Clinical Depression

ISSN: 2572-0791

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 6, Issue 1 (2020)

    Volume 6, Issue 2 (2020)

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

      Euro Demenia 2018- Immunoreactivity of Anti-AβP-42 Specific Antibody with Toxic Chemicals and Food Antigens- Aristo Vojdani- Loma Linda University School of Medicine

      Aristo Vojdani

      Objective: The aim of our study was to examine immunoreactivity between AβP-42, toxic chemicals, and food proteins thatwould be involved in AD. Methods: We applied monoclonal anti-AβP-42 to a range of chemicals bound to human albumin (HSA) and 208 different food extracts. 


      AβP-42; Amyloidogenesis; Alzheimer’s Disease; Toxins; Dietary Proteins; Immunoreactivity; Neurodegeneration Immunoreactivity to Common Foods:

      Now that we have some understanding of Immunology under our belts, we will  get to the meat of what my clients tend to care about – immunoreactivities to common foods and how this may  be a trigger for autoimmunity or one’s own immune system seeing self-tissue as a pathogen. This is a very big deal as it is estimated that over 50 million Americans suffer from some kind autoimmunity (comparatively, heart disease “only” affects upwards of 22 million Americans) and the occurrence of autoimmunity is growing exponentially. It is now believed that around 30% of autoimmunity is due to genetic predisposition. But, this implies that 70% of autoimmune cases are potentially caused by environmental and lifestyle triggers – the main culprits being intestinal permeability, infections, and chemical exposures.

      “Bacterial toxins, chemicals, foods, and undigested proteins and peptides can induce systemic food immune reactivity by causing failure of immune tolerance. Immune tolerance is the immune system’s ability to recognize what is harmful and what is not. If immune tolerance is lost, then inflammation ensues and autoimmunity can occur.”
      The digestive system sees over 1 ton of food every  year and contains north of 70% of our immune cells. Your gastrointestinal tract also has more contact with the surface world than your skin and this mucosal lining is constantly being exposed to potential antigens.
      The reason our body doesn’t wreck shop on all this food stuff all the time is due to oral tolerance which occurs through the deletion or immunosuppression of reactive immune cells.
      Reacting to common food items isn’t normal and may be due to impaired immunological development (which is outside the scope of this post and revolves around the hygiene hypothesis, maternal diet, how one was born, breast feeding, and also  the infant gut microbiota) or an immune system that’s out of balance (cough low vitamin D) and over stimulated (SAD).
        There is a lot going on above, but we can use our newfound understanding of immunology and begin to grasp how this all works.
       Materials and Methods 
      Monoclonal antibodies 
      Commercially available antibodies were purchased from different companies. Rabbit monoclonalanti-amyloid-β1-42(fibrilsequence DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA) produced by Abcam’s RabMab® technology was purchased from Abcam. This antibody reacts strongly to human Aβ 42 monomers, oligomers and fibrils, but not with human muscle fibrils. Additional information about the specificity of this antibody is provided in the Abcam package insert (ab201061) and in an article by Hatami et al. [53]. Affinity-purified mouse anti-amyloid-β1-42 was purchased from BioLegend, San Diego, CA USA. This antibody reacted strongly with formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded diseased human brain tissue.
       Binding of phthalate to HAS:
       Preparation of diethyl phthalate was done according to the method described by Zhou et al. [54]. Briefly, 2 mg of diethyl phthalate was dissolved in methanol and added dropwise to 25 mg of HSA dissolved in 5 mL of 0.14 Tris-HCl buffer.
       Preparation of dietary antigens: Food antigens were prepared from products purchased from the supermarket in both raw and cooked forms. For that preparation, 10 g of nutrient  was put in a food processor using 0.1 M of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. The mixer was turned on and off for 1 h and then kept on the stirrer overnight at 4°C. After centrifugation Citation: Vojdani A, Vojdani E (2018) Immunoreactivity of Anti-AβP-42 Specific Antibody with Toxic Chemicals and Food Antigens. J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 8: 441. doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000441 Page 3 of 11 Volume 8 Issue 3 • 1000441 J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism, an open access journal ISSN:2161-0460 at 20,000 g for 15 min, the top layer, which contained oil bodies, was discarded The liquid phase was removed and dialyzed against b0.01 M of PBS using dialysis bags, with a cutoff of 6,000 kDa. Dialysis was repeated three times to ensure all small molecules were removed. After dialysis, all samples were filtered through a 0.2 micron filter to remove any debris. Protein concentrations were measured using a kit provided by Bio-Rad (Hercules, CA, USA). Different peptides were purchased from Bio-Synthesis (Lewisville, TX, USA). Lectin and agglutinins including pea lectin and lentil lectin were purchased from SigmaAldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).
       Depend  on these results, we hypothesized that reaction between AβP-42 antibody with chemically  bound to HSA and numerous food antigens might play a lead role  in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These anti-AβP antibodies might  be derived from protein mis folding like  to β-amyloid, or from antibodies to various food antigens that cross-react with AβP-42. Removal of toxic chemicals and food items that share a homology with β-amyloid is also recommended at least for patients  within the early stages of AD. Therefore, the role of AβP-42 cross-reactive foods and chemicals bound to HSA in neurodegeneration should be investigated further.


      We have  found that anti-AβP-42 reacts from moderately to strongly with mercury-HSA, dinitrophenyl-HSA (DNP-HSA), phthalate-HSA, and aluminum-HSA, but not to many other tested chemicals bound to HSA nor to HSA alone. This antibody also reacted with 19 out of the 208 food antigens utilized in the assay. One example of a food that reacted strongly with anti-AβP-42 in our study was canned tuna, although raw tuna reacted only moderately.

      6th Global Experts Meeting on Parkinsons and Movement Disorders (2020)

        Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

        6th Global Experts Meeting on Parkinsons and Movement Disorders

        Ashok Chakraborty

        We had a huge success with the completion of 6th Global Experts Meeting on Parkinsons and Movement Disorders Webinar on October 21-22, 2020. The significance of the meeting was achieved due to the accumulation of all the related group of spectators of research scientists to share their Knowledge, Research work, Technologies, and furthermore trade of worldwide Information towards the correct crowd at ideal time. Congress has received a generous response from all over the world. This has been organized with the aim of endorsing the development of new perceptions and ideas for investigating the high level of knowledge reached by scientific community in the field of Neuroscience.

        The conference was organized around the theme “Novel insights of Clinical Perspectives in the treatment of Parkinsons and Movement disorders”. The congress entrenched a firm relation of future strategies in the field of Neurosciences.

        We would like to thank each and every participant of Euro Parkinsons 2020 webinar to make this a huge success. And special thanks to media partners for the promotion of our event.

        The ConferenceSeries Neuroscience Conferences aim to bring together the prominent researchers academic scientists, and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences on all aspects of Neurosciences. It is conjointly a knowledge domain platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to gift and discuss the foremost recent advances, trends, and issues in addition as sensible challenges and solutions adopted in the fields of Neurosciences.


        Parkinson’s disease is a dynamic neurological disorder that influences how the individual moves, including how they talk and compose. This disease is caused by low dopamine levels. Various useful treatments, utilizing therapies (physiotherapy), surgery and medications have recognized neurological disorders and changes in the patient group. People with Parkinson’s disease also experience stiffness and they find abnormality in carrying out the movements as rapidly as before- this is known as bradykinesia. Parkinson’s disease market in US is expected to grow at a rate of 5.3% from sales of $1.1 billion in 2012 to $1.3 billion in 2022. Approximately 1 million adults in Asia are suffering from Parkinson’s disease, from where 60,000 were diagnosed annually. An estimated of 30%-50% of PD patients mainly suffering from depression. United States is in the fourth position in considering the death of people due to Parkinson’s disease. African Americans have the highest death rate of 66.4% followed by whites of 64.6%, Hispanic with 55.4% and Asians with 50.8%. Parkinson’s disease strikes 50% more men than women. The economic burden of Parkinson’s disease on patients and their families in the Asia is about $9.4 billion.


        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

        Parkinson???s Disease (PD): Allogeneic Cell Replacement Therapeutic Approach with a Novel Neural Cell line

        Ashok Chakraborty

        Parkinson’s disease is caused by the progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons (nerve cells) in an area of the brain known as Substantia Nigra.


        • Curative therapy for Parkinson’s Disease
        • Current therapies are based on dopamine supplementation in the brain. They are only palliative, and require adjunct therapies to minimize side effects. Yet long term side effects such as motor neuron defect and Bradykinesia, Dyskinesia etc occur.
        • Cell Replacement Therapy is the Only Approach that Promises Functional Reversal of Parkinson’s Disease.


        • AllExcel, Inc. has Developed a Platform Technology for Developing Designed, Functionally Improved Cell Lines without the use of viral vectors or DNA manipulation.
        • Technology is based on concepts derived from naturally observed Human Cell-Cell Interactions (CCITM).


        Fast growing potent Dopaminergic cell lines have been produced with long survival in cell culture. In animal studies (6-OHDA treated Rat model for PD), 4 different clones showed very effective reversal of the disease.


        Highly potent modified neural cells have been produced in our lab to treat PD patients.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

        Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory role of Tinospora cordifolia in MPTP induced parkinsonian mouse model

        Surya Pratap Singh

        Parkinson’s disease, an age related neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta of the mid brain and projecting neurons in striatum. Recently, several studies regarding parkinson’s disease have proven the role of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. In this context, our study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of Tinospora Cordifolia Aqueous Extract (TCAE) in parkinsonian mice. From the immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, it is evident that TCAE inhibits the MPTP-induced activation of NF-κB and its associated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Through, Real time PCR analysis it was revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be up regulated in MPTP intoxicated mice while TCAE treatment significantly restored their levels. In addition, the expression level of IL-10 was found decreased in diseased condition which was further restored by TCAE treatment. Tyrosine hydroxylase, an important enzyme which is used as marker in parkinson’s disease, its expression was found to be reduced in MPTP mice while on giving TCAE, its level was significantly restored. Our result clearly indicates that Tinospora cordifolia provides neuroprotection against MPTP induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration and shows potent anti-inflammatory activity.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

        Profile and Severity Correlation of Ataxia Patients in a Tertiary Care Institute in Eastern India

        Subhas Bhuin

        Introduction: Clinical  profile and severity correlation  of ataxia patients in our population is still  varied . This study is taken up to explore this aspect. Methods - A cross-sectional study  was conducted at XXX. Clinical parameters with  severity correlation( SARA scale )  in selected patients  was determined.


        Results: In 188 patients  , 127  had cerebellar ataxia(SCA 2, 3, 1 ,6 ,12  , MSA C , Wilsons disease) , 42  had sensory ataxia  mainly  Sensory ataxic  GBS, CIDP  variant(CISP) , Sjogrens  and 19 had  Mixed cerebellar sensory ataxia (Multiple sclerosis , Vitamin E deficiency  ). Cerebellar ataxias had  higher  disability at presentation (  mean SARA score- 21.87)  than mixed ataxias ( SARA – 19.68). Increase in SARA score was seen more in mixed ataxias  (3.64)  than  cerebellar  ( 3.01) . Disability progression   is more in MSA C and SCA 2 has lesser degree of progression  ( despite  highest SARA score- 28.5  at presentation).

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

        The need for diseases

        Iwona Sienko

        Stress is a natural part of our lives and healthy levels help us with creativity, reaching our goals and maintaining overall drive. Increased stress levels erode our health, productivity and overall happiness. Chronic stress is becoming an epidemic of the twenty-first century. To combat this state of affairs many began exploring the benefits of mindfulness as an antidote to chronic stress. Thirty years of research looking at the effects of mindfulness, as well as the neuroscience of mindfulness, offer compelling evidence to support the use of mindfulness practices. Some benefits of practicing mindfulness are stronger focus, better memory, staying calmer under stress, enhanced concentration and executive functioning, improved overall mental and physical health. In 2015, the School of Nursing at UBC Okanagan began offering a smartUBC to all first-year students in a mandatory Relational Practice course. The rationale was two-fold: to provide undergraduate students with mindfulness skills and capacities to help them navigate and succeed in their first year of university as well as stress management and resiliency techniques for their nursing practice.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

        Challenges initiating & supporting vocational training for persons suffering mental illness in India

        Sailaxmi Gandhi

        The National Mental Health Survey (2014-2016), one of the largest mental health “Research and Action” oriented study undertaken in recent times across 12 states of India reported a high weighted lifetime prevalence of 5.25 in depressive disorders and 1.41 in severe mental illness (n=34802). The WHO also states that by the year 2020, Depression will be the most prevalent condition in the world. With this high rise in NCDs (Non-communicable diseases), a large proportion of people with mental illness also have co-existing medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, etc. adding the disability. In this background, there exists a high level of stigma towards this illness. Individuals with mental illness recover better with lesser relapse rates when they are engaged in work

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

        Biocompatible amifostine nanoemulsion via expression of nephrin in nephrotoxic experimental rat

        Nadia Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed

        Drug-induced kidney injury is the causative of acute kidney failure. Amifostine loaded silica nanoemulsion was synthesized using water/oil emulsion with the help of ultra-sonication waves. The nanoemulsion was prepared using Tetraethyl Orthosilicate [TEOS], Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide [CTAB], Castor Oil [CAO] and Amifostine [AMF] as a source for silica, surfactant, extra stabilizing agent and a model drug respectively. The as synthesized nanoemulsion of silica and silica loaded with amifostine [[email protected]] was examined via Transmission Electron Microscopy [TEM] and Dynamic Light Scattering [DLS] in terms of particles shape and hydrodynamic average size.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

        Long-term employment, career development using the integrative model at Shekulo Tov Group, Israel

        Irad Eichler

        Research shows that the extent of employment mobility among people with psychiatric disabilities is low, even though most of them want and can work. While supported employment has significantly improved competitive work outcomes throughout the world, it leads to sustained work in only 25-35% of persons with psychiatric disabilities, while most persons lose jobs within a few weeks/months after beginning them or never obtain competitive work. Shekulo Tov is a non-profit organization and a service supplier for the Israeli Ministry of Health for more than 3,000 service users. Shekulo Tov’s Integrative Unit Model represents an essential change of perception vis-à-vis vocational rehabilitation. It is a formative shift from the two sequential approaches of “train, then place” or “place then train” to a simultaneous approach of “train & place".

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

        The effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on general health & quality of life of patients with cardiovascular diseases

        Mahnaz Mehrabizadeh Honarmand

        The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management intervention on general health and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular diseases in Ahvaz. The available samples were used for selecting the subjects so that 30 individuals from the cardiovascular patients were selected to participate in the survey and were divided randomly into two groups, experimental and control every 15 persons. All the participants answered the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Questionnaire (Who-QOL-BRIEF). The experimental group received 10 sessions of stress management training by the cognitive- behavioral method. At the posttest stage, the responses of both groups to the questionnaires were recorded again.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

        Integration of Spiritual healers in mental health team, India

        Puneet Kathuria

        Mental health is among the most vexing social and medical problems of our era. Medications are effective, though access, costs, stigma, side effects, and health risks may deter utilization. Likewise, professional psychotherapy helps yet is unaffordable and unavailable to many and, even when empirically based treatments can be accessed, relapse, mortality, and morbidity are the rule with mental disorders. Therefore, there is an urgent need for affordable and accessible treatment options. We all are baffled by the thought that the processes of non-pharmacological interventions that is so successful in the western, just does not find any takers in the eastern world. Despite so much evidence in favor of the number of therapies and techniques, still, these continue to be on the fringes of the eastern mental health treatment. Alternative or complementary medical and spiritual approaches are promising and are associated with excellent patient acceptance.

        Value Added Abstracts Pages: 11 - 11

        Reversal of Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity on Parkinson???s Affected Neuronal Cells through Antioxidants Glutathione, Piperlongumine, and Piperlonguminine

        Jessica Guo

        Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common form of dementia and currently affects over 10 million people. Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disease that results in significant loss of cholinergic neurons. Symptoms include tremors, Bradykinesia (slowed movement), rigid muscles, impaired posture/balance, loss of automatic/unconscious movements, speech changes, and writing changes.

        Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide. By inhibiting the mitochondrial complex I, ROS (Reactive oxidative stress) levels substantially increase in the cells, and the number of dead cells is remarkably higher. As a result of this deficiency in complex I in the mitochondria, an increase in ROS and the reduction of energy stores ensues, eventually contributing to neurodegeneration of cholinergic neurons.

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