Business and Economics Journal

ISSN: 2151-6219

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

    The Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Money Supply on Inflation in Sierra Leone (1986-2019)

    Justice Ganawah

    This paper aims at providing quantitative analysis of the impact of money Supply and exchange rate fluctuations on inflation in Sierra Leone. The paper utilizes secondary data that were obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS), of all variables investigated in the model. The sample covers quarterly data from 1986:01 to 2019:04. The model was estimated using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). The empirical results confirm that in the long run, money supply and exchange rate have significant inverse effects on inflationary pressure, while real output growth and foreign price changes have direct effects on inflationary pressure. The possible justification for the inverse effect of money supply on price level is that inflation may not be due to aggregate demand pressure but rather due to hiccups in the supply chain of goods both from the domestic and foreign supply outlets. Empirical deductions also signify the presence of significant feedback from the long run to short run disequilibrium. However, there exists a causal linkage between inflation, money supply and exchange rate in Sierra Leone.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Empirical Review of Food Crop Technologies Adoption inEthiopia: Meta Analysis

    Zekarias Bassa* and Abule Mechare

    Adoption of improved climate smart food crop technologies is known to be the prerequisite for productivity improvement, assuring food security and enabling small scale farmers to widen income opportunities. However, due to different socioeconomic, demographic and institutional; factors the level of food crop technology adoption and utilization is not optimal. A meta-analysis is performed to review empirical estimates of Adoption factors of improved food crop technologies in Ethiopia. The objective of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence adoption of improved food crop technologies. A Critical review was done from data set of 150 significantly influential variables that merged in to 48 observations at different articles from 48 case studies. The synthesized data used in order to test if specific characteristics of the data and econometric specifications account for systematic differences in the adoption influencing factors. The data processed using Multinomial Logit model for estimating probability of food crop technology adoption choices that defined as higher, moderate and lower rate as dependant variable and study period, model type used, study district, sample size, data type and technology type introduced as explanatory variable. From these data and reviewed articles the results showed that using low adoption as bench mark, higher and moderate estimate of Adoption probability of food crop technology significantly affected by Sample size and technology type introduced. The synthesized information implies that larger sample size cannot be ultimate solution for accurate information and different technologies disseminated owned different value across small scale farmers that demands full packaged technologies and awareness creation. Using low adoption rate as base category (<40% adoption),the Results also showed that using the other than Probit model procedure indicate decrease in estimate of adoption probability that pointed out that model selection can play detrimental role in estimating the adoption probability, which also could result in wrong level of decision. The Meta analysis result also indicated that as number of sample size increase, the level of adoption decreases, which indicated existence of data management problem starting from data collection up to processing, which also could not be eased with increased sample size. Using low adoption as reference category, the result showed that Moderate adoption rate also significantly different across the study areas and affected by technology type and Model type applied. Other factors, including the study period and data type do not seem to significantly affect estimates of food crop technology adoption probability. The analysis result also confirmed that the mean size effect of food crop technology adoption estimate is function of training, extension service and credit access, oxen holding, TLU, labor force and income. This implied that through awareness creation, improving and credit, infrastructural development, livestock ownership and income earning opportunity improving, there is an opportunity for accelerating the speed of food crop technologies. The study result also justified that food crop technologies only focused on the specific technology type and quantity, not on how the technology implemented by farmers and how it scaled up, these assumed to be one of the most probable reason for low adoption of improved practices that resulted in low agricultural production and productivity the sector

    Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

      Asymmetric Effect, Non-Linear ARDL and the J-Curve Analysis among EAC Members

      Masoud Mohammed Albiman

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      Until recently, the empirical evidence on asymmetric effect of exchange rate and its transmission channels on trade balance is still very scarce, especially for least developed countries. This article attempts to explore symmetric effect of exchange rate and its transmission channels on trade balance. The recently developed method of Non-linear ARDL were utilized for Quarterly data from 1990 Q1 to 2017 Q4 in unexplored areas of East African Community (EAC-5) members. The study found presence of robust symmetric and asymmetric negative effect of exchange rate changes to trade balance only in Uganda, both in short run and long run. Meanwhile, there was no evidence of robust J-curve phenomena within EAC members. In addition to that, exchange rate changes (depreciation and appreciation) improve the trade balance only in Tanzania through domestic income level. Generally, the application of exchange rate policy in improving trade imbalance is doubted within EAC region.

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