Background: Anaemia is a worldwide major problem known to affect people throughout the world. It has an adverse effect on both the social and economic development. The worldwide prevalence of anaemia is 9% in developed nations. The global estimate indicates that 293.1 million of children under five years, approximately 43%, are anaemic worldwide and 28.5% of these children are found in sub Saharan Africa. In Zambia specifically Kasempa, no documented studies on prevalence have been done. Despite iron supplementation given to pregnant women and the availability of blood transfusion. The burden of the disease remains high as determined by high mortality and morbidity. This study aims at determining the prevalence of anaemia and the known associated risk factors among under-five children at Mukinge Mission Hospital in Kasempa District. Knowledge of prevalence and the known associated risk factors of anaemia will
enhance early detection and timely management.
Methods: This was a retrospective study review of under-five children that were diagnosed and managed of Anaemia at Mukinge Missions Hospital, over the period of period of 2015, 2017 and 2018. Data of the variables of interest was extracted and analyzed using SPSS software version 23.
Results: A sample population of 52 children was included in this study. The majority of the children were females 28 (53.8%) and 24 (46.2%) were males. It was found that moderate and severe anaemia among anaemic children was 17.3% and 82.7% respectively. Additionally, majority of the anaemic children (75%) had normocytic anaemia. The [earson chi square test revealed no statistical relationship between the variables; Malaria (p=0.58), age (P=0.82), gender (P=0.91).
Conclusion: According to our study, 39 (75%) had normal mean corpuscular volume which could suggest chronic diseases and sickle cell anaemia. 11 (21.2%) had a low mean corpuscular volume indicating microcytic anaemia which could suggest diseases such as iron deficiency and thalassemia among many other
causes. However, we were unable to determine the specific cause of anaemia.