Women from Lebanon′s Postpartum Depression and Anxiety Scales: Psychometric Properties

Clinical Depression

ISSN: 2572-0791

Open Access

Mini Review - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 1

Women from Lebanon′s Postpartum Depression and Anxiety Scales: Psychometric Properties

Khaobing Peng*
*Correspondence: Khaobing Peng, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Houston, USA, Email:
Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Houston, USA

Received: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. cdp-23-89780; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. P-89780; Reviewed: 19-Jan-2023, QC No. Q-89780; Revised: 24-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. R-89780; Published: 31-Jan-2023 , DOI: 10.37421/2572-0791.2023.9.40
Citation: Peng, Khaobing. “Women from Lebanon’s Postpartum Depression and Anxiety Scales: Psychometric Properties.” Clin Depress 9 (2023):40.
Copyright: © 2023 Peng K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Postpartum depression is a postpartum symptom in black women. Despite the significant proportion of Black women who have symptoms, postpartum depression is rarely accurately diagnosed and few obtain mental health care. Although the causes of this difference are unknown, they are probably complex. Black women are more vulnerable to sexism, racism, and classism due to the confluence of their gender, race, racial identity, and class, which puts them under more mental and physical strain and may raise their likelihood of developing certain diseases. The severity of May also affect a woman's capacity to care for herself and her unborn child and return to her regular activities before giving birth. Previous research has looked at the connection between Black racial identification and or maternal. Previous research has looked at the connection between Black racial identification and maternal functioning on an individual basis, but it hasn't taken into account how they interact to affect maternal functioning. As a framework for our selection and analysis of, social and racial factors that may affect Black women's functional status after childbirth, we use the triangulation of concepts from the Nigrescence.


Water system • Double harvest • Postpartum depression


The importance of accurate diagnoses, which are often difficult to obtain due to the overlap between genuine pathology and psychological distress, was emphasised by prison workers in focus groups. As a result of the confusion, a correctional physician expressed it as follows: It is nearly impossible to distinguish between health and distress because, according to the definition, health is an equilibrium gained within society, within a community. A variety of factors can jeopardise mental health; it's like a continuum'. Some interviewees reported that psychiatric pathology may occur prior to incarceration or as a result of it, as an exacerbation of a state of distress caused by incarceration.

Literature Review

The dairy business in northern Victoria depends on water system water to grow a huge extent of its feed inputs. Yet, because of dry spell conditions over the most recent years, yearly water system portions have been considerably lower and more factor than the years before that. This has made dairy ranchers change their feed base and has made it challenging for them to design their scavenge blend over the accompanying years. In this climate of low and variable water accessibility, it is fundamental that dairy ranchers have exact evaluations of how much water system water expected to grow a scope of search types [1].

The water system water necessities of a scope of perpetual scavenges, winter developing yearly fields and summer search crops has been estimated in trial circumstances in northern Victoria. Yet, plant water system water necessities can differ extraordinarily from year to year. Fortunately, there are models, for example, which can utilize climatic information to anticipate the water prerequisites of flooded scrounges. This model has been utilized in northern Victorian and there has been great understanding between the deliberate and demonstrated water use for most forage the model can be without hesitation used to anticipate the aggregate and water system water prerequisites of rummages normally filled in northern Victoria utilizing notable climate information [2].


The changes a woman starts to make in her life after finding out she is pregnant through the postpartum period are described by hypothesis While the BAM hypothesis takes into account a variety of potential effects on the path to maternity Black women-specific impacts are not taken into account. Black women who were young, unmarried, adolescent moms of lower socioeconomic position or pregnant and postpartum White women who were wealthy, well educated, and coupled were the subjects of most of Mercer's study .The impact that being Black in a racialized society may have on one's mental health at that period is not taken into account in this limited view of Black women's experiences as mothers. Black racial identity, a construct, was added to the theory for this investigation. The racial identity of Black individuals who reside in the US- their affiliation with Black racial groupings is known as racial identity. In Black adults, having a Black racial identity has been linked to psychological suffering but not during the postpartum period [3-5].

The study looked at the ideas of maternal functioning and maternal mental well-being (the presence or absence of which are crucial in understanding the process of becoming a mother. The maternal-infant link is influenced by the ideas (such as maternal functioning, and Black racial identity even though they are all focused on the mother The postpartum women became close and formed By appropriately responding to the infant’s needs, the infant’s attachment/security is also nurtured This theoretical adaptation guided this analysis to allow the proper selection of constructs and the relationships. The period of time this cross-sectional study covered was from. Four gynaecology clinics in four distinct areas of Lebanon were used to find participants. At each of these gynaecological clinics, data were gathered by study-unrelated staff who served as assessors. Each married Lebanese woman over the age of 18 who visited the clinic for a postnatal examination 4-6 weeks after giving birth was asked whether she would want to participate in the study, and after giving her written agreement, she was counted as a participant. All pregnancy types, including those with high or low risk, were included in this study. Patients having a doctor-diagnosed mental illness (previously diagnosed psychiatric illnesses) were excluded, as were females [6].


Lebanese postpartum women's rates of depression and anxiety appeared to be greater than those in other nations, which may be partly explained by variations in regional, social, and environmental culture. It is important to note that healthcare practitioners should place a high priority on developing postpartum depression awareness campaigns and health promotion initiatives that will improve the wellbeing of expectant mothers. In the postpartum period, a variety of etiological variables may contribute to sadness and anxiety, which may be harmful to both the mother and the child. To help moms deal with the conditions and emotions encountered at this time, preventive measures should be taken early on before birth and even continuing after delivery.



Conflict of Interest



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