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Journal of Immunobiology

ISSN: 2476-1966

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 6, Issue 4 (2021)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Susceptible Role of Saccharin Mixture in Induction of Inflammation Through Action on Interleukin-10 and its Receptor

    Azza El Amir*, Wajeet Nabil, Marwa M. Eldaly and Mohamed Hosney

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    Sodium cyclamate and saccharin mixture is a common artificial sweetener used as a food additive and it was found to be accompanied with increase relevance of inflammation including IBD. The causes of IBD are unknown, but many immune, genetic and environmental factors play a role as causative agents of that disease. The consumption of artificial sweeteners was related to the appearance of inflammation including IBD. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium cyclamate and saccharin mixture as artificial sweeteners on immune system in albino mice through assessment of IL-10 cytokine and its receptor. Fifty male albino mice grouped into control group (n=20) receive only tap water and treated groups (n=30) received 60 mg/kg body weight sodium cyclamate and saccharin mixture in tab water for 12 weeks. Mice were sacrificed twice at the 6th and the 12th weeks. Collected blood measured low concentration of IL-10 cytokine by the sandwich ELISA.  While, expression levels of IL-10R1 & IL-10R2 were assessed in colorectal tissue samples using Real time PCR. The results demonstrate significantly overexpression of IL-10R1 & IL-10R2 at 6th week than 12th week treated mice was recorded. Also, more congestion of RBCs, focal aggregation, focal necrosis, and focal infiltrations between glands in the lamina propria at 12th week treated group than 6th week treated group were observed. In conclusion, sodium cyclamate and saccharin mixture induced inflammation that may be risk for IBD by alteration in gene expressions of IL-10R1 & IL-10R2 in male albino mice.

    Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

    The Broad Biological Significance of Eicosanoids in Invertebrates

    David Stanley and Yonggyun Kim*

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    We present a brief sketch of the discovery of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids in human and veterinary biomedicine, and then comment on their significance in invertebrates, all reviewed in detail elsewhere. Here we bring out a few points. One, PG biosynthesis in insects follows a mechanism different from mammals. Two, insect systems are amenable to functional studies of specific genes operating in eicosanoid systems via RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9, which has accelerated understanding of genes involved in PG synthesis and in receptor-mediated actions. We suggest research into some model insect systems, particularly Drosophila melanogaster and the moth Spodoptera exigua, may lead to broadly useful insights into PG actions.

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

    Novel and Effective Treatment for Patients with COVID-19 in Stages I to IIIA of the Infection

    Ronald Palacios Castrillo*

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    We report here a novel treatment for patients with Covid-19, stages I to IIIA of infection. The combination of Nitazoxanide, Hydroxicloroquine and Zinc effectively eliminated the SARSCov2 virus after 10 days of treatment in 165 of the 172 patients studied, as determined by RT-PCR and antigen in nasal swabs. This triplet of medicines along with Deflazacort and Ribaroxaban successfully treated patients in stages IIB to IIIA of the infection .The treatment described here is readily available, inexpensive and should prove useful to control dissemination and spread of the virus by symptomatic and asymptomatic persons as well as to decrease the mortality.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    JAK/STAT Pathway in Gastric Cancer and its Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Iqra Jan*

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    Normal functioning of Gastric epithelial cells needs continuous check over multiple signaling pathways. Dysrhythmic behavior of any of the pathways at any of the steps can lead to unleashing of devastating effects. Tracking these abnormal steps can be a way forward for controlling the aggressiveness of these cells. Here in this review we have summed up various studies in order to link different hierarchies of the key pathway leading to gastric cancer.  Out of all, JAK/STAT pathway is considered to be a master regulator for cell signaling.  Abnormal functioning of JAK/STAT pathway at any of the steps ranging from inflammation caused by Helicobacter Pylori to its negative regulator SOCS-1 can bring about the devastating nature of this pathway which ultimately leads Gastric Carcinoma. However in this review we have tried to track different steps of this pathway to find out the possible means of impeding the aggressiveness caused due to any abnormality.

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