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Journal of Health Education Research & Development

ISSN: 2380-5439

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Assesement of covid-19 seroprevalence and predictors among symptom suspected quarantined individual in North West Ethiopia. Institutional-based survey of recorded reviewed

    Fassikaw Kebede*, Tsehay Kebede and Birhanu Kebede

    Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide spreading pandemic respiratory disease caused by a positive single strand (RNA) virus. The assiduous and persistent endeavored efforts for effective tackling of the COVID-19 pandemic remain futile and ineffectual. This study aims to assess COVID-19 seroprevalence and associated risk factors among symptom suspected quarantined individual in North West Ethiopia.

    Methods: Institutional-based survey of COVID-19 symptoms suspected quarantined individuals from 21 Aprils- 30 December 2020. The collected data were edited and enter into EPI-DATA 3.1 version, then export to STATA/R-14 (SE) software for analysis. Bi-variables logistic regression was used for candidate variables transfer to multivariable logistic regression at P-value<0.25. Adjusted odds ratio with its 95% (CI) was used to declared statically significant variables at p-value<0.05. 

    Results: Of total 4233 quarantined individuals who received the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test, 4230/99.78% were interviewed with a 99.82% response rate. The overall seroprevalence of COVID-19 symptom suspected quarantined individuals in North West Ethiopia was found 5.11: 95% CI (4.4--5.87). The overall knowledge and practice of prevention towards COVID-19 infection on isolated individuals were found 86.17% (95%CI: 85.1--87.2) and 62.82%; 95%CI: 60.75--63.8), respectively. The risks of developing COVID-19 infection among quarantined groups who had poor knowledge and poor practice were 1.49 (AOR=1.49 95%CI: 1.13--2.2, P< 0.027), and 2.9 (AOR=2.9; 95%CI: 2.2--3.9; P<0.01) times increased.

    Conclusion: The seroprevalence of the quarantined population is high as compared with previously reported. The majority of the respondents know how to prevent themselves from the COVID-19, but changing this prevention knowledge into the practice of tackling is great hiatus.

    Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

    Perception of Patient and Visitors on Noise Pollution in Hospitals and Need of the Real Time Noise Monitoring System

    Jagruti Patil*

    Background: Various studies have found that noise is rising in hospitals since the 1960's and it’s consistent. Hospitals should have the quietest environment. WHO rules on Community noise expresses that noise in the emergency clinics during night ought not to surpass 40 dinside. And during the day and evening the guideline value indoors is 30 dB (A). Noise has many negative impacts physiologically and psychologically not only on patients but on staff too. Still many hospitals have noise more than recommended limits. It has found that patients recover faster in good acoustic conditions as compared to bad acoustic conditions. And it can help to increase the HCAHPS score of the hospitals. To reduce the noise there is need to adopt various technologies which can monitor the noise and reduce it.

    Methodology: To understand the perception of patients and visitors on noise in the hospital and the need of the real time noise monitoring system, a qualitative survey was conducted. The responses we got are from various regions of India. Also, a thorough study of the previous on the same topic was done to analyse the topic better.

    Result: Despite WHO guidelines on noise for the hospitals, our study shows that noise in the hospitals are still rising and it’s exceeding the recommended limit. Patient’s sleep got hampered during hospital stay, they got irritated due to noise. And it resulted in low patient satisfaction.

    Conclusion: Noise does not only impact the patient’s health, but also it leads to low patient satisfaction and negative perception towards the hospitals. People want hospitals to take necessary actions to reduce the noise like real time noise monitoring systems. By focusing on increasing patient satisfaction score, hospitals can achieve revenue goals.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Understanding about Contraceptive Devices among the Unmarried Adolescence

    Bishnu Sapkota

    Reproductive health is an essential and important factor of human life for which adolescence needs to have knowledge about it. This will help
    them to plan for their family after marriage and in their future it even helpful to aware about the use of temporary and permanently contraceptive
    method and devices. It is significant for male and female of different level of education through which they learn about the situation of
    using contraceptive devices of different age groups of unmarried adolescence. It is necessary to have knowledge of reproductive
    process and contraceptive devices. Our society still can’t talk about contraceptive devices and method as well as reproductive process in the
    family setting and member of own family due to our culture. It is not good for talking in front of adolescence child. After gaining the
    knowledge of reproductive health and its process, it is easy to minimize when the problem occurs in the time of reproduction process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Social and Mental Health of Residence of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Olasunkanmi Adeleke, Adegboro JS

    Background: COVID-19 is an outbreak of global pandemic disease which is causing fears and concerns among many people, with a significant
    influence on the social and mental well-being of every individuals. Considering the relevance of all the above factors, it was aimed to
    investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on social and mental health of residence of Ondo State, Nigeria.
    Methods: The descriptive survey type research design was used in this study. Using probability sampling technique, data were obtained
    through administration of questionnaire on 648 married couples with children in Ondo State. Data collected were analysed using
    inferential statistics

    Mini Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Mental Health during COVID -19

    Kaur Raman Deep*

    Any global disaster whether natural or man- made leads to several severe physical and psychological concerns. Presently one of such concern 
    which is influencing the cognitive well -being of the whole world is COVID -19. Started with few unexplained cases of pneumonia in 
    Wuhan, China, COVID-19, novel coronavirus disease was declared pandemic by WHO in Jan’2020. To date (April 29th, 2020), over 
    3018681 confirmed cases and 207973 deaths attributable to this disease have been reported as per WHO situation report.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Amyloid Beta as a Drug Target for the Treatment of Alzheimeraes disease

    MD Asadullah, Mamunar Rashid, Priyanka Basu, Md Murad Hossain

    In recent years Machine learning that has been used for disease diagnosis and prediction in public healthcare sector. It plays an essential role in healthcare and is rapidly being applied to education. It is one of the driving forces in science and technology, but the emergence of big data involves paradigm shifts in the implementation of machine learning techniques from traditional methods. Computers are now well equipped to diagnose many health issues with the availability of large health care datasets and progressions in machine learning techniques. Several machine learning techniques have been used by researchers in public health. Several of these methods, including Support Vector Machines (SVM), Decision Trees (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), are widely used in predictive model design research, resulting in effective and accurate decision-making. The predictive models discussed here are based on different supervised ML techniques as well as various input characteristics and data samples. Therefore, the predictive models can be used to support healthcare professionals and patients globally to improve public health as well as global health. Finally we provide some basic problems and challenges which face the researcher in public health.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Machine Learning in Public Health: A Review of the Problems and Challenges

    MD Asadullah, Mamunar Rashid, Priyanka Basu, Md Murad Hossain

    In recent years Machine learning that has been used for disease diagnosis and prediction in public healthcare sector. It plays an essential role in healthcare and is rapidly being applied to education. It is one of the driving forces in science and technology, but the emergence of big data involves paradigm shifts in the implementation of machine learning techniques from traditional methods. Computers are now well equipped to diagnose many health issues with the availability of large health care datasets and progressions in machine learning techniques. Several machine learning techniques have been used by researchers in public health. Several of these methods, including Support Vector Machines (SVM), Decision Trees (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), are widely used in predictive model design research, resulting in effective and accurate decision-making. The predictive models discussed here are based on different supervised ML techniques as well as various input characteristics and data samples. Therefore, the predictive models can be used to support healthcare professionals and patients globally to improve public health as well as global health. Finally we provide some basic problems and challenges which face the researcher in public health.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Maternal Iron Folate Supplement Delivery during Pregnancy in a Developing Country: Scoping Review

    Kebreab Paulos, Dereje Haile, Adisu Yeshambel, Tigst Bekele

    Background: It has been notified that ordinary consumption of dietary supplements containing iron or a combination of iron and folic acid for the duration of being pregnant improves maternal health and being pregnant results. Iron deficiency is the prevalent usual nutrient deficiency and the most common reason of anemia global. Because of the elevated iron necessities for the duration of being pregnant, iron deficiency can cause maternal anemia and decreased new child iron stores. Methods: Scoping assessment of maternal complement applications distribution strategies in low-earnings country such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Nepal are examined. A systematic search became executed in six databases; CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), MEDLINE, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus, and FSTA (Food Science and Technology) Results: A systematic search performed in six databases yielded a total of 526 un-duplicated results; (CINAHL: 42, Medline: 112, Web of Science: 77, PubMed: 90, Scopus: 179, FSTA: 10, and additional records: 16). Results after duplicates were removed (n=318), these results were screened, and relevant studies based on the research question identified and selected (n=10). The 10 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 5 of these studies were excluded for not meeting the scoping review criteria. Data was extracted and charted from the five remaining studies. The findings were collated and summarized. two modes of delivery were identified: 1. CommunityBased Distribution for Routine Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy; and 2. pregnant women who received iron folate supplements from health centers/local centers; Conclusions: Barriers in delivering maternal supplements included lack of trained professional volunteers, limited support and guidance provided to volunteers, and a high cost of equipment, supplies, and buildings. Pregnant women in developing countries faced many obstacles in accessing maternal supplement programs including poverty, rural isolation, limited transportation, low social status, traditional, cultural, and religious practices. Strategies required to improve program delivery involved an earlier invitation to prenatal supplements, increase in partnerships, a focus on adolescent girls’ health, increase in training and incentives for volunteers, and self-help groups focused on prenatal education and counseling services.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

    Social Support System and its Influence on Maternal Experiences, Tamale Central Hospital

    Keren Happuch Twumasiwaa Boateng

    Hospitalization of neonates in NICUs may subject mothers to shock and depression as a result of giving birth to babies who have low birth weight or premature babies and hence very fragile. This type of hospitalization disrupts the family process and subjects the parents of these babies to a state of crisis and disarray. These challenges range from social, economic, physiological and psychological in nature. There are no support groups for mothers with preterm babies to share their pain, experiences or interact with other mothers with similar problems. Over all, the problems of preterm babies may be in the increase yet not satisfactorily documented in the Ghanaian context. This study seeks to explore the social support system and its influence on maternal experiences. The study used exploratory descriptive design. The Study was conducted in the Tamale Metropolis, specifically targeting women with preterm babies undergoing treatment at the Tamale Central Hospital. The purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct face-to-face interviews with participants. The tape-recorded interviews were then transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually with the content analysis approach. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study demonstrated that when the participants were provided with information on how to care and were also shown how to provide the caring activities, they developed confidence in taking care of their preterm baby. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and the participants’ families assisted them to cope and promoted bonding. Management should support all neonatal intensive care facilities with adequate equipment and logistics to facilitate newborn care which will help limit the stay of hospitalized preterm babies in the neonatal intensive care units.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Parental support systems during end-of-life care of their newborns

    Keren-Happuch Twumasiwaa Boateng, Vida Nyagre Yakong, Nicholas L. Yombei

    Background: The progress made in neonatal intensive care delivery worldwide has resulted in optimal health outcomes of neonates, however, newborns and infants still die. The infants and newborns who die, majority of them die in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). The experiences of many parents following a poor prognosis of their newborns requiring end of life care suggest that parents usually need support from health care professionals who render direct services to their child, however, the extent and nature of this support is perceivably unknown. Purpose: The purpose of this study was therefore to explore parents’ lived experiences of support at NICU in Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH). Methodology: Using an exploratory descriptive design, a semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data. Ethical approval was sought from TTH ethics review committee which is the final authority to give approval for the data collection. Purposive and convenience sampling was used to select eight (8) parents to inform the study. The participating parents completed an informed consent form prior to their participation in an interview. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis. Key findings: Effective communication and the provision of continuous, concise and complete information about child’s condition were important to parents during the end-of-life care (EoLC) of their newborns in the NICU; Parental support in terms of information and communication, emotional, psychological and spiritual support, as shared decision-making are essential for quality EoLC at the TTH. Recommendations: Accommodation should be provided for parents of babies on NICU admission. Support groups should be formed to assist parents of babies receiving EoLC.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Meeting the threat of Coronavirus �?? how Haughton Thornley Medical Centres is using Digital technologies to support patients and primary care staff

      Hannan A

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      2019-nCoV is a new type of Coronavirus that has quickly become a global health threat impacting on many communities and countries around the world. Healthcare systems are under significant pressures to meet the needs of patients. Haughton Thornley Medical Centres has enabled 71% of all its patient population (just under 13,000 patients) to have full records access and understanding online including what the doctor or nurse have written about them. Through a Partnership of Trust and an explicit consent process, patients and carers are supported to use online services to become active partners in their care, working with staff and clinicians to view their electronic health records using apps such as Evergreen Life PHR and Patient Access and gain a better understanding of their healthcare needs, get appointments online by providing a comprehensive Instant Medical History via Engage Consult, sign-posted to trusted information on the practice-based web portal www.htmc.co.uk, social media including twitter and facebook and offering video consultations. This provides a great opportunity for practices to safely manage patients who may be at risk of coronavirus using online services, maintain confidence in healthcare systems and upskill individuals, families and communities to be educated and change behaviours as we promote happiness and wellness scores to achieve better outcomes for all long after the Coronavirus threat dissipates. We describe how one GP practice in the UK has overcome the fear by educating and implementing online services alongside face to face consultations to maximise trust, safety and quality in healthcare and supports the UN Sustainable Development Goals for cities for 2030.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

        Implementation of Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Programme Adopted Strategies to Target Shortages of Medical Specialists and Transforming Health Education Gujarat Scenario

        Snehal Parmar*

        DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.100011

        Medical specialists are scarce in India, and the numbers are disproportionately lower in the public sector, at the Community Health Centre (CHC) level and above. Even district hospitals in several states have an acute shortage of medical specialists. There is a huge potential for starting DNB courses in State Government District and Sub-district Hospitals to overcome shortages of Medical Specialists at these levels. NHM provides monetary support under the resource envelopes of the states to start DNB courses in district hospitals. Gujarat has a gap of 1200 specialists in public sector hospitals, when compared to sanctioned posts, wherein only 50% are filled. After various internal assessments state had identified 18 DHs and 28 SDHs to apply for DNB programme during 2019 accreditation cycle to overcome shortages of medical specialists. Applications for total 46 districts and sub-district hospitals have been done for seeking approval of 224 seats. Gujarat has lodged highest number of application during 2019 cycle across the country. These applications are in process and results are yet to be declared by NBE.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Economic Burden of Diabetic Mellitus and its Associated Factors among Patients Attending Public Regional Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018

          Solomon Assefa Huluka* and Melkamu Tiruneh

          The global economic burden of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is large and hindered global economic development. Thus, this study aimed to assess economic burden and its associated factors among DM patients attending public regional hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using Institutional Institutional based cross sectional study.

          Among the 385 respondents (94.4% response rate) enrolled in the study, 197 (51.12%) of them were females. More than three-quarter (77.1%) of the study participants were diagnosed with type 2 DM. Majority of the participants (291; 75.6%) self-finance their expenses towards the management of DM. Average total monthly cost of DM was found to be 1035.82 Birr per patient per month. Moreover, the mean cost of study participant for laboratory test, single purchasing insulin, insulin syringe and oral anti hyperglycemic agent were found to be 56.34 (± 90.68), 325.26 (± 229.06), 86.90 (± 81.24) and 437.69 (± 278.69) Birr per patient per month, respectively. Regression analysis study indicated that there is a significant (p<0.05) association between cost of DM and education, income, admission, distance from the health facility, emergency visit as well as number of drug prescribed. This study showed that DM imposes a high out of pocket cost expenditure on patients and their families.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Harmful Aspects of Quackery Practices Concerning Dengue Fever Prevalence among Inhabitants in Sindh Pakistan

          Rehan Khan*

          Background: In this report the Directorate of anti-quackery of the Sindh Healthcare Commission (DAQ-SHCC), Pakistan aims to resonate with the community the impact of inadequate knowledge of illegitimate medical practitioners and the palliative measures taken by them to cure probable dengue patients in the beginning at the onset of fever and the large dosage of analgesics (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents) being prescribed and running no diagnostic test may lead to potentially dangerous hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome which can cause an increase in the fatality rate. Dengue fever has recently swept the entire Pakistan and put the state on high alert. From July 2019 to November 2019 (as of 12th November) a record has set that seems to cross 47,120 dengue fever cases together with 75 casualties. While 12,053 (25.57%) cases have only been reported from Sindh, which is the highest number reported among all the provinces of Pakistan. We have therefore been dynamically involved in exploring the role of quacks in the prevalence of dengue infection across Sindh.

          Materials and Methods: A quasi experimental study regarding dengue fever and its prevalence prompted by quackery's burgeoning, have been carried out by the DAQ-SHCC head office located in Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose, the DAQ-SHCC inspection teams were deliberated to conduct dengue knowledge and management-based interviews in all the divisions of Sindh; Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Shaheed Benazirabad, Mirpurkhas and Larkana, with two hundred and twenty identified quacks about their malpractices and especially the analgesics those were being prescribed to the probable dengue infected people.

          Results: Two hundred and twenty identified quacks were probed for their malpractices to the probable dengue patients in the different divisions of Sindh. Of the total, 33.33% (40) were only interviewed from Karachi division, while 13.33% (16) from Sukkur division, 9.99% (12) from Larkana, 9.99% (12) from Mirpur Khas, 16.65% (20) from Shaheed Benazirabad and 16.65% (20) from Hyderabad division. It was observed that quacks were not even aware of the warning signs of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome and that leucopenia is a diagnostic criterion for dengue fever while thrombocytopenia is a criterion for diagnosing Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

          Conclusion: The results presented in this study showed that the quack’s knowledge about preventive measures of dengue and desired screening tests is significantly lower.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Socio-Economic Impact of Wearable Accessories in Fitness and Wellness : An Exploratory Study in Ghana

            Eleanor Afful*, James Ami-Narh, John Bosco Damnyang and Godfred Yaw Koi- Akrofi

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            Wearable technology, the era of human-computer interaction, is the blend of technology result in connectivity and mobility of the users with regular accessories, which makes the user’s life easier. Having faster access to information and communicate with other things such as smartphones allow the wearer to use data generated from the wearable system by saving cost, effort and time in various aspects of the users life.
            The purpose of the wearable device incorporated into the body is to help manage and filter valuable information generated, portable and more convenient with
            much intimacy to our daily lives in fitness and healthcare. As the computer moves from desktop through coat pocket to the human body, provides new ways of easy access to valuable information regarding the wearer and the environment.
            To provide organizations seeking to innovate in the business perspective a competitive advantage in products and services delivery, wearable accessories in the consumer market plays a significant role in various fields with its related socio-economic impact to the wearers and the wearable system.
            Health activities such as measuring of heart rate, blood pressure, calories burned monitored when accessories worn on the bod, offering tremendous help to the aged with health-related issues to cut cost through remote patient monitoring system.
            Organizations seeking to innovate in the business, wearable accessories in the consumer market plays a significant role in various fields with its related socio-
            economic impact to the wearers and the wearable system, a competitive advantage in products and services delivery.
            Wearable technology has much influence in military technology, transportation, Global Positioning Systems, education, finance, gaming, fitness, disabilities, aging, entertainment and healthcare systems.
            The paper first aims to elicit insights about wearable accessories by exploring the evolution of wearable technology. Second, the application of the wearable technology in various sectors of the economy, especially in the healthcare sector. Finally, this paper discusses the social impact and barriers of the adoption of wearable accessories. A content analysis of related literature was the approach adopted to show the findings.

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