potential water flow of selected catchment in eastern Sudan. Spatial variability of landcover types and magnitudes was assessed using landsat and sentinel 2 imageries for years 1996, 2011 and 2018, topographic and soil type factors were used to assess the potentiality for runoff at sub catchment level using CN approach. Rainfall records, CN map and one gauge readings for stream discharge were used to simulate the hydrograph using 10 years return period and assess volumetric flow at sub-catchment level.

          Evaluation of the potentiality of the area for high runoff and prediction of water quantity produced by the catchment is crucial for dry lands in Africa generally and in Sudan. Land cover changes show the dominance of agricultural lands and reduction in natural vegetation through the studied periods in addition to soil and topography factors, curve number was generated and reflect high potentiality for generating runoff. Hydrograph analysis was generated and the runoff peak by means of volume and time during the storm event was generated. The studies demonstrate this approach that could be used for promising areas for water management and planning purposes.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

            Assessment of Water Quality Parameters Collected from Various Water Resources in Pampore Town (Kashmir), India

            Mohd Adil Deva

            Water is considered as an essential resource on earth and the sources of fresh water are depleting due to increasing demand of population and different pollution sources. The purpose of this study was to analyze the physiochemical parameters of water. The samples were collected from 5 different drinking water sources and have been analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Nitrates (NO3 2-) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The result showed that pH, EC, TDS, T. Hardness, (NO3 2-) and B.O.D. were ranged from 7.3 to 7.77, 237.3 to 323.3 μSm-1,475.33 to 876.57 mg/L, 316.33 to 831 mg/L, 1.32 to 2.94 mg/L, 4.59 to 49.6 mg/L. All these parameters were analyzed by the standard methods of APHA and measured within the standard drinking water quality values of WHO. Among all these water samples, the water sample taken from bored well from the Karewa fields showed the best results and suitable for drinking purposes and the the present investigation found that the maximum parameters were within range and could be suitable for irrigation purposes. The sample collected from river Jehlum suggested that the rate of pollution is increasing day to day when compared with previous papers.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

              Dry Season Irrigated Rice Yields Response to Water Saving Techniques in Tolon District of Northern Region, Ghana

              Shaibu Abdul Ganiyu*, Naoko Oka and Seiji Yanagihara

              Dry season irrigated rice production in northern Ghana is often hampered by lack of sufficient water in dams and reservoirs to meet the crop and irrigation water requirements under continuous flooding. In some years, rice farmers are forced to change their cropping repertoire and move to vegetable production. This situation calls for development of efficient water application and saving methods on the field. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different water saving irrigation applications to improve over continuous flooding used on dry season rice fields. Two years of experiments were conducted using a randomised complete block design with 4 replications at golinga irrigation scheme in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 dry seasons, respectively. The treatments were as follows: Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD 10) at 10 cm water-table drop below the soil surface; AWD 15 at 15 cm drop of water-table below soil surface; Continuous Flooding (CF) from 2 to 10 cm depth of water above soil surface, used as control; Intermittent Flooding (IF) at 5 cm of water-table drop below the soil surface and System of Rice Intensification (SRI). A 115 days maturity rice variety Gbewaa (i.e. Jasmine 85) was used for the experiments. Seedlings were transplanted at spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm at one seedling per stand in 27 m2 plots. Data were collected on plant height, number of tillers, days to 50% heading, yields and yields related parameters. The results showed that all the parameters with the exception of maximum tiller count, showed significant difference between SRI and the rest of the treatments. AWD 10 and IF are recommended as most suitable for adoption by rice farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                Creep of seawater intrusion in the nile delta aquifer

                Mohamed S. Taha*, Asaad M. Armanuos and Bakenaz A. Zeidan

                Background: The Nile Delta aquifer in Egypt subjected to a severe seawater intrusion problems because of the excessive pumping over the last several decades. The seawater has intruded the aquifer up to a distance more than 70.0 km measured from the shoreline along the bottom boundary of the aquifer. Climate change and the rise of sea level will affect the groundwater quality in the Nile Delta aquifer in two methods. First, low and flat lands along the shoreline will be submerged with seawater and the aquifer below these lands will be damaged. Second, pressure heads of sea water will increase causing more intrusion. Seawater intrusion is a process which seawater infiltrates into freshwater aquifers due to natural processes or human activities. Seawater intrusion is caused by decreases in groundwater levels as a result of excessive pumping or by rises in seawater levels as a result of climate change. The salt water rises 40 m for every 1 m of freshwater depression and forms a cone of salt water. The effects of intrusion on water quality not only belongs to the pumping well sites, but also at other well sites, and undeveloped parts of the aquifer. The problem of seawater intrusion is mainly conditioned by three factors: first, the difference between the densities of the fresh and salt water, second, the hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer and third, the flow that the aquifer discharges into the sea. The first two factors are intrinsic to the seawater intrusion problem regardless of the climate in the region. Furthermore, these two parameters are established, and cannot be affected by the usual human activities. The flow that the aquifers discharge into the sea is conditioned by natural conditions (from rainfall) or artificial recharge (mainly from irrigation and canals networks) and by pumping. Therefore, anthropogenic actions can make some modifications. The most prevailing technique is to increase the flow of groundwater from the aquifers towards the sea. In this paper (ARC GIS) program is used to prepare the required maps for the 3-D models (MODFLOW + SEWAT) which are used to simulate saltwater intrusion in the Nile delta aquifer. The amount of water pumped from the Nile delta aquifer through wells belongs to 2008. The recent shore line of the Mediterranean sea is used. The results of the simulation show that the Equi-concentration line 35 reaches 81 km in the east of the Nile delta, 93 km in the middle and 68.5 km in the west for base case. The Equi-concentration line 35 of this simulation is compared with the Equi-concentration line of 1960, 1980 and 1992. It is observed that the creep of the iso saline water occurs at the west and the middle of the Nile delta compared to these years.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                  Seasonal Water Balance Estimation Using Open Access Satellite Databases and Hydrological Model for Abay River Basin

                  Agegnehu Kitanbo Yoshe*

                  DOI: 10.37421.2157-7587.2023.14.457

                  Water balance assessment was pricing the water for water resource optimization and management. The main objective of this study was estimation of the seasonal water balance of Ethiopia. The QGIS tool was used for data analysis which was essential for estimation of water deficit for the dry season and water surplus for the wet season. Seasonal water balance for six years was calculated for dry and wet seasons. For each year, the results for wet were 17.8 BCM, 19.7 BCM, 42.9 BCM, 19.8 BCM, 46.1 BCM and 13.99 BCM for the year 2016-2017, 2017-2018, 2018-2019, 2019-2020, 2020-2021, 2021-2022 respectively. For the dry season, the seasonal water variation result shows that -14.6 BCM, -15.15 BCM, -19.8 BCM, -23.1 BCM, -71.83 BCM, -21.6 BCM for the year 2016-2017, 2017-2018, 2018-2019, 2019-2020, 2020-2021, 2021-2022 respectively. The result shows that there was a water surplus for the wet season and water deficit for the dry season. The result of this study was applicable for drought monitoring, urban drainage system management and flood monitoring, agricultural systems, industrial systems, hydroelectric power generation systems, for urban and rural water supply systems, for understanding the effect of global climatic changes due to different processes in the study area.

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