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Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

ISSN: 2376-0214

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 7, Issue 1 (2020)

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 4

    Using native biodiversity to restore metal-polluted soil in tropical Africa: A case study in the copper belt of Katanga (DR Congo)

    Pierre Meerts

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    In Katanga (D.R. Congo), a long history of mining activities has contaminated soils with heavy metals over very large areas. This represents a major concern to sustainable development and human health. Ecological restoration of those areas is challenging. The speech will present the results of a cooperation development project with the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences of the University of Lubumbashi, focused on the restoration of soil polluted by the metallurgical industry. The most original ecosystems in Katanga are the so-called "copper hills" i.e. natural outcrops of bedrock enriched in copper and cobalt. The natural vegetation of copper hills is surprisingly rich and diversified. The project developed applied ecological research in copper hills and ex situ i.e. in a botanic garden created for the occasion. A number of “metallophytes” have been screened for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation and for other traits of interest. One species has emerged as a good candidate and has been successfully domesticated in the botanic garden. The first in situ “phytostabilisation” trials have been installed in the area contaminated by atmospheric fallout downwind the copper smelter of Lubumbashi. Establishment, growth and survival have been monitored for 5 years. The results show that Katangan metallophytes exhibit extraordinary ecophysiological properties which are still poorly understood. They represent unique biological resources to ecological restoration of metal-polluted soils in tropical regions. The conservation of those resources must be explicitly considered in ongoing and future mining projects in Katanga.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 11

    Global Warming -2020: Extended Abstract Title: Optimization of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Multiple Feedstocks for Biomethane Recovery

    Anahita Rabii

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste has attracted attention as a promising technology for waste management and biogas recovery. Several parameters need to be considered for the proper operation of this technology including the feedstock selection and their ratios. This research was aimed to investigate the influence of mixing and lipids: proteins: carbohydrates ratios on biomethane production in anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS), manure and source separated organics (SSO). The digestion reactors operated in batch mode under hemophilic condition. The results showed that the maximum methane yield was 356 mL CH4/g CODadded corresponding to TWAS: manure: SSO mixing ratio of 2:4:4 and lipids: proteins: carbohydrate ratio of 1: 3.5: 18.5. In comparison, 134, 299, and 332 mL CH4/g CODadded were obtained by mono digestion of TWAS, manure, and SSO. The trend of the methane yield variations in response to the COD: N and to the lipids: proteins ratios relatively conform to each other excluding some of the ratios. On the contrary, the methane yields demonstrated different responses to the ratios of lipids: carbohydrates and proteins: carbohydrates compared to COD: N ratios. Synergistic effect increased the methane yield by 19% in co-digestion of TWAS/manure/SSO.

    Keywords: Biomethane Potential, Manure, Thickened Waste Activated Sludge, Mixture Ratio

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 8

    Geothermal Prospecting of Olkaria Dome Areas in Naivasha, Nakuru County Kenya using Gravity Method

    Warega JA1

    The survey used Autograv.C.G 5 type Gravimeter over short wavelength by marking stations 310m intervals. The data was processed to remove all other effects independent of the subsurface changes in density. The complete bouguer anomaly was computed and Surfer 11 software has been used to draw contour anomaly map of the study area. Quantitative analysis of the contuor map indicates regions of gravity highs which were analysed as bodies of high density within the earth’s crust. Four profiles were drawn. The gravity anomaly was interpreted by inspection of profiles and separating the residual anomaly from the regional gravity field. 2D Euler deconvolution was done on the data profiles, indicated subsurface bodies and faults at depth between 10m and 50m. A 2D gravity model along the four profiles were generated by the computer application based on algorithm in the Grav. 2dc. The obtained results revealed presence of dense body intrusions with the contrasting density ranging from 0.22g/cm3 to 0.50g/cm3. These bodies were interpreted as intrusive dykes that have higher density than surrounding rocks and probably are conduits of heat from the geothermal reservoir imaged at bottom depth of between 500m – 1000m below the surface. Advance methods of gravity data analysis such as Tensor Euler deconvolution is recommended to be carried out in Olkaria Domes to verify the results since this technique honours responses from many dimensions and deconvolution without gridding. Collection of more gravity data over steep and wild animal habitat areas is also required for deeper probing on longer profiles

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Global Warming -2020 : Global warming: The causes and impacts.

    Charmaine Moyo

    Global warming occurs when incoming ultra violet solar radiation from the sun strikes the earth and is absorbed by the atmosphere, earth’s surface and water bodies. Much of it is then reflected back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation, keeping the earth habitable. For earth’s temperatures to remain stable these two should be in equilibrium. However, they are not, due to the emission of green-house gases by anthropogenic activities, that result in the green-house effect (because a similar process occurs in a green-house, high energy UV radiation penetrates the glass walls of a green-house, but weaker IR cannot pass through the glass, the trapped IR keeps the greenhouse warm even in the coldest winter weather). This has resulted in the increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface and oceans. Long term heating of the earths’ climate system has been observed since the pre-industrial period between 1850 and 1900, the earth’s average global temperature has risen by about 1degree Celsius and is increasing by 0,2 degrees Celsius per decade due to human activities primarily fossil fuel burning and deforestation which increase the concentration of heat trapping green-house gases in the atmosphere. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) affirms that
    of the increase of global temperatures is attributed to anthropogenic activities mainly the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Global warming is caused by both human and naturala ctivities, which include volcanic eruptions andsolar activity.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

    Global Warming -2018 : Extended Abstract Title: The True and False of Climate Change

    M. Ray Thomasson

    First let us state that the authors are avid environmentalists. Every geologist we know loves nature and “The out-of-doors” and wants to protect and preserve our planet. Concern for the environment should not be confused with climate change. The popular media have been expounding on climate change for many years without considering the underlying data that could substantiate their presentation of the issue. The authors present a “CO2 is not the problem” approach to challenging the media about climate change, and look forward to a “CO2 is the problem” response.
    The Scientific Method is used in all scientific endeavors. It takes many shapes and forms, and involves three principal steps: After finding scientific data that suggest a particular outcome, the scientists:
    1. Construct a Hypothesis. The scientists state both the hypothesis and the resulting prediction they will be testing.
    2. Test the Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment. The experiment tests whether the prediction is accurate and thus the hypothesis is supported or not. In the absence of a laboratory experiment, historical observations must be used.
    3. Analyze the Data and Draw a Conclusion. Once the experiment (observed data) is complete, collect measurements and analyze them to see if they support the hypothesis or not. If not, go back and create another hypothesis; if it does, you publish the findings so that others may test the hypothesis (replicate the experiment).
    Point (1) above has been accomplished for climate change. What has been lacking in most of the Global Warming/Climate Change studies are (2) and (3). There is no substitute for objective, historical data. What follows is an attempt to refute newspaper, TV and radio opinions based on models that are badly flawed. We present a point by point discussion of what the DATA can tell us. Any statement not backed up by DATA is an opinion and may be true, false or misleading. Computer models are opinions.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Global Warming -2020 : Extended Abstract Title: Soil Organic Carbon Stock under Different Land Use Types in Kersa Sub Watershed, Eastern Ethiopia

    Yared Mulat Tefera

    Understanding and assessing soil organic carbon stock (SOCS) within the framework of greenhouse gas emissions and land degradation is crucial in combating climate change and enhancing ecological restoration. The goal of this study was to quantify the current SOCS of major land use types in Kersa sub-watershed, eastern Ethiopia. Replicated soil samples from 0–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm depth were collected from three major land use types: grazing, cultivated, and fallow lands. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means and Pearson correlation analysis was used to see relationships between selected soil parameters. The results of the study revealed significant (P≤ 0.05) difference in SOCS under the different land use types. Soil under grazing land use type had significantly higher SOCS (42.9 t/ha and 32.9 t/ha) than the cultivated (32.6 t/ha and 26.3 t/ha) and fallow (23 t/ha and 12.5 t/ha) land use types in the surface and subsurface layers, respectively. Soil organic carbon stock decreased with soil depth in all the land use types and showed positive and significant correlation (P≤ 0.05) with clay content, while it was negatively and significantly correlated with bulk density. The results show the potential contribution of vegetation cover as a land use to enhance soil organic carbon sequestration and environmental protection.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change -2019 : Extended Abstract Title: Effects of ambient temperature on ambulance emergency call-outs in the subtropical city of Shenzhen, China

    Zhi-Ying Zhan

    The associations between meteorological factors and mortality have been well documented worldwide, but limited evidence is available for the non-fatal health impacts of ambient temperature, particularly there are few population-based investigations on the impacts of emergency ambulance dispatches in Asia. In this study, based on 809,906 ambulance emergency call-outs (AECOs) for the total population from 2010–2016 in the subtropical city of Shenzhen, China, a Poisson regression combined with a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to simultaneously assess the nonlinear and lag effects of daily mean temperature on AECOs. Stratified analyses by age and sex were performed to identify vulnerable subpopulations. A U-shaped relationship was found between temperature and AECOs. Cold effects were delayed and persisted for 3–4 weeks, with a cumulative relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.23 (1.10–1.38) and 1.25 (1.16–1.35) over lag 0–28 when comparing the 1st and 5th percentile of the temperature distribution to the optimal (i.e. minimum AECOs) temperature, respectively. Hot effects were immediate and diminished quickly in 5 days, with an increase of 19% (RR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.14–1.23) and 21% (RR =1.21, 95%CI: 1.16–1.26) in AECOs over lag 0–5 when comparing the 95th and 99th percentile of temperature to the optimal temperature. Children and the elderly were more vulnerable to cold effects. The youth and middle-aged people suffered more from high temperature. The effects of temperature were similar between males and females. In summary, significant increases were observed in the frequency of AECOs during cold and hot days, and the weather-associated increases in AECOs are different among age groups. This information has valuable implications in ambulance demand prediction and service provision planning.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Tailored-pharmacophore model to enhance virtual screening and drug discovery: A case study on the identification of potential inhibitors against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3R)-hydroxyacyl- ACP dehydratase

    Kgothatso E Machaba

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    Background: Virtual Screening (VS) is powerful tool in discovering molecular inhibitors which are most likely to bind to drug targets of interest. Herein, we introduce a novel VS approach, so-called ??? tailored-pharmacophore???, in order to explore inhibitors that overcome drug resistance. Results/Methodology: The emergence and spread of drug resistance strains of tuberculosis is one of the most critical issues in health care. A tailored-pharmacophore approach was found promising to identify in silico predicted hit with better binding affinities in case of the resistance mutations in MtbHadAB as compared to thiacetazone, a prodrug used in the clinical treatment of TB. Conclusions: This approach can potentially be enforced for the discovery and design of drugs against a wide range of resistance targets.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

    Biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions by Spirulina platensis biomass

    Ali A.Al-Homaidan

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    In this study, the economically important micro-alga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solutions. The cyanobacterium was exposed to various concentrations of copper and adsorption of copper by the biomass was evaluated under different conditions that included pH, contact time, temperature, concentration of adsorbate and the concentration of dry biomass. Increased adsorption of copper by the non-living biomass was recorded with gradually increasing pH, and a maximal uptake by the biomass was observed at pH 7. The adsorption of copper was found to increase gradually along with decrease in biomass concentration. Biosorption was found to be at a maximum (90.6%), in a solution containing 100 mg copper/L, at pH 7, with 0.050 g dry biomass and at 37 °C with 90 min of contact time. Analysis of the spectrum obtained with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), indicated that the adsorbent has a great potential to remove copper from aqueous media contributing to an eco-friendly technology for efficient bioremediation in the natural environment.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Chemical Characterization of Bio-oils from Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Pyrolysis

    Martin Stas

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    Pyrolysis bio-oils are promising sustainable feedstock that can be utilized as biofuels and for the creation of significant oxygencontaining synthetic substances. An increasingly boundless utilization of bio-oils from a lignocellulosic biomass requires progressively itemized information on their organization. In this work, we arranged bio-oils by means of the pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (for example principle building squares of lignocellulose). For the got bio-oils, we performed investigations of essential physical and synthetic properties and a thorough compound portrayal moreover. The outcomes got for these fundamentally less unpredictable bio-oils can be useful to comprehend the compound sythesis of entire bio-oils in more detail. Ongoing Publications 1. Sta?, M., Kubi?ka, D., Chudoba, J., and Posp?il, M.: Overview of Analytical Methods Used for Chemical Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oils. Vitality and Fuels 2014, 28, 385-402. 2. Sta?, M., Chudoba, J., Kubi?ka, D., and Posp?il, M.: Chemical Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oil: Application of Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Vitality and Fuels 2015, 29, 3233-3240. 3. Sta?, M., Chudoba, J., Auersvald, M., Kubi?ka, D., Conrad, S., Schulzke, T., and Posp?il, M.: Application of orbitrap mass spectrometry for investigation of model bio-oil mixes and quick pyrolysis bio-oils from various biomass sources. Diary of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2017, 124, 230-238. 4. Stas??, M., Chudoba, J., Kubic??ka, D., Blaz??ek, J., and Pospi?s?? il, M.: Petroleomic Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oils: A Review. Vitality and Fuels 2017, 31, 10283-10299. 5. Kochetkova, D., Bla?ek, J., ?im?ek, P., Sta?, M., and Be??o, Z.: Influence of rapeseed oil hydrotreating on hydrogenation movement of CoMo impetus. Fuel Processing Technology 2016, 142, 319-325.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change 2019 : Extended Abstract Title: Local Resilience Practices to Climate Change: A Study on Coping with Flood Vulnerability of a River-Adjacent Community of Bangladesh

    Md. Ashik Sarder

    The geo-physical contexts of different areas of Bangladesh are diverse and distinctive from location to location. Each of the area has distinct characteristics and varied livelihoods pattern. The recent climate change has made different communities of Bangladesh vulnerable to frequent disasters. The impact of climate change has also been visible at river-adjacent communities. So, enhancing community resilience is very important to make the community people capable to cope with climate change and ensure sustainable livelihoods for future. If the community people become resilient, then they can come back in their previous usual situation within very short period after any type of disaster. The Khasbarashimul community is a flood-prone community situated in Sirajganj district of Bangladesh on bank of Jamuna River with having Brahmaputra delta characteristics. Most of the community people are marginalized; and agriculture and day-labouring are the main means of their livelihood. Almost every year, flood occurs and causes tremendous losses to property and livelihoods. The study has aimed to identify the flood vulnerability due to climate change on the Khasbarashimul community people and their livelihoods. The study has been conducted at participatory observation approach using both qualitative and quantitative research perspectives. The study has identified some of the local and indigenous community resilience techniques which the community people usually used to practice as solutions to escape from flood vulnerability by their own knowledge and experiences. Some of other resilience techniques and solutions have also been suggested to make community people more resilient to disasters and flood risks resulted from climate change. Key Words: Climate Change, Resilience, Floods, Vulnerability

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

    Need for the Rational Use of Antibacterial in Paediatric Population

    Farya Zafar

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    Necessary use of antibiotics helps to facilitate the treatment of numerous infectious diseases. With the expansion and the development of new antibiotics, the rising incidence of microbial resistance among pathogens is alarming. The efficacy of various effective antibiotics is questionable. We are continuously exposed with the challenge to provide useful regimen to our patients who do not further facilitate resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate common diseases, determining the ratio of conducting culture sensitivity tests and finding the correct consistency of antibiotics during the use by evaluating numerous parameters such as length of therapy, dose and frequency of dosing. We collected the data from various hospital settings of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was gathered from 90 paediatric residents during August to December, 2009. Results showed that acute gastro enteritis is the most common disease found among paediatric residents. Culture sensitivity test was not performed in majority of cases while inappropriateness related to the period of therapy and prescribed dose is mostly seen during the study as compared to frequency of dosing. It is essential that there should be a patterned guideline for the treatment of the common diseases that help the providers of health care team to treat different diseases and to suitably prescribed antibiotics.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change 2019: Extended Abstract: Effects of Climate Change On Health and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria

    Foluso Temitope Agulanna

    Over the last one and a half centuries ago, the world has warmed by approximately 0.850C. And nowadays, extreme weather events are becoming more intense and frequent. World Health Organization figures show that annually, warming and precipitation trends, due to anthropogenic climate change, have claimed over 150,000 lives globally. Thus, climate change and environmental degradation pose great challenges to humanity. More specifically, their effects on agriculture have been monumental, particularly in developing countries where agriculture is the primary employer and main source of food for majority of the rural poor. Vulnerability of African countries to the impact of climate change continues to increase, making the continent one of the world’s most exposed regions to environmental vicissitudes. Droughts and other climatic extremes have direct impacts on food crops and food supply. People are exposed to climate change through changing weather patterns and indirectly through changes in water, air, food quality and quantity, ecosystems, agriculture, livelihoods, and infrastructure. Climate change currently contributes to the global burden of disease and premature deaths. Its effects on rural populations and regions include increased food insecurity due to geographical shifts in optimum crop-growing conditions and yield changes in crops, reduced water resources for agriculture and human consumption, and rise in sea levels flood leading to loss of cropping land through floods. This paper reviews empirical studies and observations of climate-health relationships in Nigeria. It focuses on the health implications of climate variability, past and present climate change impacts on agriculture, human health, future projections and uncertainties.
    Keywords: Climate change, Agricultural productivity, Global warming, Human health, Nigeria
    Note: This work is partially presented at 6th Global summit on Climate Change on October 21-22, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

    Research center on Metagenomics and Bioprospecting in the cerrado biome (RCMB)

    Divaldo Rezende

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    Most of the biomass present in the planet is in the form of microorganisms. Recent molecular studies indicate that 1 g of soil may contain about 10 billion cells and thousands of microbial species. The discovery that the vast majority of these microorganisms are not cultivable (<1%) stimulated the development of technologies for culture-independent molecular studies (metagenomics). Currently, metagenomics arises as the main method of biotechnological search for new genes, enzymes and bioactive drugs. Metagenomics-based bioprospecting activity and the discovery of new substances of industrial interest have stimulated huge investments in research and the creation of several biotechnology companies worldwide. Large pharmaceutical companies, for instance, often hire small and medium enterprises to bioprospect for new molecules and to do the initial screening for potentially valuable products. The South Amazon Ecotone is located at the contact region between the Cerrado and the Amazon forest, and is commonly defined as the Amazonian savannas. The climate and geological characteristics of this region enable the development of a complex and sensitive biotic system and high level of endemism. This system depends on microorganisms to maintain the essential ecological processes. In general, the various interactions that occur between microorganisms and the environment (e.g. nutrient cycling) and other macro-organisms (e.g. symbionts) are considered essential to maintaining the health of ecosystems. Studies conducted at the beginning of this millennium, indicate that the Brazilian Cerrado belongs to the group of 25 “hotspots”recognized as the main centers of biodiversity in the world. The environmental conditions that enable the development of ecotone unique gene pools probably hold immeasurable potential for biotechnology. However, the biotechnological potential associated with this diversity is still mostly unknown as the Amazonian savannas have been poorly studied. This project proposes the creation of a research Center for Metagenomics and Bioprospecting in Cerrado (RCMB). Its main task will be to promote the bio-entrepreneurship, study, conservation and sustainable management of the Cerrado and its transition ecosystems.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Extended Abstract : Chemical Issues In Biomass Burnin in Nigeria

    Folahan Adekola

    Biomass can be defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. It includes forest, agricultural crops and their residues. Biomass burning can therefore be regarded as the setting on fire of forests, woods and crops residues, shrubs and grasses, either intentionally or accidentally. Biomass burning is now recognized as a significant global source of emissions, contributing as much as 40% of gross carbon dioxide and 38% of tropospheric ozone. In Nigeria, biomass burning is widespread as it serves to clear land for shifting cultivation and to remove dry vegetation in order to promote agricultural productivity. Induced burning of trees in forested areas is a common practice in the guinea savanna zone of Nigeria purposely as a means of livelihood. This is done with the view of producing charcoal for domestic use in the urban centres of the country. The current review of the chemical issues in biomass burning in Nigeria has shown that a lot of work is still needed to be carried out, especially in respect to ground-based measurement of the chemical composition of resulting products across different ecological zones in Nigeria. Data are also lacking on the influence of biomass burning on the soil fertility in Nigeria. A collaborative research involving multi-disciplinary scientists from different countries in Sub Saharan African might be necessary for better understanding and for results comparison, and for the purpose of carrying out transport modelling across the continent.
    Note : This work is partially presented on 6th Global summit on Climate Change October 21-22, 2019 at Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change 2019 : Extended Abstract : Assessing the Farm Level Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case of Rice Farmers in the Southern Part of Bangladesh

    Mr. Faijul Islam

    This study is motivated by the susceptibility of rice farming to climate change and partly by the limited studies on this topic in Bangladesh. The study has investigated the socioeconomic condition, adaptation strategies, barriers to adaptation as well as influencing determinants of adaptation strategies of costal rice farmers using survey data of 120 households through simple random sampling from two costal Upazillas namely Betagi under the district of Barguna and Golacipa under the district of Patuakhali of Bangladesh. Different statistical analysis including MNL model are employed to fulfill the objectives of the study. The farmers have perceived a gradual increase in temperature but abnormality in rainfall which has serious impact on rice production. Farmers have taken a range of adaptation strategies to reduce the adverse impact of climate change. The major adaptation strategies are direct-seeded rice, supplementary irrigation, cultivation of HYV, adjusting planting calendars and techniques, livestock, duck and poultry rearing, and cultivation of non-rice crops. However, lack of weather forecast information, lack of knowledge concerning appropriate adaptation and poor information on early warning systems are among the important barriers to adaptation. The results of MNL model indicate that farming experience, access to agricultural credit, access to electricity, access to information and extension services have significant influence on the choice of adaptation strategies. Government policy should target improving farmers’ access to credit, electricity and extension services, and provide HYV varieties suitable for the local condition to enhance the adaptation capacity of the vulnerable rice farmers.
    Note : This work is partially presented at 6th Global summit on Climate Change on October 21-22, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change 2019 : Extended Abstract Title: Community health worker Model (CHW) for Health Care Delivery and Environment Programs focused on CHW Initiatives

    Muskaan Chhibber

    Community Health workers are equipped with the tools and resources necessary to bring about a change in the form of a rapid chain reaction. The CHW Model focuses on the practices, strategies, plans and implementation techniques needed to organize a Community Health event based on diverse agendas: health, environment and minorities. This model encompasses past experiences as a guide with tested strategies to assist future health interns with ground framework and resources to showcase the importance of adopting healthy and environment friendly practices.
    The basic outline of the program is based on data collected from twenty community health events in Illinois. These events included back to the school fairs, cleanliness drives and health camps. As community health workers can help in implementing better practices in the masses through one-on-one interactions, this model of CHW programs would outline event organization tips, predicted outcomes, targeted audience and required material templates. The next phase of this model highlights utilizing the data and experience from these events to report to the health ministries of different countries for incorporation of the proposed practices in their health agendas and policies.
    This model, if implemented unanimously could bring about a revolution in the arena of health workers. They will be assisted at each step, will establish connections with health workers globally and share their health and environment based agendas to collaborate and organize important events. This model envisions a strong established network of CHW, display of their agenda and creation of a ripple effect throughout the society by the means of these programs.
    Note : This Work is Partially Presented at 6th Global summit on Climate Change was held on October 21-22, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

    Climate Change 2019 : Extended Abstract Title: Effects of Climate Change and Human Activites on Ecological Carrying Capacity and Ecological Security for Ecological Conservation and Construction Program Region at Different Implementation Periods in the Three-River Headwaters Region

    Jiangwen Fan

    The Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR) locates in the hinterland of the Qinhai-Tibet Plateau and is sensitive to the global climatic change. Due to climate changes and human activities, the ecosystems of TRHR degenerate seriously in recent decades. In order to restore the ecosystems and combat the effect of global warming in TRHR, Chinese government started the Ecological Conservation and Construction Program (SECCP) and planed to invest RMB 23.56 billion yuan from 2005 to 2020. This study aims to analyze the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological carrying capacity and ecological security, and evaluate the changes of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security at three different implementation periods, the pre-SECCP (2000-2004), the early-term (2005-2009) and the medium-term (2010-2015) period. In this study, we integrate the analytic hierarchy process and the indicator system method Which containing the dynamic data accessed by climatic observation, field investigation, socioeconomic statistics, remote sensing parameter inversion and model simulatio. The assessment results of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security are basically in line with the actual in the TRHR. The reasonable assessment of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security made in this study have crucial guiding significance for SECCP in TRHR.
    Note : This work is partially presented at 6th Global summit on Climate Change on October 21-22, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 4

    Sustainable Water-Energy-Environment Nexus for Thermal Bioenergy Conversion

    Jinying Yan

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    A concept of sustainable water-energy-environment nexus has been developed for thermal bioenergy conversion processes as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Two case studies are performed in a biomass-fired CHP plant and a waste incineration unit, which intend to approve and implement the concept. The main results from the case study on stormwater issues in biomass-fired CHP plant show that the biomass fuel storage can play an important role in the sustainable development for the water-energy-environment nexus. It has been proved that the water adsorption capacity of wood chips can be used as a buffer to reduce water runoff, to extend the time for natural water evaporation, to receive the recycled runoff water without significant impacts on fuel quality. The runoff water absorbed by the biomass fuels could increase heat recovery and water reuse. The results also indicate that it is possible to achieve near zero water runoff and wastewater emissions in the tested plant area by an integration of stormwater management with the bioenergy conversion processes. Another case study is focused on a closed water loop in Waste-to-Energy (waste incineration) unit. The closed water loop can properly integrate the thermal energy conversion with an efficient flue gas cleaning, cost-effective water treatment and energy-effective water recovery. The investigation shows that it is possible to achieve a near zero wastewater discharge, which could also result in a significant amount of water recovery for internal usage. The two case studies demonstrate that sustainable water-energy-nexus could be set up in biomass energy conversion processes, which can provide good solutions handle important issues associate with water resource, energy efficiency and emissions to air and waters in bio energy conversion processes. Recent Publications 1. Galanopoulos C, Yan J., Li H, Liu L (2018) Impacts of acidic gas components on combustion of contaminated biomass fuels. Biomass and Bioenergy 111:263-277. 2. Li H, Tan Y, Ditaranto M, Yan J, Yu Z (2017) Capturing CO2 from biogas plants. Energy Procedia 114:6030-6035. 3. Larsson M, Yan J, Nordenskjld C, Forsberg K, Liu L (2016) Characterisation of stormwater in biomass-fired combined heat and power plant ??? Impacts of biomass fuel storage.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 4

    Targeted Brain Delivery of Bioactive Molecules Using Nano carriers

    Gajbhiye

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    Delivery of the bioactive to the brain is the utmost challenging task to cope with brain diseases. Brain is protected with blood brain barrier, blood-CSF barrier and efflux systems, which controls the entry of body as well as foreign compounds to access the brain cells. Only nutrients, which are essential for normal metabolism, can enter into the brain. In the shadow of this fact new strategies are being investigated to facilitate the entry of administered therapeutic compound into the brain. Active targeting is a evolving approach, which uses ligand and suitable carrier for the site-specific delivery and is being recently achieved by the use of Nano carriers. These Nano carriers are Nano sized systems, which act as a cargo for the encapsulated drugs. At the same time, endo- or exogenous ligand can be attached to these Nano carriers to recognize specific receptors on brain capillary endothelium leading to delivery of drug in the vicinity of brain cells. Their potential is under immense investigation to increase the therapeutics outcome in the treatment of brain related problems. This review deals with the recent advances in nanocarriers based novel strategies for effective brain specific delivery.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 21

    Global Warming -2020 : Extended Abstract Title : Global Warming

    Hafiz Muhammad Anwar Saleem

    Actuaries are becoming more aware of the combined impact of climate change and limitations of resources—two separate and very significant issues—putting at risk the sustainability of the current socio-economic systems that support our way of life. Although actuaries do not claim professional expertise in environmental issues, they can be guided by the growing body of knowledge publicly available from reliable scientific sources. Being particularly qualified to deal with modelling financial consequences of risks and uncertainties, the actuarial profession has a duty to provide training and education on climate change and sustainability so that its members are qualified to contribute to the
    well-being of the society. In undertaking this exercise, the actuarial profession needs to be cognizant of the fact that even within the climate change science community there are differing views on the nature and amplitude of the risks and the profession should be aware of these differing views
    Climate change is more than global warming. The rise in average temperature is only one indicator of broader changes also translating into extreme temperatures, drought, flooding, storms, rising sea levels, impacts on food production, and infectious diseases. Although the scientific community has been aware of the link between greenhouse gases (GHGs) and climate change for many years, world leaders have been slow to react and implement measures to mitigate the risks.

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