Journal of Health Education Research & Development

ISSN: 2380-5439

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 1 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    Awareness of breast cancer among women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Implications for educating women on breast cancer

    Cajetan Ikechukwu ILO1*, Omaka-Amari1, Lois Nnenna1, Ignatius Obilor Nwimo1 and Chinagorom Onwunaka2

    Background Breast cancer mortality rate is increasing among women in developing countries a condition that might be brought about by lack of knowledge of fundamental elements necessary for cancer prevention. Purpose To ascertain level of breast cancer knowledge across some socio-demographic variables among women in Ebonyi State Nigeria Method A total sample of 1,845 women was used for the study selected through multistage sampling technique. A 40- items questionnaire eliciting answers on knowledge of cancer symptoms, risk factors, prevention methods and cancer treatment options was used for the study. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage were used to answer the research question while Chi-square statistic was used to test the hypotheses at an alpha level of 0.05. Results Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be on the average (48.72%); differed by age with younger women (35-44 yrs/56.43%) displayed higher knowledge of breast cancer than the older ones (45-54/46.03%); women with post-secondary education (67.66%) had higher knowledge than those with secondary (60.16%), primary (49.03%) and non-formal education (39.01%); urban women (55.61%) were more knowledgeable than rural women (47.81%). Chi-square analysis indicated that difference in knowledge was significant for educational attainment, age and location of residence. Conclusion Breast cancer knowledge of women in Ebonyi State is on the average and differed significantly by education, age and location of women. Consequent it is recommended that breast cancer education should be used to improve their knowledge of the disease, especially for those with non-formal education, older women and those in the rural areas through interventions by government and non-governmental agencies and through curriculum revision for schools.

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    The Role of Emerging Disease Health Education: A Systematic Analysis

    Mahnaz Solhi1, Mitra Abolfathi2, Fatemeh Darabi3, Nasim Mirzaei4 and Naila Nejad Dadgar5

    Context: The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational intervention in the field of emerging infectious diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of interventions on prevention and reducing the incidence of these diseases. Evidence acquisition: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID), Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco, Scopus, Index Copernicus and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from October 2016 to July 2017. Results: Interventions to Emerging diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 16 articles reviewed, 7 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education, and 9 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: Training in the community setting to the analogous groups, time, place, length of intervention and use of modern methods of training, are effective in order to decrease morbidity. Overall, health education, combined with health improvement approaches have a greater impact, in prevention and reducing the incidence of emerging diseases.

    Review Pages: 1 - 5

    Initial Certification and Maintenance of Simulation for Medical Specialty In the United States of America, credential

    Oroma Nwanodi*

    Surgical skills simulation (SSS) tests the application of factual knowledge and shows how knowledge is applied, representing the second and third levels of Miller’s Pyramid of Learning. SSS permits high-stakes scenario testing in safe environments. Therefore, SSS incorporation into initial specialty certification began in 2002 in Australia and New Zealand. The United States began SSS incorporation into specialty certification in 2008. This paper will determine where the United States stands in the process of SSS incorporation into specialty certification. Google scholar Internet and PubMed searches phrased “medical board certification surgical skills simulation”, performed on September 1, 2016 yielded 16 relevant articles. Hand search on September 1, 2016 yielded 7 additional articles. In 2008, cardiac catheterization simulation was required for interventional cardiology maintenance of certification (MOC). In 2010 the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) required SSS as part of the MOC program. In 2014, the summative assessment, Colorectal Objective Assessment of Technical Skills became part of the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery certification. In 2017, SSS will be added to the ABA initial certification examination. The United States has been slow to incorporate SSS into initial certification and MOC. Assessment validation, capital and recurring costs, personnel, physical facility and time requirements are barriers limiting SSS expansion into specialty certification processes. As SSS allows rapid technical skill assessment, without posing a threat to patients, expansion of SSS into initial certification and MOC programs represents non-maleficence and beneficence, and should be encouraged.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Keeping safe and at work for health professionals: Why prevention has to begin during education and should never stop

    Christoph Augner*

    Health psychology has two main topics in educating Health professionals. First, an obvious goal is to increase the ability of health professionals to provide health knowledge to their patients and improve their ability to become or stay healthy. Second, health psychology should help health professionals to cope with their numerous challenges on their work place. Stressful events, difficult interaction with patients and colleagues and often tough working environment increase the chance for stress-related disorder.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Prevention and management of hypertension: Consequences of a Community Health Nurse-led intervention

    Osuala Eunice O*

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) with complications such as stroke and heart failure. Knowledge and attitude about hypertension have been indicated to influence practice of healthy lifestyle which has implications for hypertension prevention and control. There are anecdotal reports of sudden death and stroke in Isunjaba. However, there is no documentation about their lifestyle practices relating to hypertension. Health information given by nurses may positively influence healthy behaviours such as exercise, weight control, appropriate nutrition and regular Blood Pressure (BP) checks. This study was designed to assess the effects of a Community Health Nursing Intervention (CHNI) on knowledge, attitude and lifestyles relating to hypertension among residents of Isunjaba, Imo State, having the economic advantage of population-focus study in mind. There was significant difference in knowledge, attitude, and lifestyle of the two groups after intervention, P value<0.05. Health Education about hypertension to improve knowledge, attitude as well as positive lifestyles among populations should be supported by nurses, agencies and the Government.

    Volume 10, Issue 1 (2022)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Prevention Practices of Farmers toward COVID-19 Pandemic in the Central Highland of Ethiopia

      Fekadu Gutema*, Beksisa Urge, Tamirat Siyoum, Temesgen Kassa and Markos T

      DOI: DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100002

      COVID-19 is an emerging contagious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that threatens and disturbs humanity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of the central highlands of Ethiopia from July 2020 to September 2020 to assess the knowledge, attitude, and prevention practices of the farmers toward the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 131 respondents were participated in the present study of which 37.8% (49) were from Ada’a Berga, 31.3% (41) from Ejere, and 31.3% (41) from Walmara district. Majority of the study participants 86.3% (113) were male, whereas 77.1% (101) were between ages 18–39 years with an average age of 45.34+1.079. All present study participants have heard about COVID-19 cases in which 91.6% (120) of them get information from mass media whereas 6.9% (9) of them from family and friends. In the present study, 90% (95% CI: 83.67-94.05%) of the respondents have good knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the computation of multivariable logistic regression, only occupation of the study participants showed statistically significant association with knowledge level about COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.05). The odds value of poor knowledge for respondents relying on agricultural activities was 23 times more when compared with government employees. Concerned with prevention practice of COVID-19,57.3% (75) and 71% (93) of the respondents said that frequent hand washing for 20 seconds and avoiding handshaking are essential to prevent COVID-19 infection respectively. Even though the present study participants have good knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19, they are practicing poorly for which they may be affected negatively. Therefore, implementation of one health approach to utilize different knowledge source materials and man powers is important to combat COVID-19.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Social Support System and its Influence Ion Maternal Experiences, Tamale Central Hospital

      Keren-Happuch Twumasiwaa Boateng* and Lukman Amadu

      DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100001

      Background: Hospitalization of neonates in NICUs may subject mothers to shock and depression as a result of giving birth to babies who have low birth weight or premature babies and hence very fragile. This type of hospitalization disrupts the family process and subjects the parents of these babies to a state of crisis and disarray. These challenges range from social, economic, physiological and psychological in nature. There are no support groups for mothers with preterm babies to share their pain, experiences or interact with other mothers with similar problems. Over all, the problems of preterm babies may be in the increase yet not satisfactorily documented in the Ghanaian context.

      Purpose: This study seeks to explore the social support system and its influence on maternal experiences.

      Methodology: The study used exploratory descriptive design. The Study was conducted in the Tamale Metropolis, specifically targeting women with preterm babies undergoing treatment at the Tamale Central Hospital. The purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct face-to-face interviews with participants. The tape-recorded interviews were then transcribed verbatim and analysed manually with the content analysis approach. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis.

      Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that when the participants were provided with information on how to care and were also shown how to provide the caring activities, they developed confidence in taking care of their preterm baby.

      Conclusion: Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and the participants’ families assisted them to cope and promoted bonding. Management should support all neonatal intensive care facilities with adequate equipment and logistics to facilitate newborn care which will help limit the stay of hospitalized preterm babies in the neonatal intensive care units.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 1

      HIV/AIDS Education in Schools

      Nicolos John*

      DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100003

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      Volume 10, Issue 2 (2022)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

        Investigating the Impact of Race and Income on Adverse Childhood Experiences and Family Planning

        Mykaila Shannon*

        DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100006

        Adverse childhood experiences impact a large portion of the population in the United States [1]. Adverse childhood experiences, or ACEs, are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood, between birth and 17 years of age [2]. As identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Kaiser study, there are 10 ACEs split into three groups [3]. The first group is abuse including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. The second is neglect, both physical and emotional. The last is household dysfunction which includes the mother being treated violently, divorce, incarcerated relative, substance abuse, and mental illness. These experiences are characterized by aspects of the child’s environment that can undermine their sense of safety, stability, and bonding. According to the CDC, about 61% of adults surveyed across 25 states reported that they had experienced at least one type of ACE, and nearly 1 in 6 reported they had experienced four or more types of ACEs. Traumatic experiences in childhood have lifelong consequences. Studies show that ACEs have the potential to disrupt early brain development and increase the risk of a range of physical and mental health disorders [4]. Results of a 2017 study, “Unpacking the impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult mental health,” indicate an increased likelihood of experiencing drug use, moderate to heavy drinking, suicide attempts, and depressed affect in adulthood with increased experiences of ACEs [5]. ACEs have also been linked to an increase in healthcare utilization and spending. Studies have found that high ACE levels were associated with greater chronic disease burden and greater health care utilization in adulthood [6].

        Furthermore, there are potential disparities in the distribution of ACEs. According to the CDC, women and several racial/ethnic minority groups were at greater risk for having experienced 4 or more types of ACEs. Studies have shown that women are significantly more likely than males to report a range of ACEs and mental health, social, and emotional difficulties in adulthood, showing that males and females potentially have distinct patterns of childhood adversities, with females experiencing more complex and varied patterns of childhood adversity [7]. In contrast, some research has found that men and women are just as likely to experience ACEs, but women are more likely to experience some types compared to others. Girls are more likely to experience sexual abuse and to be affected by parental psychiatric problems [8]. However, boys are more likely to report childhood verbal abuse, parental divorce, parental unemployment, and parental death [9]. Some studies even suggest that there is no gender difference between childhood sexual abuse and long-term physical health [10]. It has also been reported that racial minorities are more likely to experience ACEs. Research shows that black and Hispanic children were exposed to more adversities compared with white children, and income disparities in exposure were larger than racial/ethnic disparities, suggesting that the reason for this gap in exposure is societal as well as interpersonal [11]. These findings are synonymous with the majority of the findings found in other research, and, while the data remains controversial, the majority of research finds that racial minorities are more likely to experience ACEs than non-minorities.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Patient Education: A Tool towards Patient Satisfaction

        Harshada Arun Patil* and Shrikrishna Dhale

        DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100008

        Patient education is a tool which is used by healthcare professional and impart information to patients and their care givers that will after health behaviours or improve their health status and patient satisfaction. There is increase in illnesses and hospitalization so, it is difficult for healthcare professionals to handle all the patients as well as their relatives. Patient education mediums such as Pamphlets, Brochures, Pictorial guide, Digital dynamic powerpoint presentations through TV educate patient and their relatives about overall process of department as well as their treatments. Patient education is one of the tools to improve patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is one of the important aspects from hospital point of view as well as patient satisfaction in an extent of to which patients are happy with their healthcare. This article shows the relationship between Patient education and Patient satisfaction as well as how Patient education leads to patient satisfaction. This is done by studying and circulating questionnaire among different hospitals.

        Brief Report Pages: 1 - 2

        Overview on Type 2 Diabetes

        Nicolos John*

        DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100010

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