Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology

ISSN: 2572-4134

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 6, Issue 3 (2020)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Editorial Note - jfim

    Srinivas B

    I am pleased to introduce the International Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology (IJFIM) which is an open access Microbiology journal aiming to provide an online compendium for Food Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Industrial Microbiology, Nano Microbiology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology. We have been started in year 2015 International Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology (ISSN: 2572-4134) is growing continuously. It is our pleasure to announce that during year 2019, all issues of volume 5 were published online on time and the print issues were also brought out and dispatched within 30 days of publishing the issue online.

    All published articles of this journal are included in the indexing and abstracting coverage of CAS Source Index (CASSI), Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Sherpa Romeo, Academic Journals Database, GenamicsJournalSeek, JournalTOCs, CiteFactor, Electronic Journals Library, RefSeek, Hamdard University, EBSCO A-Z, Directory of Abstract Indexing for Journals, World Catalogue of Scientific Journals, OCLC- WorldCat, Scholarsteer, SWB online catalog, Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio), Publons, Dtufindit, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

    During the year 2019, International Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology (IJFIM)  received a total of 16 papers, out of which 4 article was rejected in the preliminary screening due to plagiarism or being out of the format and peer review process. During 2019 around 4 articles were subjected for publication after they are accepted in the peer review process.

    During the calendar year 2020, a total of two Editors, Fifteen Reviewers joined the board of IJFIM and contributed their valuable services towards contribution as well as publication of articles, and their valuable reviewer comments will beneficial to publish quality of article in the Journal.

    I take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Editor-in-chief and Associate Editor during the final editing of articles published and bringing out issues of International Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology (IJFIM) in time. I would also like to express my gratitude to all the authors, reviewers, the publisher, language editor, honorary editors, the scientific advisory and the editorial board of IJFIM, the office bearers for their support in bringing out the new volume (Volume 6) of IJFIM for the calendar year 2020 and look forward to their unrelenting support further to release more issues for International Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology (IJFIM) in scheduled time.

    Short Communication Pages: 2 - 3

    Microbiology 2018: A Genomic Infection Control Study for Staphylococcus aureus In Two Ghanaian Hospitals

    Eric Sampane-Donkor

    Whole genome sequencing analysis (WGSA) provides the best resolution for bacterial isolate typing and possesses the potential to identify transmission pathways. The aim of the study was to use WGSA to clarify possible transmission events involving two suspected outbreaks of the Staphylococcus aureus hospital in Ghana and to describe genomic characteristics of the S. Sampled aureus isolates in the outbreaks.

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of serious infections including meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. Aureus (MRSA) is of particular concern because of its extensive antibiotic resistance and its association with persistent outbreaks in hospitals and in the community. Besides the relevance of MRSA to public health, methicillin-susceptible S. Aureus (MSSA) is commonly involved in bacteremia and inflammation of the skin and soft tissue (SSTI). The relative high prevalence of pvl genes, a pore-forming toxin associated with SSTI and severe necrotizing pneumonia is a striking feature of clinical MSSA isolates from Africa. This function of African MSSA isolates is of interest as the highly productive community-associated MRSA clones are also characterized by frequent pvl gene carriage.

    With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, the field of microbial genomics is progressing at a rapid pace. Whole genome sequencing analysis (WGSA) is superior to bacterial typing methods because it provides better resolution of bacterial isolates and is particularly suitable for highly clonal bacteria such as S. Aureus Aureus. WGSA had been applied to S in previous studies. Aureous and used to describe MRSA's intercontinental and local transmission, investigate outbreaks, predict antimicrobial resistance, and type bacterial strains. In general, WGSA's applications to research S. For several countries, aureus and other microbial pathogens were treated to a very small extent in many countries in Africa.

    Methods: The research was performed at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Lekma Hospital respectively where the alleged outbreaks occurred in 2012 and 2015. The S- There were three origins of aureus isolates obtained from the two hospitals, including transport, infectious disease, and the climate. The S complete genome sequencing. The aureus isolates is executed and the sequence reads mapped to the S. Auroreus strain reference genome USA300 FPR3757. A phylogenetic tree with a maximum likelihood was rebuilt. Multilocus sequence typing along with antimicrobial resistance analysis and virulence genes was performed using the SRST2 for fast reading mapping. 

    Results: A reported outbreak of three S occurred in January 2012 at KBTH's Department of Child Welfare. Cases aureus. In case one, S. Aureus was removed from the blood of a 4-month-old baby girl admitted to the Emergency Ward. She had spent 5 days at the emergency ward and was then moved to another ward (designated P2), where she died. The second case was identified four days after the first case and was isolated from a 5-day old baby boy's cerebrospinal fluid, which was admitted to the emergency ward. Later, the child was moved to the ward P2. Two days on from the second case, S. Aureus was removed from a 4-month-old baby girl’s semen. Like the first two babies, this baby was admitted to the emergency ward and later moved to the ward P2.

    KBTH's Infection Prevention and Control Unit called for an investigation into the situation after the baby's first case death. It has been identified as the babies from which S. Aureus shared the same breathing apparatus. Babies shared the same cot and were connected to one oxygen cylinder by tubes (giving set lines). Clinical staff confirmed that due to inadequate respiratory apparatus, they are resorting to this practice.

    Following this development KBTH has taken steps to disinfect the deceased baby's materials (cot and bedding). Blood specimens for culture were collected from babies who were nearby and shared tubes with the deceased infant, but no bacteria developed in the specimens. A Nasal Carriage Test of S. Aureus was performed in the unit as well as environmental screening among babies, their mothers and health-care personnel. S carriage Nasal. Aureus and MRSA, respectively, were 49.7 per cent (88/147) and 4.8 per cent (7/147). Environmental specimens collected from equipment and surfaces in hospital wards yielded S. Prevalence of aureus and MRSA of 27.5 percent (39/142) and 11.3 percent (16/142), respectively. During this period, KBTH's bacteriology laboratory kept monitoring of S. Aureus isolates recovered from all hospital patients; an average of five S clinical isolates. The aureus are reported daily in this lab.

    The S- The aureus isolates belonged to different types of sequences (STs) with the most common ST15 and ST152. All isolates carried the blaZ gene, and also observed low prevalence of tetK and dfrG genes. All the isolates were negative about mecA. The genes of the pvl were common and observed in distinct lines revealing diverse Sa2int phages. The genomics data at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital revealed multiple transmission events involving S. Auroreus ST15 involves contamination of various surfaces in the emergency pediatric ward where the outbreak occurred.

    Conclusion: Dissemination pattern of the ST15 clone in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital emergency ward illustrates a fundamental issue with the hospital's disinfection of environmental surfaces. Various phage populations rather than a single highly transmissible type of phage is likely to mediate the high prevalence of pvl genes among the genes S. aureus isolates. 

    Short Communication Pages: 4 - 5

    Microbiology 2018: Insights on pandemic vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    Dongsheng Han

    In China, since the 1990s, V. parahaemolyticus has been a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks and bacterial infectious diarrhea, and most infections are associated with the V. parahaemolyticus O3: K6 pandemic and its serovariants. There is nevertheless a lack of a detailed description of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of the V. parahaemolyticus pandemic clone in China. In this study, pandemic isolates in Chinese clinical and environmental samples obtained from multiple studies were analyzed to account for this deficiency. Significant serotypic diversity was observed primarily among isolates within the ST3 pandemic, which consisted of 21 O / K antigen combinations. The O3: K6 serotype pandemic exhibited a high degree of sequence diversity, shared by eight separate STs (ST3, ST227, ST431, ST435, ST487, ST489, ST526, and ST672). Testing of susceptibility to antimicrobials revealed that most isolates shared similar profiles of susceptibility to antibiotics. They were ampicillin resistant but susceptible to most other drugs studied. In conclusion, the high rates of serotypic and genetic diversity of the pandemic clone indicate that the regions concerned are significant reservoirs for the emergence of new pandemic strains. They stress the need for routine surveillance to prevent the infection with pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, which involves tracking antimicrobial responses to avoid unnecessary antibiotic violence. We also need further investigations to delineate the specific mechanisms underlying the possible seroconversion of pandemic isolates.

    Introduction: The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a natural inhabitant of the estuarine and coastal environments. This pathogen is a worldwide important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. It is a pathogenic bacteria of multiple serotypes, and can be classified into 13 O serotypes and 71 K serotypes based on somatic (O) antigens and capsular (K) antigens. The pandemic isolates, including serotype O3: K6 and their serovariants, have spread globally through either sporadic diarrhea or food-related contaminated outbreaks since 1997.

    In this study, we identified the Chinese pandemic isolates V parahaemolyticus primarily from existing literature and re-analyzed the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of these entire pandemic isolates. In our successful diarrheal infection studies, we isolated several of these pandemic isolates, and concentrated primarily on their antimicrobial responses in this research, which was not previously demonstrated. Overall, after the advent of this clone, our goal is to produce a detailed overview of the spread of the pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3: K6 and its serovariants.

    Results: According to a detailed review, an extensive map of the dissemination of the pandemic serotypes detected in China was generated. The pandemic serotypes in nine coastal provinces and two inland provinces (Beijing and Sichuan) were highly abundant and variable, with 27 clinical and four environmental pandemic serotypes identified. O3: K6 (in 11 provinces) was the most widely disseminated serotype of clinical isolates, followed by O4: K68 (in eight provinces), O1: KUT (in five provinces), O1: K25 (in four provinces), and O1: K36 (in four). They identified the four environmental serotypes in Shanghai (O1: KUT, O3: K6), Jiangsu (O3: K6, O4: K48), Zhejiang (O3: K6), and Guangdong (O4: K9).

    Discussion: The pandemic V. parahaemolyticus infection has attracted much attention from scientists as an emerging public health concern. This study gave an overview of the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic isolates in both clinical and environmental samples collected from multiple Chinese studies. We have demonstrated a high serotypic and genetic diversity of these pandemic isolates. The pandemic isolates of O3: K6 (persistent from 2002 to 2012 for 11 years) spread through 11 provinces indicates that the pandemic clone has been endemically established in China. Continued monitoring of patterns of antibiotic resistance in pandemic isolates is urgently required to prevent excessive antibiotic misuse, though most of the isolates tested in this study showed only high ampicillin resistance.

    The isolates analyzed in this study have been distributed to regions where the temperature differences and other environmental factors are vast. Therefore we suspect that in the transmission process the strains must adapt to different living environments by more frequently altering their biological properties. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this may be to make serological changes. Nevertheless, the specific serotype conversion mechanism is not yet known. Actually, the highest priority is to track the emergence of new serovariants constantly to prevent the pandemic strains from triggering coastal outbreaks and spreading to other countries and regions.

    Another important aspect of this study was investigating the susceptibility of various pandemic isolates to antimicrobials. Our tests showed similar profiles of antibiotic susceptibility in ST3, ST88 and non-pandemic isolates. They concluded that the sampling location or month in which the samples were collected had no significant impact on patterns of resistance to V. parahaemolyticus, since isolates from both environmental and clinical sources shared similar profiles of resistance to antibiotics. Unsurprisingly, the majority of isolates tested in this study showed ampicillin resistance, which is very common in isolates recovered from various sources in V. parahaemolyticus.

    Our findings represent a comprehensive review of the V. parahaemolyticus O3: K6 pandemic and its serovariants by thoroughly evaluating a comprehensive collection of pandemic isolates from multiple Chinese studies. The pandemic clone contains high levels of serotypic and genetic diversity, indicating that the regions involved are becoming important reservoirs for the emergence of new pandemic strains which potentially challenge the clinical management of the infection and its prevention. Thus, we emphasize the need for routine clinical and environmental monitoring to prevent infection and dissemination with pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, including monitoring antimicrobial response even though most of the current antimicrobial agents are effective in routine use. Extended research requires the process in which the isolates undergo seroconversion with pandemic genetic marks.

    Short Communication Pages: 6 - 7

    Microbiology 2018: Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from Alexandria

    Elsayed Aboulmagd, Alaa Abouelftouh and Aisha Torky

    Antibiotic use in Egypt is largely under-regulated leading to the formation of resistant isolates. Carbapenems are last resort agents for treating infections of Acinetobacter baumannii that are resistant to other antibiotic classes. Alarmingly, however, carbapenem-resistant isolates are emerging. This research aimed at characterizing seventy-four carbapenem-unsusceptible A, both phenotypically and molecularly. Baumannii isolates from Egypt to detect the various enzymes responsible for the resistance to carbapenem.
    Carbapenemase development was assessed using a variety of phenotypic methods: modified Hodge test (MHT), carbapenem inactivation (CIM), combined disk test (CDT), CarbAcineto NP test, and boronic acid testing. The polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) was used to test isolates for the existence of certain genes responsible for carbapenem resistance, as well as sequences for insertion.

    Acinetobacter baumannii has become a pathogen which threatens life. It causes nosocomial infections worldwide, including infections of the skin and soft tissue, wound and bloodstream infections, infections of the urinary tract, meningitis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is the most common and fatal infection from A. Bas-nii. These infections are especially dangerous owing to the ability of the pathogen to withstand the action of most antibacterial agents currently available, making A. Baumannii one of the most dangerous organisms in the ESKAPE. The number of community-acquired A, in addition. Infections of baumannii such as bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis have been increasing progressively in the last few decades.

    Resistance to Carbapenem in A. Baumannii strains are caused by loss or alteration of porins or, in some rare cases, by alteration of penicillin binding proteins. The key resistance mechanism, however, is the development of β-lactamase enzymes Four classes of molecular β-lactamase (A, B , C and D) were detected at A. Bas-nii. Just a few K. Pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) type enzymes of class A β-lactamases have an effect on carbapenems compared to those of class B and class D that act effectively on carbapenems. Class B β-lactamases are metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) needed for their catalytic activity by zinc ions.

    Detection of carbapenemases is crucial to determine the extent of the problem and to guide the application of guidelines on antimicrobial stewardship to limit further production of carbapenem-resistant variants between A. They isolate the baumannii. The present study reports the prevalence of certain carbapenemases among CR-AB isolates from Alexandria, Egypt, in contrast to the various phenotypic and molecular techniques used in an Egyptian environment to detect these enzymes among CR-AB isolates.

    Discussion: A. Baumannii is becoming a big concern due to the awful number of nosocomial infections caused by this pathogen, mainly at ICUs around the world. Moreover, A. Due to the excessive use of antibiotics, baumannii has become resistant to many groups of antimicrobials, contributing to the predominance of multidrug-resistant strains, especially in hospitals. What's more, A resistance to carbapenem. Baumannii isolates limits the clinical treatment choices for these infections that may lead to higher morbidity and mortality rates. A few earlier studies have commented on the prevalence of Egyptian A carbapenemases. Clinical isolates of the baumannii.

    This research aimed to classify 74 Egyptian A, both phenotypically and molecularly. Baumannii isolates the various enzymes which are responsible for carbapenem resistance. Several phenotypic methods have been used including the testing of MHT, CIM, CDT, CarbAcineto NP and boronic acid discs. Phenotypic carbapenemase detection has the advantages of low cost, simplicity of operation and lack of complicated or costly equipment; however, it suffers from poor specificities and sensitivity. As a result, PCR screening was taken as the gold standard for some genes responsible for carbapenem resistance, as well as some insertion sequences to determine the sensitivity of the various phenotypic methods.

    Comparing the results of the phenotypic tests with the results of carbapenemase molecular detection, the sensitivity of MHT, CIM, CDT, CarbAcineto NP, imipenem and meropenem boronic acid was 78.4, 68.9, 79.7, 95.9, 56.8 and 70.3 per cent respectively. Four isolates carrying blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaVIM in the CarbAcineto NP test including isolate no. A81 which additionally carried blaOXA-58 developed the positive outcome in less than 15 min which could be attributed to the enzyme activity in these isolates. The false negative result observed with A2 carrying blaVIM, blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 could be explained by low concentration of zinc in the culture medium, or by very low activity of carbapenemase in the tested isolate. These findings are consistent with the previously reported high sensitivity of CarbAcineto NP in carbapenemase detection among Acinetobacter spp. Although only 21 isolates had positive allover tests, all nine isolates shown to be carrying NDM by PCR were also positively tested in MHT, CIM and CarbAcineto NP. sensitive to detect MBL 100%. On the other hand, in one isolate, CDT failed to detect NDM: A85 and boronic acid disc test with imipenem and meropenem failed to detect NDM in 2 isolates , respectively: A59 and A81 and A40 and A81. It is noteworthy that A81 was the only isolate shown to carry blaOXA-58.The insertion sequences may increase the production of β-lactamases when present upstream to CHDL encoding genes. The prevalence of ISAba1, ISAba2 and ISAba3, respectively, was 100, 2.7 and 4.1 percent in the current report. The occurrence of various sequences of insertion at A. Clinical isolates of Baumannii from Saudi Arabia were in agreement     with the findings of the current study.

    Conclusions: With the exception of CarbAcineto NP which showed superior sensitivity approaching PCR findings, a combination of phenotypic tests, including MHT, CIM, CDT and boronic acid disk tests, seems to be necessary for the definitive detection of carbapenemases. NDM prevalence levels detected here are lower than previously reported from other parts of the country, suggesting the need for greater screening of different Egyptian governorates to determine the precise prevalence rate. Yet the prevalence levels of OXA-23 and VIM remain equally high.

    Short Communication Pages: 8 - 9

    Microbiology 2018: Serological, bacteriological, and molecular investigation of brucellosis in bovine in four Egyptian governorates

    Nour H. Abdel-Hamid, Waleed S. Shell and Manal H. M. Khafagi

    For testing purposes 347 documented positive and negative serum samples were collected from large ruminants with a history of Brucella melitensis infection. The buffer acidified plate agglutination test (BAPA) achieved highest relative sensitivity. In the case of BAPA, Rose Bengal Plate (RBPT), indirect ELISA (iELISA) and rivanol (Riv. T) tests, the kappa (π) agreement assessed for both species indicated a substantial agreement (p possibly 0.05). The diagnostic performance of serological tests in cattle was arranged in descending order as follows, according to the data obtained from the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs), the area under the ROCs and the diagnostic odd ratio; BAPAT, Riv. T, RBPT, iELISA, EDTA-modified micro-agglutination test (EDTA-mMAT), and MAT. In buffaloes the equivalent picture was, Riv. T, RBPT, BAPAT, iELISA, EDTA-mMAT and MAT. Eleven Brucella field isolates have been recovered while four cattle areolates have been recognized as Brucella abortus biovar 1 and seven as Brucella melitensis biovar 3 from cattle and buffalo Usage of phenotypic sorting and molecular speciation of bacteria (Bruce-ladder PCR). Due to the improved diagnostic performance offered by EDTA-mMAT over MAT under investigation, the authors recommended switching from locally adopted MAT version to EDTA-mMAT, and to a limited extent, Riv. T could be used to validate established reactors via screening tests. Since Brucella melitensis is frequently isolated from the liver of slaughtered seropositive ruminants, The Ministerial Decree No 1329 of 1999 needs to be amended to include an explicit clause on liver condemnation, as it poses public health hazards.

    Introduction: Brucellosis is the common name used by many species of the genus Brucella to cause animal and human infections (OIE, 2016). Brucellae displays a broad variety of preferences for the host. There are currently twelve species of Brucella, including three recorded in Egypt, viz. B. Aborto, B. Melitensis, and with B. Am I. B. In both the pathological and epidemiological perspectives, melitensis infection of small ruminants is fairly close to B. Infection of cattle with abort. The key signs of brucellosis in ruminants are reproductive disorders in the form of abortion or birth of non-surviving poor offsprings, low milk yield (reduction of 20-25 per cent), orchitis, epididymitis, and less common arthritis. B. Melitensis does not cause storms of abortion in pregnant livestock. In addition, brucellosis is known for its latent infection that hinders any programs of control. The diagnostic method providing conclusive evidence of brucellosis is the isolation and typing from the suspected animal of Brucella microorganisms. This method, however, has an inadequate sensitivity and also has a difficulty in applying control strategies on a wide scale (Gall and Nielsen, 2004). The most effective methods of diagnosis are still the identification of different immunoglobulins to Brucella in serum or milk samples. Usually screening all samples using an inexpensive and rapid test that is sensitive enough to detect a high proportion of infected animals is the most proficient and cost-effective approach. For the final diagnosis to be made, reactors to screening tests are then checked using normal, reliable and precise tests (Corbel, 2006). Serological findings must be measured against the circumstantial occurrence of disease, the degree of false positive serum reactions resulting from cross reactions with associated Gram-negative bacteria, or vaccination (Gall and Nielsen, 2004; Corbel, 2006). Brucella and sp. Buffalo infection has a course nearly similar to that of cattle and the same serological procedures adopted for cattle may be used for these animals, but each test should be validated for fitness (OIE, 2016). In this view, the current work was planned to detect the predominant species and biovars of Brucella isolates by traditional bacteriology and Bruce-Ladder PCR, which recovered from various large ruminant tissue samples, as well as to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of some serological tests used to diagnose large brucellosis of ruminant.

    Comprehensive Serological, Bacteriological, And Molecular Overview of Brucellosis In Cattle And Buffaloes In Some Governorates Page negative or vaccinated bacteria (Gall and Nielsen, 2004; Corbel, 2006) Brucella and sp. Buffalo infection has a course nearly similar to that of cattle and the same serological procedures adopted for cattle may be used for these animals, but each test should be validated for fitness (OIE, 2016). In this view, the current work was planned to detect the predominant species and biovars of Brucella isolates by traditional bacteriology and Bruce-Ladder PCR, which recovered from various large ruminant tissue samples, as well as to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of some serological tests used to diagnose large brucellosis of ruminant.

    Results: Validation is a process that determines the fitness of an assay for a planned purpose which has been properly established, optimized and standardized (OIE, 2013). All diagnostic immunoassays, either in the laboratory or in the field, should be checked for the species in which they are to be used or should provide diagnostic performance estimates for each test (OIE, 2013). Typically, bacteriological isolation cannot establish the sensitivity of a test as false negative culture results can occur for several reasons, including the absence of the micro-organism in the cultured tissues or insufficient numbers of the micro-organisms present to grow on different media. (Nielsen & Gall, 2004). In addition, inadequate tissue storage, failure to choose a suitable tissue variety or insufficient tissue material, and collection of samples from uninfected tissues.

    Volume 7, Issue 1 (2021)

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Agro-allied chemicals, environmental xenobiotics and insecticides resistance in Anopheles gambiae in NigeriaEric Sampane-Donkor- Habibu U Abdu- Abertay University

      Habibu U Abdu, Yusuf Y Deeni, Andrew J Spiers, Hapca S and Mukhtar M Dauda

      Mosquito breeding sites were grouped into two different study zones (A and B) on the basis of human related activities taking place in and around the breeding sites. An. gambiae larvae collected from ecologically contrasting breeding sites were reared to adults in the laboratory. Adults from the F1 progeny were assayed for resistance against 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.1% bendiocarb using the WHO adult insecticide susceptibility bioassay protocol. During mosquito sampling a survey was carried out in each site with the aim of documenting the most widely used insecticide. The levels of the physicochemical environmental factors were measured from the anopheline breeding sites. Results shows that pyrethroids (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin) and organophosphates (dichlovos, dimethoate and chloropyrifos) were most commonly used for crop protection in the agricultural sites, organochlorine (endosulfan and fipronil) and carbamates (carbofuran and carbaryl) were also used to a lesser extent. On the other hand, interview in the residential sites revealed indoor residual sprays (IRS), piya piya sprays (piya piya sprays are formulations  produced locally as insecticeds sprays and without government approval) and coils containing pyrethroid insecticides with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin as common active ingredients were mainly used for personal protection. The results of measurement of physicochemical parameters showed little variation in the levels of the physical environmental factors (pH and temperature) across the sampling sites in the two zones studied. However, the levels of nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates and carbon content were higher in sites located in zone A than those in zone B. Overall, zone A is significantly different from zone B (p=0.000). There was evidence of high insecticides resistance among the mosquitoes tested from all the sampling sites. However, mosquitoes from agricultural sites (zone A) recorded higher insecticide resistance when compared to those from residential sites (zone B). These high levels of resistance are probably related to extensive pesticide usage in the zone. This is further supported by higher levels of the environmental chemicals recorded in zone A compared to zone B. These observations could have a significant impact on the environmental management and insecticide based approach to malaria vector control in Nigeria.

      Observed in distinct lines revealing diverse Sa2int phages. The genomics data at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital revealed multiple transmission events involving S. Auroreus ST15 involves contamination of various surfaces in the emergency pediatric ward where the outbreak occurred.

      Conclusion: Dissemination pattern of the ST15 clone in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital emergency ward illustrates a fundamental issue with the hospital's disinfection of environmental surfaces. Various phage populations rather than a single highly transmissible type of phage is likely to mediate the high prevalence of pvl genes among the genes S. aureus isolates.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Increased rifampicin mono-resistance prevalence in Zimbabwe − Is the higher prevalence of codon 523 to 529 mutation in the rpoB gene an attributing factor?- Charambira K- International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

      Charambira K, Mutunzi H, Zishiri C, Sandy C and Ncube R

      Background: Zimbabwe conducted a second anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey (TB-DRS) in 2015/16 using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. This assay uses molecular beacons in five overlapping regions of the rpoB DNA region. The probes detect mutations in the codons 507 to 511 (Probe A), 511 to 518 (Probe B), 518 to 523 (Probe C), 523 to 529 (Probe D), and 529 to 533 (Probe E). We report the frequencies of mutations in rpoB gene of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among the TB-DRS samples with rifampicin resistance tuberculosis (RR-TB) detected.

      Method: A retrospective review of data collected through the TB-DRS and using the GxAlert platform to check the actual probe details for those tests from samples that had RR-TB strains. Sputum smear positive samples had an Xpert MTB/RIF assay done followed by phenotypic culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in those that had RR-TB detected.

      Results: A total of 60 specimens had RR-TB detected on Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Of these, 50 (83.3%) had Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth on culture with 48 (96.0%) confirmed RR-TB on phenotypic DST. Among those confirmed RR-TB on phenotypic DST, 23 (47.9%) had rifampicin mono-resistance (RMR) detected and 25 had additional isoniazid resistance (MDR-TB). Probe E mutations occurred in 46% (23/50), probe D 34% (17/50), probe B 10% (5/50), probe A 2% (1/50) and probe C 2% (1/50) of the specimens. Among the RMR, probe D mutation occurred in 54.5% (12/22), probe E 36.4% (8/22), probe A 4.5% (1/22) and probe B 4.5% (1/22).

      Conclusion: There is increase in the RMR prevalence from zero percent to 48% between the 1994/5 and 2015/6 TB-DRS. Rifampicin (RMP) seems to be associated with mutations in codons 523 to 529 of the rpoB gene of MTB DNA. GxAlert makes it possible to conduct such surveillance remotely and there is need for further studies to cement this.

      The S- The aureus isolates belonged to different types of sequences (STs) with the most common ST15 and ST152. All isolates carried the blaZ gene, and also observed low prevalence of tetK and dfrG genes. All the isolates were negative about mecA. The genes of the pvl were common and observed in distinct lines revealing diverse Sa2int phages. The genomics data at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital revealed multiple transmission events involving S. Auroreus ST15 involves contamination of various surfaces in the emergency pediatric ward where the outbreak occurred.

      Conclusion: Dissemination pattern of the ST15 clone in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital emergency ward illustrates a fundamental issue with the hospital's disinfection of environmental surfaces. Various phage populations rather than a single highly transmissible type of phage is likely to mediate the high prevalence of pvl genes among the genes S. aureusisolates.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Specificity and performance evaluation of a novel RNA-FISH probe for the identification of Rhodotorula sp., in cultural heritage materials- P Branco- Εvora University

      P Branco, S Arantes, A Candeias, A T Caldeira and M González-Pérez

      Bio deterioration of cultural heritage (CH) materials (e.g., paper, marble, lime, mortar, parchment, metal, glass) was neglected for a long time since it was previously believed that it was only due to chemical and physical processes. However, over the last decades, it has been proven that the action of microorganisms is a critical factor in the deterioration process. Biodeteriogenic microorganisms cause serious aesthetical and structural damages in CH materials of inestimable value. Some of them can synthesize carotenoid compounds causing pink staining such as Rhodotorula sp., this yeast has been associated with the deteriorative effects observed in the Évora Cathedral, Portugal. To distinguish Rhodotorula sp., from other microorganisms that produce the same type of alterations on CH materials, proper identification methods must be applied. RNA-fluorescence and in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) has the potential to specifically identify the target microorganism of interest in complex microbial communities (it is based on hybridization of fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotide probes targeting to specific regions of the ribosomal RNA). Thus, the aim of this study was to design a novel genus specific RNA-FISH probe against Rhodotorula sp., and to evaluate its specificity and performance both in silico and experimentally. This will contribute for facilitating Rhodotorula sp., identification in degraded CH materials by RNA-FISH. A novel probe for Rhodotorula sp., (L-S-Rh160-a-A-19-ATTO 647N, Rh160-ATTO 647N) was designed using decipher program. Its specificity was analysed in silico by nucleotide BLAST and its performance in terms of characteristics of the probe e.g., GC content and temperature of hairpin structures by oligonucleotide properties calculator oligocalc and hybridization efficiency by math FISH program. The experimental performance and specificity were evaluated by constructing the fluorescence-signal-response / formamide concentration curve for the target and non-target yeast (Cryptococcus adeliensis) and by testing the probe against several other non-target CH biodeteriogenic microorganisms. To do this, a previously described RNA-FISH procedure was applied and the results were analysed by flow cytometry (FC) and by epifluorescence microscopy (EM). In silico analyses of Rh160-ATTO 647N indicated that this probe has a high coverage and specificity for the target genus (796 matches of the target organism in 1000 sequences and only one match for organisms from the same ecosystem of the target organism, Cryptococcus sp.,); fulfills the criteria for being an RNA-FISH probe e.g., 52.60% of GC content and temperature of hairpin structures below hybridization temperature and shows a high maximal theoretical hybridization efficiency with Rhodotorula sp., (99.92% with 0% of formamide). The experimental results were in agreement with these in silico analyses revealing that Rh160-ATTO 647 N probe has a high specificity and performance without formamide. Maximal strong and intense fluorescence signals were detected by FC for the target and absence of signal for all the non-target microorganisms tested. Therefore, this study contributes to an easy and fast identification of Rhodotorula sp., yeast involved in the CH bio deterioration process by RNA-FISH. This will be advantageous for CH safeguard.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Correlation between transforming growth factor beta with habitual abortion in women infected with cytomegalovirus- Thamer Mutlag Jasim- Al Mustansiriya University

      Thamer Mutlag Jasim, Qasim Mohammad Banja, Mohammad Al K-Araji and Qays Al-Khafaji

      Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is the most frustrating and challenging field in reproductive medicine because the aetiology is often unknown and there are few evidence based diagnoses and treatment. The cytomegalovirus (CMV) has a ubiquitous DNA herpes virus, as with other herpes viruses, it becomes latent after primary infection but can reactivate with renewed viral shedding. The aim of the present study is to estimate the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) to CMV immunoglobulin. The study was done in Kamal Al- Smarrai hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, from the period of October 2016 to February 2017. This study was performed on 88 pregnant women attended, 24 with unsuccessful abortion (two or more abortion) and 27 had single abortion and compared with 37 women with normal pregnancy were control, no recurrent abortion). Serum levels of TGF, IgG, IgM and IgG avidity for anti - CMV virus were measured in the serum. They used ELISA reader and electrochemiluminescence for CMV IgG avidity. There were no significant differences between the studied groups in their age, family history of abortion. Serum anti- CMV IgG was significantly higher in RPL and single abortion group compared to IgG TGFB1 in the studied groups. There was no significant difference in the median of IgG and IgM among different groups. There was no significant difference among different groups in their IgG avidity. There is inverse weak correlation between IgM and anti CMV IgG with TGF B1 in control group. There was no correlation between IgG IgM and IgG avidity with TGF B in recurrent abortion group. The current study showed a high proportion of pregnant women with past CMV infection. The RPL, anti-CMV IgM and TGFB were correlated directly with RPL patient compared with healthy control.

      Recent Publications

      1. Kolte A M, Van Oppenraaji R H Quenby S, et al. (2014) Non-visualized pregnancy losses are prognostically important for unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Human Reproduction 29(5):931-7.
      2. Lucas E S, Dyer N P, Murakami K et al., (2016) Loss of endometrial plasticity in recurrent pregnancy loss. Stem cells 34(2):346-56.
      3. Swanson Elizabeth C and Mark R Schless (2013) Congenital cytomegalovirus infection new prospect for prevention and therapy. Pediatric Clinics of North America 60(2):335-349.
      4. Hyde T B, Schmid D S and Cannon M J (2010) Cytomegalovirus sero conversion rates and risk factors: Implication rates and risk factors: implications for congenital CMV. Reviews in Medical Virology 20:311-26.
      5. Leuez-Ville M, Sellier Y, Salomon L J, et al., (2013) Prediction of fetal infection in cases with cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M in the first trimester of pregnancy: a retrospective cohort. Clinical Infectious Diseases 56:1428.
      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Brucella canis GroEL recombinant protein as a diagnostic antigen for canine brucellosis- Nancy Belem Beltrán Maldonado- Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, UNAM

      Nancy Belem Beltrán Maldonado, Rigoberto Hernández Castro, Erika Margarita Carrillo Casas, Alejandro Benítez Guzmán and Beatriz Arellano Reynoso

      Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis. Infection often results in abortion, orchitis, epididymitis, and discospondylitis. The 2-mercaptoethanol rapid slide agglutination test (2ME-RSAT) is currently the gold standard diagnostic tool for B. canis. Although it has been a widely used test, it detects IgG and IgM antibodies and has low sensitivity and specificity. The antigen used in this diagnostic test commonly cross-reacts with other pathogens like Escherichia coli O157: H7, Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella N group y Pseudomonas maltophilia, and its production require a level III biosafety laboratory. As a limiting factor, this test is not commercially available in our country. For this reason, it is necessary to seek additional antigen candidates for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis with a methodology of easy access for use in the veterinary clinic. Our group has demonstrated high levels of the GroEL protein in the serum of animals experimentally infected with B. canis, suggesting its role as a candidate protein for detection in diagnostic tests. For recombinant protein preparation, specific primers were designed to amplify the GroEL gene and later cloning into the pQE60 plasmid. Further protein expression requires the E. coli M15 strain that harbors the plasmid pREP4 (lacIq repressor protein). Protein semiquantification by Western Blot will compare recombinant GroEL with native protein. Purification by FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) and assessment as the capture antigen by indirect ELISA will be performed with serum from experimentally infected dogs.

      Recent Publication

      1. Purvis T J, Krouse D, Miller D, Livengood J, Thirumalapura N R and Tewari D (2017) Detection of Brucella canis infection in dogs by blood culture and bacterial identification using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29(4):586-588.
      2. Gomez G, Adams L G, Rice Ficht A and Ficht T A (2013) Host-Brucella interactions and the Brucella genome as tools for subunit antigen discovery and immunization against brucellosis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 3:17.
      3. Hollett R B (2006) Canine brucellosis: outbreaks and compliance. Theriogenology 66(3):575-587.
      4. Lucero N E, Escobar G I, Ayala S M and Jacob N (2005) Diagnosis of human brucellosis caused by Brucella canis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 54(5):457-461.

      Volume 7, Issue 5 (2021)

        Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

        Food Spoilage by Microbial Growth

        Ian Salvatore*

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        Perspective Pages: 1 - 1

        Microorganisms and Food Preservation

        Surya Kumar*

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        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Food Preservation Techniques by Irradiation

        Thomas Sampso*

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        Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Octopus vulgaris Fishing Industry Staff Hands and Equipment Surfaces Microbiological Contamination Study

        Thiam Abdoulaye*, Abdelhak Kherbeche, Rabia Bouslamti, Mohammed Benjelloun, Karim Tanji and Ahmed Abeid

        The contamination in the industries of treatment and transformation of halieutic products in particular the common octopus leads to an awareness of their impact on the quality of common octopus. Cleaning and disinfection are fundamental methods in the industry of treatment and conditioning of common octopus because they allow limiting contamination of products. The method of swabbing allowed realizing samples of surfaces of 25 cm2 (5 cm of length and 5 cm of width) which are determined with a sterile and wet swab, bearing on 54 samples and 18 smears on the three studied technological stages: Reception, Plating, and Threshing. The rates obtained of the total aerobic mesophilic flora on the technological surfaces studied upstream is 0.175 colony-forming units per square centimeter which represents 97.9% and fecal coliforms are present in the order of 71%. These results show that the degree of efficiency is not satisfactory, the high rate of contamination by total aerobic mesophilic flora and fecal coliforms are due to the inefficiency of the cleaning and disinfection protocols used. On the other hand, the results obtained by the Total Aerobic Mesophilic Flora and fecal coliforms downstream which are respectively 2.3.104 colony- forming units per square centimeter representing 38.6% and 3.9.104 colony-forming units per square centimeter which represents 0.08%, these results reveal that the degree of effectiveness is satisfactory because the values are lower than the standards established by the committee of microbial contamination of surfaces of the laboratory section “committee of microbial contamination of surfaces of the laboratory ”.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Microbial Biodeterioration of Food

        Abubaar Shori*

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        Volume 7, Issue 4 (2021)

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Host Invasion of Foodborne Pathogens

          Kumar, Surya*

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          Perspective Pages: 1 - 1

          Microbial Food Quality and Safety

          Ian Salvatore*

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          Review Article Pages: 1 - 15

          The Gut affects Pathophysiology and Management of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: The Recent Messages from Intestine and Gastrointestinal Microbiota

          Hiroshi Fukui*

          DOI: 10.37421/2572-4134.2021.7.229

          The number of diabetic patients rapidly increased in the world constituting a serious health problem. Daily life alterations such as high-fat high-sugar diet and insufficient physical exercise augment diabetes risk. Long-lasting low-grade inflammatory reactions in obese patients with metabolic syndrome are considered as an important role in the occurrence and advance in the stage of type 2 diabetes. Emerging clinical and experimental evidence reveals that gut dysbiosis, intestinal barrier disturbance and following metabolic endotoxemia are firmly related to the low-grade inflammatory, insulin resistance and resultant cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Gut microbiome transmitted from mother to child at birth is deeply affected by dietary habits in life thereafter. In the feces of type 2 diabetics, relatively frequent abundance in endotoxin producing gram-negative bacteria and lower abundance in butyrate-producing bacteria were noted. Butyrate as an important energy source and a protector of intestinal barrier, its defect is considered to enhance intestinal hyperpermeability and metabolic endotoxemia. Inflammation in the adipose tissue induces detrimental effects on other organs and tissues through secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 in immune cells such as macrophages evokes inflammation and insulin resistance, finally leading to an impairment of insulin signal and β-cell failure. Inflammatory changes in the arterial vessels and liver lead to two life-threatening conditions, ischemic heart disease and liver cirrhosis, respectively. Careful management strategies to improve gut dysbiosis may stimulate effective drug treatment and lower the morbidity and mortality of patients who suffers from type 2 diabetes. A kind of biguanide metformin is considered as an anti-inflammatory influence in addition to its glucoregulatory effect. Two newly developed diabetic drugs, Dipeptydil-Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may in combination with reasonable dietary therapy have some undetermined effect on inflammatory changes. This systemic review summarizes the bulk of latest information published until 2021 on the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes, especially related to gut microbial alterations. This manuscript in addition to my previous review includes up-to-date information in diabetes mellitus type 2.

          Volume 6, Issue 1 (2020)

            Awards 2021 Pages: 1 - 2

            2020 Awards of Global Summit on Food Microbiology and Nutrition December 01-02, 2020 Kyoto, Japan

            Yamini Tiwari

            The organising committee members of “Global Summit on Food Microbiology and Nutrition” have finally revealed the theme for this year’s “Food Microbiology Congress 2020” conference and it is going to be, Advancement in Food Microbiology and Nutrition. Conference Series  and the organising committee of Food Microbiology Congress 2020  acknowledges the efforts and contribution of scholars, researchers, academicians, and scientists in the field of Agri,Food & Aqua has decided to introduce various achievement awards for all the participants. Food Microbiology Congress 2020 conference will offer various awards to outstanding researchers, scientists, exceptional graduates or early academicians who have a notable contribution to the field and possess keen interest towards the conference theme. The awards strive in providing a strong professional development opportunity for all researchers at different levels of their careers. Moreover our conferences will provide a much needed time and space for all to interact with colleagues from different parts of the world   and to create long lasting networks and relations.

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