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Journal of Immunobiology

ISSN: 2476-1966

Open Access

Volume 2, Issue 3 (2017)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

In ovo and Dietary Supplementation of Probiotics Affects Post-Hatch Expression of Immune-Related Genes in Broiler Chicks

Chasity M Pender, Sungwon Kim, Lindsay H Sumners, Miranda M Ritzi, Mark Young and Rami A Dalloul

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000126

During the first week post-hatch, the neonatal chick is immunologically vulnerable and subject to infectious threats found in the environment. Probiotics are live, non-pathogenic microorganisms known to have a positive effect on the host by improving the natural balance of gut microbiota and promoting animal health. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administering probiotics in ovo and in the diet on broiler chick hatchability, and post-hatch immune organ weights and ileal immune-related gene expression. At embryonic day 18, 1584 eggs were injected with nothing (Dry), 1 × 106, or 1 × 107 (P1 and P2 respectively) probiotic bacteria. The remaining 393 eggs were left non-injected to serve as a negative control. Immune organ weights and tissue samples were taken on DOH and d4, 6, 8, 14, and 20. No differences were observed for hatchability or relative bursa weights. Only on d6, the P2 birds receiving the probiotic-supplemented diet had larger spleens as a result of a 2-way interaction between in ovo treatment and post-hatch diet. Both in ovo and dietary administration of probiotics were able to modulate the expression of the immune-related genes in the ileum; however, expression patterns differed based on the gene, treatment, and time point evaluated. In conclusion, these results indicate that in ovo supplementation of this commercial probiotic product does not influence hatchability and is capable of differentially modulating expression of certain genes in the ileum. Furthermore, in ovo administration of probiotics has an effect similar to that of dietary supplementation endorsing its usage to potentially promote early colonization of beneficial bacteria to stimulate intestinal and immune system development.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

Seroprevalance of Human Parvovirus B19 among Blood Donor Volunteers from Sudanese Blood Bank in Khartoum State 2017

Amasi Hassan Omer, Ayat Jamal Al-deen Adam, Fatima Ali Mohamed, Fatima Hashim Hamed, Haram Hussain Edr, Marwa Ahmed Al-sedig, Romisa Hashim Ahmed, Yoonis Ismail Mohammed and Omnia Mohammed Hamid

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000127

Background: Human parvovirus B19 is in emerging transfusion transmitted infection, although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complication in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of human parvovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody among blood donors attending the central blood bank (STAC) ,Khartoum State, Sudan, and to determine some possible risk factors.

Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 sera samples collected from the participants were screened for human parvovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody using quantitative indirect ELISA technique.

Result: Human parvovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 114/180 (63.3%). No statistical significance was determined regarding the variables tested in this study and the results of human parvovirus B19- specific-IgG antibody detection.

Conclusion: Blood donors might be a source of infection with this virus. These findings form a solid base for further studies on confirming the presence of human parvovirus B19 in donor sera. It should be considered by the ministry of health and blood banks to develop new policies for blood screening.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

Development and Clinical Application of Liquidchip Luminex Assay in the Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-Ras Mutation

Yan Zhou, Yangyang Xu, Xiaoqian Wang, Xiaohui Liang and Jiatao Lou

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000128

Purpose: The success of molecular targeted cancer therapy relies on the accurate detection of the mutated gene. We attempted to develop a rapid, accurate, high sensitive and specific liquidchip luminex method for the detection of EGFR and K-ras mutation, both of which are important biomarkers for the personalized treatment of advanced lung cancer patients.

Materials and methods: Using the liquidchip technology, we developed a luminex system by combining PCRLDR (Polymerase Chain Reaction- Ligase Detection Reaction) with luminex platform for the detection of EGFR and K-ras mutation. To verify the clinical application of this liquidchip luminex system, we compared its detection results with those from the gold standard sequencing method through analysis of 100 patients.

Results: The developed luminex system showed high flux, sensitivity and specificity for EGFR and K-ras gene mutation detection. Compared with sequencing for the EGFR and K-ras gene mutation detection, this luminex system showed no obvious difference in the mutation rates among different ages, histological classification and TNM stages. However, for the exon 21 L585R and exon 19 (including the E746-A750 deletion mutant), the luminex method showed even more effective and specificity and demonstrated obvious difference to sequencing (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Our liquidchip luminex system has a wide prospect of clinical application, especially for the detection of EGFR exon 21 L585R and 19 and can be used for early screening and individual therapy of patients with lung cancer.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

The Infectivity of Exo and Endogenous Stages of Eimeria tenella in Broilers

Paul Davou Kaze, Idris Lawal, Ajanusi Joseph, Saidu Lawal, Gloria Karaye, Meriam Petrobas, Biallah Markus and Francis Sa Ayinzat

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000129

Eimeria tenella is the most prevalent and pathogenic Coccidia causing morbidity, mortality and resulting in serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the immune response of broiler chickens to Eimeria tenella developmental stages Four hundred broilers divided into six groups (n=40) were used for the study. Each group was subdivided into two (n=20) as treated and non-treated and infected with different developmental stages (groups I-unsporulated oocysts, II-sporulated oocysts, III-schizonts, IV-merozoites and V-gametocytes respectively) of Eimeria tenella (local isolate), except group VI-control. The molecular identification of the local Eimeria tenella isolate identity was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Clinical signs, gross caecal lesions, humoral and cellular-mediated immune response were determined in the infected broiler chickens with Eimeria tenella developmental stages. The faeces were processed using simple floatation technique and observed at 10x and 40x objectives of the Neiss microscope. Oocysts isolated from the caeca of birds naturally infected in Jos, Nigeria with the local strain were used to obtain the different developmental stages either in vitro or in vivo using bovine monocytes (schizonts), embryonated chicken eggs (gamatocytes) or two weeks old broilers (merozoites). To study the immune response elicited during the primary and secondary infection, each developmental stage was used to infect a group of two, three and half weeks old broilers, twenty of which were treated with the recommended dose of amprolium (250 mg/l (0.025%)) for 5 days at the appearance of clinical signs. At the tertiary infection, all the experimental birds except the control group of forty birds were orally infected with 105 sporulated oocysts of known characterized virulent Eimeria tenella strain. The mean oocysts output or count was 37.07 × 106 in the infected birds  non-treated than 25.65 × 106 in the treated groups, although there was a gradual reduction (groups II–8.36 × 106–7.84 × 106–5.10 × 106;  III-6.58 × 106–4.83 × 106;  IV–7.18 × 106–7.00 × 106–3.83 × 106; V–6.59 × 106–5.87 × 106–4.20 × 106) in oocyst count from primary-secondary-tertiary infections except group I (control). There was a significant difference in oocyst output between the groups (II and IV) (p<0.05).

Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

The Cause of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Hypothesis

Ian M Rogers

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000130

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rapidly fatal condition of unknown cause. The alveolar membrane becomes thickened with collagen and inflammatory and immune cells, which accumulate in the sub-alveolar tissues. The reduction in the ability of oxygen to diffuse across the membrane leads inevitably to progressive anoxia. There is no satisfactory treatment.

It is proposed that the histological changes observed in the alveolar membrane are due to an immunological reaction to foreign antigens delivered to the alveoli in the form of an aerosol. It is further proposed that repeated exposure to the same foreign antigen leads to an intense immunological reaction. It is argued that expired antigens from the patient’s partner may be the source of the antigens.

Further investigations of this hypothesis are likely to involve Polymer chain reaction (PCR) of the expressed breath condensate (EBC) of the relevant partner.

What is the key question?

Is there evidence that repetitive exposure of the alveolar epithelium to the same antigen would be consistent with the pathogenesis?

What is the bottom line?

Expressed breath condensate (EBC) of the partner should be investigated as the suspected antigen for the immunological reaction of the alveolar membrane in IPF.

Why read on?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis quickly kills; it is incurable and progressive and the cause is presently unknown. This hypothesis is consistent with the known pathology and lends itself to further analysis.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

Acute Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Oxidative Stress and Hematological Parameters in Critical Patients

Luana Carneiro Ribeiro, Thamara C N Amaral, Adriano Flourencio Vilaça, Marthley José Correia Costa, Ubiracé Fernando Elihimas Júnior, Marco Aurélio Valois Correia Júnior, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro, Maria do Amparo Andrade and Eduardo Eriko Tenório de França

DOI: 10.4172/2476-1966.1000131

Aims: To analyze oxidative cellular stress and monitor the evolution of hematological parameters before and after of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in critically ill patients.

Methods: A controlled and randomized clinical trial, composed of a sample of 19 patients, admitted to the Agamenon Magalhães Hospital intensive care unit. The patients were divided into two groups: NMES group (n=9), patients that underwent only one NMES in the quadriceps muscle for 20 min, and the other, control group (n=10) that did undergo any therapeutic intervention.

Results: In relation to the demographic and clinical variables, the groups were homogeneous at the beginning of the study. For the nitric oxide (NO) analysis, we perceived a reduction, when comparing the before and after analyses, in NO in the stimulated cell (p=0.0188) and non-stimulated cell (p=0.0258) in the NMES group. Also in relation to NO, when comparing the two groups, we observed a significant reduction in the NMES group compared to the control one. For the hematological parameters we did not observe any difference when comparing before and after in the two groups studied.

Conclusion: We can conclude that the use of NMES causes a reduction in cellular NO levels, showing the beneficial effects in reducing oxidative stress. With relation to complete blood count, we observed that its application was not able to causes any alterations.

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