Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2021)

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    More than just the feet: an approach to the laminitic horse

    Jessica P Johnson

    Laminitis is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease of the equine foot with a reported frequency ranging from 1.5% to 34% [1]. The disease results in profound pain and suffering in affected animals and is widely considered as a leading cause of euthanasia in the horse. It has been estimated that 89% of laminitis cases result from endocrinopathic disease, with 58% specifically attributed to equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) [4]. The Arabian horse has been identified as carrying a risk locus for one such endocrinopathic disease, known as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), therefore predisposing this breed to development of laminitis [5]. With a population of horses comprising >75% Arabians, with the majority of them being show horses renowned for husbandry conditions predisposing them to laminitis, Dr Johnson has gained extensive experience dealing with laminitic cases, in a wide variety of presentations and severity, during her time spent working at the Equine Veterinary Medical Center in Doha, Qatar, where laminitic patients make up a significant proportion of her caseload. Here, she discusses her approach to a comprehensive investigation of the laminitic horse, including the importance of a thorough history-taking, what to check on physical examination, practical perspectives on clinical pathology, as well as tips and tricks for diagnostic imaging, drawing on recent research in this field. Improvements in our ability to detect subtle changes and to diagnose the condition early in its course, will result in better treatment success and outcomes for our equine patients, thereby improving their health and welfare.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Spirocercosis of dogs in spread Belgrade area

    Ivan Pavlovic

    Spirocerosis is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Spirocerca lupi. Parasites mostly occurring in warm climates and increasingly in Mediterranean areas and West Balkan.

    The parasite development cycle involving intermediate hosts (coprophagous beetles - Scarabidae), paratenic hosts (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals) and domestic or wild canids as the main definitive host (dogs, foxes). Dog infections originated by the ingestion of intermediate hosts which carrying infective larvae (L3).

    The infective larvae are released into the stomach, penetrate its mucosa and begin a strikingly predictable migration, reaching the thoracic aorta within 3 weeks. Most of the larvae leave the aorta approximately 3 months after infection and cross over to the esophagus, where they incite the development of granulomatous nodules as they mature to adults over the next 3 months. Spirocercosis in dogs has been mostly associated with the aortic aneurysms; hypertrophic osteopathy; mid-thoracic spondylitis; salivary gland necrosis; pyothorax; and esophageal granulomas which may transform to sarcoma of connective tissue whose metastases are found in the lungs and bones. The mortality rate is up to 95%.

    The first case of spirocerosis of dogs in Serbia was recorded in Belgrade during 2014 and in the latter period (until 2019). we occurred another 18 cases in spread Belgrade area, but it was not established in other parts of Serbia. In all dogs in whom spirocerosis was established, the dominant clinical symptoms were increased salivation and difficulty swallowing. In one case, cough and breathing were noticed. In all cases, the diagnosis was made by finding of parasite eggs, followed by endoscopic examination during which the characteristic nodular crevices and the presence of parasites in them were observed in the esophagus. Unfortunately, in all cases there was a lethal outcome due to metastatic tumors.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    State of the art of regenerative veterinary medicine in Uruguay

    Jacqueline Maisonnave

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are potential therapeutical biological products, to be used in Veterinary Medicine and animal models, due to their attractive characteristics: multipotentiality, immunomodulation, angiogenesis, tissue regeneration, homing to areas of injury and antimicrobial effect. MSCs are found in every organ of the body and are able to maintain their undifferentiated state for long periods of time and differentiate to specialized cells. Initially the most common MSCs source was bone marrow (BM), but now a days the adipose tissue (AT) source, is more commonly used. Lately other sources are been studied as Umbilical cord derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). At our lab the AT MSCs are isolated by enzymatic method and UC & DP derived MSCs are isolated by overgrowth method. In 2010 a domestic animal MSCs biobank was created as well as the Regenerative Veterinary Medicine (RVM) Service at the Immunology Area of Veterinary School, University of Uruguay. Also in 2010 we created the First RVM International group at the University of Uruguay. At the Veterinary Teaching Hospital through the RVM service, we treated orthopedic problems (nonunion fractures, osteomyelitis, tendon, ligament and joint injuries), skin lesions and mucosal inflammation problems, in canines, felines and equines. These clinical cases treated  with allogenic AT-MSCs and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) end up being Graduate Thesis (n:7). I will be presenting the evolution of these RVM treatments n domestic animals. Basic research as isolation, characterization and genetic studies of MSCs, as well as studies on the use of platelet lysate (PL) as substitute of FBS in MSCs culture, end up in MSCs (n:2) and PhD (n:1) thesis. Future studies will be done with UC-MSCs and DPSC as well as with limbal derived MSCs. Pluripotency markers have been detected in DPSC, therefore they can also differentiate into neurogenic cells.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Use of enrofloxacin hydrochloride-dihydrate (enro-c), for the treatment of acute cases of leptospirosis in dogs

    Hector os sumano

    Fluoroquinolones are not recommended to treat canine-leptospirosis (1). However, pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin HCl-2H2O (enro-C) in dogs and Monte-Carlo simulations against Leptospira spp. (2) prompted a clinical study to treat acute cases of leptospirosis. The disease was initially diagnosed based on clinical signs, and liver and kidneys blood parameters (3). Later, real-time PCR from blood and micro-agglutination titers (MAT ≥ 800) confirmed or dismissed each case for this study (4, 5). In all cases an early treatment was established. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the gold-standard control one (GSC-g) who were treated initially with high doses of amoxicillin (20 mg/kg tid, IV) for five days, followed by a 2-week course of doxycycline (22 cases); and the experimental group (enro-CEg) whose cases were treated with IM injections of a 5% aqueous enro-C suspension (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days), followed by 1-week of enro-C administered orally (34 cases). Supportive therapy with fluids, electrolytes and urinary output assessment were set for all patients. Dog ages ranged from 1 to 5 years in both groups. In GSC-g 13 cases were regarded as treatment failure (59.09%), and were treated out of this protocol. All dogs in enro-CEg were regarded as a treatment success (100%). One month later 100% negative results from real-time PCR in urine samples was observed in all dogs from the enro-CEg, while only 77.77% (7 dogs from the remaining 9 treated) of the GSC-g were PCR-negative. Within 6–24 months of clinical follow-up, no relapses were recorded in either group. Adverse effects in the enro-CRg were inconsequential while various gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in the GSC-g. Results from this trial validate the Monte Carlo simulations with enro-C that predicted good efficacy to treat canine leptospirosis. Furthermore this report ensures high clinical and bacteriological cure rate successes.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Comparative bioavailability of Enrofloxacin in dogs when concealed in non-commercial morsels, either as tablet or as Enrofloxacin-Alginate preparation

    Lilia Gutierrrez

    It has been postulated that to obtain optimal clinical efficacy with enrofloxacin, the appropriate pharmacokinetics / pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios must be achieved i.e.,  that the maximum serum concentration (CMAX) reach a peak at or above 10 to 12 times the value of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (CMAX ≥ 10–12 MIC), and/or the ratio of the area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC0–24) divided by MIC should be equivalent or higher than 125 (AUC0–24/MIC ≥ 125). Moreover, it has been postulated that if CMAX/MIC values ≥ 16 are achieved, mutant inhibitor concentration can be expected. Enrofloxacin tablets are indicated once a day and they should be administered without food. Yet, pet-owners often fail to comply with this indication and often hide the tablet in a treat or morsel i.e., within a piece of sausage (S), or covered with jelly (J) or with yogurt (Y) to avoid the drug’s unpleasant flavor. There is a lack of formal PK data published when enrofloxacin tablet is administered with a morsel. This study presents a pharmaceutical preparation (PhP) based on coating enrofloxacin with alginate derivatives in a very efficient chemical procedure (>then 98%) that eliminates completely the unpleasent flavor of this drug and allows precise and easy dosing, as it can be easily concealed in a sausage. The figure below shows the serum-pharmacokinetic profiles of the original preparation (B®) and the PhP, administered with the 3 types of morsels (S, J or Y). The highest bioavailability (Fr) was achieved by PhP + S (307%). It is concluded that B® decreases its bioavailability when administered with morsels, even up to 70%, while PhP increases Fr, particularly when administered with sausage or yogurt morsels. This maneuver will facilitate dosing by pet owners and will improving compliance with prescription.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    Medicinal plants and biopharmaceutics a potential source of drug discovery

    Aziza Mahrous Mohamed Amer

    Plants are extraordinarily rich sources of medicinally active compounds but was not addressed in a systematic manner until the 1980's as a source of novel molecules. Medicines are used whole plant or as concentrated plant extracts without isolation of active compounds. Most medicinal plants extract components work synergistically to induce their therapeutic effects. Often isolation of a single “active compound” it becomes therapeutically ineffective. Drug discovery is a multidisciplinary study of several parameters of both natural and synthetic compound (safety, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics) to be evaluated to insure effective compound selection.

    Advanced biology approach systems combined with application recent technologies such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics/metabonomic are essential for obtaining drug from plant origin. Recently, biotechnology and used in multiply and conserve the critical genotypes of medicinal plants. High-quality plant-based medicine can produce by genetic transformation and In-vitro regeneration. While In-vitro production of secondary metabolites in plant cell suspension cultures or bioreactors are the key step towards commercial production of secondary metabolites by plant biotechnology as a biopharmaceutics.

    Computational strategies and Artificial Intelligence considered as a potential approach for drug discovery. These methods speed in drug discovery and evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of candidate compounds.

    Optimization of the drug discovery process is multidimensional research field. In, therapeutic compound designs several factors should take in consideration. These factors include absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) criteria and biological activity of the final product.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Oncology

    Massimo Vignoli

    In veterinary medicine the most imaging modalities are radiology and ultrasound, due to the wide availability and low cost. Radiology guarantees considerable information in the study of the appendicular skeleton, in addition to the thorax. The limitation of radiology is linked to the fact that three-dimensional organs are represented on a plane in the image, so there are overlaps of organs. Then there are tomographic techniques that avoid overlaps and are more accurate. Ultrasound (US) allows to obtain important information in soft tissues, in particular with regard to the abdominal organs or superficial intra-thoracic lesions. It also represents a guide for performing targeted biopsy sampling. It is limited by the bone structures and gas. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have higher costs, are less available, but give significantly more accurate information. The CT in particular also allows to obtain the study of the whole body ("total body"), so to give information both on the primary tumor and on the possible presence of metastases, thus carrying out a complete staging. It also allows for guided biopsies. Of all these imaging modalities, CT is considered the method of choice in veterinary oncology and is considered the most used modality by surgeons to verify tumor operability. With regard to the primary tumor, information is obtained on the size of the tumor, its exact location and extent (local invasiveness), as well as for metastatic search and to look for concomitant diseases.

    CT also plays a fundamental role in the treatment of tumors with radiotherapy or to follow up the patient after the treatment.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Barriers that limit entry of underrepresented people of color in academic healthcare professions and education

    Annie J Daniel

    The number of underrepresented people of color (URPCs) in academic healthcare professions and education has seen little increase in numbers in the professoriate student population. What is it about the academic environment of our health professions schools that deter or even discourage URPCs from full participation in academics? How can we provide role models for underrepresented students of color in our health professions education programs? Is it time to examine creative and innovative thinking about the academic health care enterprise? What impact does the political, social and race relations of our time have on underrepresented people of color in academic health care centers? These and other ideas will be explored.

    Due to shifts in the composition of the population, the U. S. Census projects that by the year 2042 groups that comprise current racial minorities will become the majority of the US population. As a result, the client base across all health professions, including medicine and veterinary medicine are undergoing change.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    The applications of genetics in the veterinary science

    Ricardo Zanella

    Animal selection has generated a variety of phenotype that evolved into distinct breeds scattered across the globe. Investigations of animal population history, breeding decisions, and patterns of geographic evolution are being accessed using genomic information. The use of genetics has clearly improved the process to identify and to select most suitable animal for different environments.  With this we have observed a enormous progress on the production of different animal species. Thus, the assessment of genetic information has become essential to the implementation of selection programs in different animal breeds.

    However with the intensification of the animal selection, we also have observed the appearance in the frequency of deleterious alleles in different populations, involved with disease traits. Therefore, the use of genomic information has become an important tool to identify and to characterize different genetic variations involved with animal diseases, being used now to help in the selection process against this phenotype.

    The objective of my talk is to cover the use of genetics to understand different genetic mechanisms involved with diseases traits.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Innovative biological formulation can help the control of cattle ticks

    Allan Felipe Marciano

    Rhipicephalus microplus, commonly known as cattle tick is a serious threat to dairy and beef cattle farming in countries where they are found, generating economic losses which has intensified over the years due to the pest’s resistance to chemical pesticides. Brazil has the largest commercial herd of cattle in the world, with more than 200 million heads, with ticks being the main vector of diseases for these animals, responsible for losses around US $ 3.2 billion per year. Proposing new tick control solutions, this study addresses the efficiency of biodegradable and low-cost granular formulations containing as active ingredient the pathogenic fungus for arthropods, Metarhizium robertsii. The tests were carried out in semi-field conditions, using pots with Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk grass, a plant widely used in cattle breeding pastures in the tropics. The granular formulations were prepared with microsclerotia or blastospores (structures of the fungus obtained through liquid fermentation), and the pots were treated with 0.25 or 0.5 mg of granular formulation / cm2 (25 or 50 kg / ha) applied to the surface of the soil before transferring engorged tick females in the treated soil. Mortality of the females exposed to the treated soil, the number of larvae descending from them, as well as the persistence of the fungus in the soil over 336 days were evaluated. M. robertsii granular formulations reduced the number of tick larvae on the pasture during the wetter season, reaching at least 64.8% of relative effectiveness, a promising percentage considering the use of a natural enemy of the target pest. The study revealed a significant decline in the persistence of fungi in the surface of the soil over time, but after 336 days it was possible to find the microorganism colonizing the rhizosphere of the grass, corroborating with recent discoveries about the biology of the fungus M. robertsii. The results highlight, for the first time, a strategy of using dry granular formulations for soil application to suppress the tick populations in the pasture, where 95% of the tick population is found on farms. The use of these formulations combined with other control strategies, will help farmers to obtain less infested animals and reduce ticks’ resistance to chemical molecules, enabling sustainable milk and meat production, free from uncontrolled tick infestations.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Camel husbandry management and reproductive performance in tropics

    Jana Maresova

    This study offers an evaluation of camel reproductive performance from more than one hundred studies (n = 119) focused on dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) husbandry and breeding practices in the typical camel husbandry regions The results showed that the mean ± SD age of puberty of males and females, age at first service, age at first calving, calving interval and pregnancy length was 50.74 ± 12.78, 42.55 ± 8.73, 49.15 ± 9.49, 61.57 ± 8.69, 24.99 ± 7.37 and 12.44 ± 0.27 months, respectively. The latest age at first service (54.71 ± 6.93 months) was reported in studies from East 4 African region and the latest age at first calving (69.6 ± 0.72 months) from Central Africa. The longest calving interval was reported also in Central Africa (31.8 ± 5.4 months). The average calving rate, abortion rate and calf mortality (mean ± SD) was 53.54 ± 17.12, 16.79 ± 15.81 and 26.22 ± 17.78 %, respectively. The highest abortion rate (41.45±26.23) and calf mortality (31.38 ± 2.36) was found in South Asia. The mean weaning age from all studies was 11.56 ± 2.44 months. Significance for all methods and tests was set at p < 0.05. The calf mortality and abortion rate were moderately and strongly correlated with rainfall, the higher rainfall was in the area the higher were these parameters, but these correlations were not significant (p = 0.0556, p = 0.1921, respectively). The significantly later age of male puberty (p = 0.019) was found in areas with higher temperature. There were no significant correlations of any other climate conditions with other reproductive parameters in this analysis.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Feline Arterial Thromboembolism: prognostic factors and treatment

    Laurent Locquet

    Feline arterial thromboembolism, or ‘ATE’, is one of the most distressing emergency conditions in feline practice. Given the sudden onset of paralysis or paraparesis of the hindquarters, the most common clinical sign correlated with this condition, with concomitant severe pain, this is a distressing event for the affected animal, pet owner and often treating veterinarian. Especially because a significant share of these cats shows no prior clinical signs. An often asymptomatic cardiomyopathy predisposing to thrombogenesis in the left atrium with subsequently partial or complete occlusion of a distal systemic artery by the generated clot is the most important and prevalent underlying cause. Although the vast majority of affected cats is currently euthanized, recent publications have shown that a subpopulation may have a long-term survival, sometimes of over one year, with satisfying quality of life.  The identification of divergent prognostic factors in each individual affected cat with according treatment and follow-up are pivotal for initiation and adjustment of the patient management as well as owner communication.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay - a new paradigm on Microbiology lab

    França Andrade

    Is it possible to have Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test results in 2h?

    New antimicrobials are insufficient to face the increasing resistance. Older drugs and adjuvants are used more widely, but microbes also evolve to resist them. To address this and to get the right drug to the right patient at the right time, regulation and/or stewardship programs are not enough. The world needs a change on the paradigm in the way that technology is incorporated into the decision-making of antibiotic use – whether be in at home, pharmacy, doctor’s office, hospital ward or farm.

    Rapid diagnostic antimicrobial tests urged, improving the antimicrobials choice, helping to prevent the rise of drug resistance by reducing the unnecessary use and change our approach to bacterial infections through supporting targeted and precise therapies.

    A rapid flow cytometric antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) for bacteria isolated from companion animals - the FASTvet® assay, developed by FASTinov®, was evaluated. Bacterial strains isolated from different biological samples of companion animals with infectious diseases in progress were obtained from several veterinary clinical laboratories across the country. A total of 115 strains, comprising 65 Gram-negative and 50 Gram-positive isolates, were incubated with 13 antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, amoxacillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefpodoxime, imipenem, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin for Gram-negative; penicillin, cefoxitin, enrofloxacin, vancomycin and ampicillin for Gram-positive) at breakpoint concentrations following CLSI protocol (Vet 01, 2018) for 1h and analyzed by flow cytometry. The overall categorical agreement was 95.6% for Gram-negative and 96.7% for Gram-positive isolates compared to microdilution. FASTvet kits reduce the turnaround time (2h vs 24h) with early determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile. The performance of the FASTvet kit agrees with the ISO recommendations for AST.

    In conclusion, the correct and rapid choice of the target antibiotic therapy, will have a positive impact on animal care, and prevents antimicrobial resistance. FASTvet® kits showed an excellent performance, both for Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates, encouraging us to enlarge the sample size and planning multicentric studies. An external validation, in dedicated veterinary labs, is being planned. This new and disruptive technology could change the clinical diagnostic paradigm in relation to antimicrobial therapy with a positive impact on animal´s health avoiding the quick spread of resistance.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Ultrasonografic diagnosis of pyometra on bitches: a preliminar study

    Martin Llazani

    Pyometra in bitches, as a chronic inflammatory reaction, is accompanied with changes on endometrium and its gland, which are evident. On the other hand, pus filled the lumen of the uterus, doing this disease dangerous for life of an animal. These changes, as the recent studies show, are under the effects of a changed endometrial vascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonography techniques as a helpful tool in diagnosing of pyometra, especially closed - cervix pyometra.  

    In fifty -nine bitches with clinical symptoms or suspicion for pyometra an ultrasonography examination was performed.  Clinical examination, laboratory tests and morphological control of animals were performed, as well. Forty-nine bitches (83.05%) manifested muco-serous -purulent vaginal discharged, 81,35% of animals manifested anorexia, 38.9% with polyuria and 22.03% with polydipsia. Pyrexia was manifested in 23,4% of bitches (>40.0°C), heart rate was higher in 29.8% of bitches (mean 123 beat/min) and 51.06% of them manifested high breathing rate (mean 33 respiration rate/min).

    Ultrasound examination was confirmed in 100% of bitches with open - cervix pyometra and 88.1% (52) of cases with closed - cervix pyometra. After examination ovariohysterectomy was realized. Samples for histopathological examination from horns of uteri were collected.

    It is thus concluded that ultrasonography technique is a very helpful tool in diagnosing of pyometra, especially when there are suspicious cases or closed-cervix pyometra. It has potential to support clinical results and to help saving of an animal’s life.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    Hemato-Biochemical Values of Indigenous Manipuri Cattle

    Bhabesh mili

    The knowledge of hematology and biochemical values are vital for a veterinarian for health care management, assessment of physiological and pathological, metabolic status, stress and assessment of adaptability to a given geographical location. Various factors such as age, sex, breed, stress, diet, body condition, reproductive status, recent activity, hydration, ambient temperature and altitude contribute towards physiological variability of hematology and biochemical values of animals. Hence, Reference Interval (RI) of a breed or species in one geographical location cannot be taken as RI in another locality. The present study was aimed to establish a RI of hematology and biochemical values of indigenous Manipuri cattle. Blood samples were collected from ten (n=10) healthy indigenous Manipuri cattle from College Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), Jalukie, Nagaland. Hematology and biochemical variables were estimated by an automated blood cell and biochemical analyser, respectively. Differential Leukocytes Count (DLC) was evaluated after staining the slides with Leishman’s stain. The overall value (Mean ± SEM) for Packed Cell Volume (32.24±1.40 %), Haemoglobin (13.15±0.77g/dL), Total Erythrocyte Count (7.47±0.28 x106/µL), Mean Corpuscular Volume (43.3±1.42 fL), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (17.64±1.02 pg), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (40.64±1.13 g/dL), Red Cell Distribution Width (14.11±0.44), Total Leukocyte Count (14.05±0.94 x 103/µL), Lymphocyte (56.75±4.80 %), Neutrophil (31.48±3.49 %), Monocyte (8.75±0.84 %), Eosinophil (5.25±0.96 %), and Basophil (0.625±0.32 %), respectively. The overall mean value (Mean ± SEM) of Glucose (55.53±3.35 mg/dL), Calcium (11.23±0.23 mg/dL), Albumin (2.72±0.05 g/dL), Blood Urea Nitrogen (14.96±1.14 mg/dL), Urea (31.99±2.45 mg/dL), Creatinine (0.49±0.11 mg/dL), Uric acid (0.86±0.07 mg/dL), Bilirubin (0.10±0.007mg/dL),  Cholesterol (143±9.78mg/dL), Alanine Amino Transferase (27.94±1.76 U/L), Aspartate  Amino Transferase (71.39±4.19 U/L) and Alkaline Phophatase (62.4±6.89 U/L), respectively. The hemato-biochemical values were within normal ranges of cow except Total Leukocyte Count. It can be concluded that the data of this study will be act as a guide on hemato-biochemical values for the indigenous Manipuri cattle.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Poikilocytosis is associated with the exposure length and temperature intensity in Antemortem and Postmortem Analysis -Experimental Study on Wistar Rats

    Emina Dervisevic

    Introduction: The body temperature elevation caused by body heat exposure, results in significant increase of structurally transformed erythrocytes  and vesicles in blood. Since there are more and more deaths that occur during bathing, especially in the bathroom or   warm ambient in the summer months, the aim was to find out what happens to erythrocytes and their forms during life and after death as a result of high water temperature. Method: In order to investigate the effects of different temperature intensities (37°C and 44°C) and exposure time (20 min and until the time of death) on erythrocyte morphology, heat stress was used on a rat model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups: 37°C as control group and 44°C as trial groups. The trial groups were classified into antemortem the exposure time of 20 min and postmortem groups exposure time until fatal outcome. The anaesthetised rats were exposed to preheated water using the water bath. May-Grünwald-Giemsa colouring technique was applied on blood samples taken from the abdominal aorta. The light microscopy was performed (Motic Type 102M) to detect poikilocytes. Results: Exposure of Wistar rats to water temperature in groups KG37 and G44 led to a significant changes in core temperature; In the control group, the thermoregulatory mechanism established normothermia, and in G44 hyperthermia was detected during 20 minutes of exposure. The frequency of heat stroke in group G44 was 43.8%.  Target cells and anulocytes were predominant in antemortem group at 44°C, while anulocytes and spherocytes in postmortem groups 44°C, respectively. Dacryocytes with spherocytes were significantly higher in postmortem group 44°C than in antemortem group 44°C (P=0.002, P=0.017, respectively). Conclusion: Poikilocytosis is associated with the exposure length and temperature intensity. Following a fatal outcome dacryocytes with spherocytes at 44°C  were significantly more than in corresponding antemortem groups.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Organic fertilizer for environmental control of small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes

    Hevila Oliveira Salles


    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are potentially the most important cause of economic loss in the small ruminant production. However, for controlling GIN, the use of anthelmintic is not a sustainable strategy and needs to be reduced. The integrated parasite management (IPM) has been the best alternative. Aiming to make another strategy available for IPM and knowing that most gastrointestinal nematodes live in the environment, it was proposed a strategy for controlling the free-living stages of nematodes of small ruminants in the soil. It is based on the use of an organic fertilizer that reduces the contamination of grasses by infective larvae (L3) and increases the amount of grass biomass, thereby contributing to reduce the L3.g-1 of dry mass, favor the nutritional levels of grass, and indirectly, the animal, by increasing the supply of food in the pasture. Wastes from the juice and biodiesel industry were tested in vitro by larval development assay. Castor cake showed good anthelmintic effect in vitro and a good source of nitrogen in the bromatological composition. Firstly, it was tested in pots. In the field, the strategy was tested by using castor cake as organic fertilizer on guinea grass pastures (Megathyrsus maximus cv Tanzania) and raising sheep on pasture. In the control group was used organic compost because it has no anthelmintic effect in vitro. The soil treatment strategy showed 63.41% effectiveness in controlling worm infestations. This work opens the opportunity to test others organic materials around the world to control free-living stages of small ruminant GIN in the environment.


    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Species of Anisakidae nematodes and Clinostomum spp. infecting lisa Mugil curema (Mugilidae) intended for human consumption in Mexico

    Andrea Paloma Zepeda Velázquez

    Nematodes of the Anisakidae family have the ability to infest a wide variety of aquatic hosts during the development of their larval stages, mainly marine mammals, aquatic birds, such as pelicans, and freshwater fish, such crucian carp, these being the hosts where the life cycle is completed. The participation of intermediate hosts such as cephalopods, shrimp, crustaceans and marine fish, is an important part of this cycle. Due to morphological changes and updates to the genetic information of the different members of the family, the purpose of this review was to carry out a bibliographic search of the genus and species of the Anisakidae family identified by molecular tests, as well as the geographical area in which they were collected. The Anisakidae family is made up of eight different parasitic genera and 46 different species. Those of clinical importance to human health are highlighted: Anisakis pegreffi, A. simplex sensu stricto, Contracaecum osculatum, Pseudoterranova azarazi, P. cattani, P. decipiens and P. krabbei. The geographical distribution of these genera and species is located mainly in the European continent, Asia and South America, as well as in North and Central America and Australia. Based on the information collected from the Anisakidae family, it was determined that the geographical distribution is affected by different environmental factors, the host and the ability of the parasite itself to adapt. Its ability to adapt to the human organism has led to it being considered as a zoonotic agent. The disease in humans manifests nonspecifically, however the consumption of raw or semi-raw seafood is crucial information to link the presentation of the parasite with the disease.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapies in companion animals: principles and applications

    Joao Requicha

    Regenerative Medicine therapies aim to restore normal morphology and function of damaged tissues. Regenerative approaches are based on the use of stem cells, growth and differentiation factors, such as platelet-rich plasma, and biomaterials from natural or synthetic origin which can act as matrix or vehicle.

    Mesenchymal stem cells could be obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord or dental tissues, among others. They can be differentiated into osteoblasts or chondroblasts, important for the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions, such as osteoarthritis, tendinitis or non-union fractures. Their regenerative, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects are controlled by bioactive substances with autocrine and paracrine factors which constitute the cell secretoma. Cell-based immunotherapies are reported in different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, feline chronic gingivostomatitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, feline asthma or renal disease, as well as in neurological diseases like sequelae of distemper encephalitis or canine degenerative myelopathy. The synergy between medical and basic sciences and the demand for new therapeutic solutions will pave the way for the development of new Regenerative Medicine strategies.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Characterisation of fungi isolated form porcine micro biota and examination of their synergism with probiotic bacteria

    Orsolya palocz

    Our aim was to find out more about the beneficial fungal species, Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris, which occurs naturally in the healthy porcine intestine, to promote its growth and to find out with which probiotic bacteria it will form the best beneficial synergistic action.

    We isolated and selectively cultured different fungi species from swine faeces of different origin. DNA was isolated from the selected fungi isolates and the species of the isolated K. telluris fungus was determined via PCR. We tested different isolates of the fungus together with probiotic bacteria which are commonly used in the swine industry. In our experiments, we used Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum. We determined their growth rate and correlated it with the turbidity of their 24 h culture. The effect of the spent culture supernatant of the fungi and probiotic mixture on the viability of porcine intestinal cells (IPEC-J2 cell line) was measured with neutral red uptake test. Among the collected faecal samples, the K. telluris could be found only in young Mangalica pigs (5×102 CFU/g). The viability of IPEC-J2 cells was not altered after the treatment with 5% of K. telluris spent culture supernatant (SCS). The simultaneous treatment of the monolayer jejunal cell cultures with the 5% fungal SCS with 5% supernatant of either B. subtilis or L. plantarum has not reduced the viability of the cells. Based on our examinations, K. telluris can be detected in the normal gut microbiota of young extensively kept domestic swine. In the case of older and intensively-farmed pigs, we could not obtain the K. telluris fungus. We would like to further evaluate the presence of K. telluris in the microbiota of wild boar intestines. In addition, we will investigate the synergistic effect of K. telluris with the beneficial enteric bacteria of pigs in vitro and in vivo.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    The clinical signs and cytological diagnosis of pyometra in bitches

    Martin Llazani

    Pyometra is a common pathology of middle age and geriatric bitches and appears 1-3 month after last estrus. Clinical sign of pyometra are diverse and not specific and different among patients. Despite clinical signs are not typical for pyometra, early knowledge of them helps put diagnose and an efficient treatment to assure the welfare of the animal.

    In our study the most common clinical signs are: vaginal discharge (86.4%), anorexia (81.3 %), 76.3% of the cases presented with vomit, 22.03% had polyuria, 38.9% showed polydipsia, 18.6% had diarrhea.

    Studied parameters were rectal temperature, pulse and breathing, to have a full clinical evaluation of the animals with pyometra. Fifty-nine (62.7%) presented with normal body temperature, 22 animals (23.4%) manifested high temperature (> 40 °C) and 13 animals (13.8%) resulted hypothermic (less than 37.8 °C). In our study, from 94 animals of different breeds and ages, 66 animals (70.2%) resulted with normal arterial pulse and only 29.8% of them had increased heart beat (123 bpm). Breathing rate is increased in more than 50% of animals with pyometra. 46 animals (48.9%) did not show changes in breathing rate and 51.06% of them had increased breathing rate (33 breathing per minute).

    Vaginal discharge found in bitches with open cervix pyometra helps in early discovery from the owner and also helps for a faster diagnose. These findings can be used to put a cytological diagnose. Cytological diagnose is a simple easy and cheap method that helps putting a preliminary diagnose together with anamnesis, clinical sign and laboratory findings.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Immunomodulation, antioxidative and therapeutic study of Withania somnifera (WS) in subclinical mastitis in crossbred cattle

    J P Kachhawa

    Mastitis refers to an inflammation of the mammary tissue and is a common disease in dairy cattle. It is alone disease that causes much greater loss to the dairy industry. Medicinal plants are being used in Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) since ancient time for treating various ailments of human as well as animals. The herbal medicines have gained importance due to their less toxicity, lesser side effects and being organic in nature. Milk samples of apparently healthy HF crossbred cows were investigated for subclinical mastitis (SCM) by the various diagnostic tests viz. CMT, pH, EC, SCC and cultural examination in the laboratory. Effect of WS on oxidative stress related biochemical parameters viz. malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and catalse were investigated and for immunomodulation effect immunoglobulins and phagocytic activity of PMN cells were also evaluated. For therapeutic study of WS eight cows were administered with oral alcoholic extract of WS @ 125 mg/kg body weight and Intramammary 500 mg WS extract dissolved in 5 ml NSS twice daily for 7 days. The therapeutic study results showed that there was a significant improvement recorded in the CMT point score, SCC, pH and EC after treatment as compare to pre-treatment results. The oxidative marker study revealed that the herbal alcoholic extract possesses good anti oxidative property and act as a potent anti-oxidant. Further this herbal extract also showed significant improvement in post treatment mean values of IgG, IgA and IgM in comparison to their respective pre-treatment mean values, and the phagocytic activity and phagocytic index were increased significantly. The herbal extract of WS possesses good potential of immunomodulation, antioxidative property and also showed therapeutic property to treat the subclinical mastitis. Therefore the herbal extract of WS can be used for treatment of SCM.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    Spondias mombin L. decoction utilization as antiseptic in cats submitted to castration

    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijo

    Statement of the Problem: Phytotherapeutic medicinal products are pharmaceutical preparations (syrup, elixir, dye, fluid and dry extracts, ointments, cream, gel, pills, and capsules) characterized by a wide knowledge of their effectiveness, risks of their use and constancy of their quality to treat various diseases. The use of these medicinal natural origin products has emerged as an alternative and is mainly due to the great searchfor phytotherapeutic remedies, linked to socioeconomic factors, maintenance of cultural traditions, availability to the population and the search for drugs with fewer side effects. In addition, it is also due to the inefficiency of some synthetic products and the high cost of allopathic medicines. High bacterial   resistance to    antimicrobials concerns professionals in many areas, as it is a   problem     that affects the entire population, increases treatments costs, and causes a higher number of infection mortality, which becomes a challenge for clinical handling.  In studies on healing activity and antimicrobial activity using medicinal plants, most authors suggest that tannins are responsible for the pharmacological action, because of their astringent property. Surgical sterilization consists of the removal of male or female gonads, called orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy, respectively. These are among the most common surgeries in small animal clinics, since they are simple surgeries, affordable and quick.. This study aimed to evaluate efficiency of decoction based on mombin leaves (Spondias mombin L.) in vitro and in vivo as an antiseptic in the post-surgery period of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: 45 non-defined breed cats (Felis catus) were randomly selected, their owners received information about the experiment and signed the consent form allowing the surgery. These animals were subsequently anesthetizedand submitted to ovariosalpingohisterectomy in females and orchiectomy in males. Post-surgical follow-up occurred in sanitized cats for a period of seven days, reinforcing tha tthe animals received daily ration and water ad libitum. This research was evaluated by the Committee on Ethics and Use of Animals (CEUA) of UFERSA, with consent no. 20/2018. The sample was divided into three randomized groups, comprising 15 animals each. The first group served as positive control (chlorhexidine-alcohol solution 0.5%), the second, negative control (sterile distilled water), and the third, the test group with mombin leaves decoction 100 mg/mL. The animals were treated daily for seven days, with disinfection and collection of the samples performed daily at the surgical incision spot with the aid of sterile swab after 10 min of the antiseptic action. Swab samples were collected in a tube containing 2 mL of sterile distilled water, and subjected to the dilutions101, 102 and 103, respectively. After the procedure, 1 mL of each dilution was seeded in plate count agar and incubatedin a bacteriological oven for 24 h at a temperature range of 37 °C to 37.5 °C, the necessary time for bacterial counting

    by mesophilic present in each dilution. After isolating bacteria, they were cultured in BHI broth for 24 h at 37 °C to 37.5 °C until the log phase forapproximately 18-24 h, adjusted by the McFarland scale. Microorganisms were identified by cytology and biochemical tests. The standard inoculum of each microorganism was  cultured for diffusion testing in Mueller-Hinton agar at the concentration of 0.5 of the McFarland scale for 18-24 h. The sensitivity test to extracts by agar diffusion was performed according to antimicrobial sensitivity test for diffusion-disc  Microbiological analyses results were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means were compared to each other by the Scott-Knott test, at the 5% probability level, using statistical software Sisvar .Findings: All animals, independent of age and sex, had visible healing at a similar time. animals treated with sterile distilled water had the highest number of microorganisms found, since water has no ability to inhibit bacteria. However, animals treated with Spondias Mombin L. presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. Results with chlorhexidine at 0.5% were better than the negative control (sterile distilled water), since this antiseptic is characterized by being a cationic detergent of the biguanides class available in acetate, hydrochloride and digluconate forms. This last one is the most commonly used salt in formulas and products, which has a wide spectrum of action, acting on gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and lipophilic viruses. Animals treated with mombin leaves decoction presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. In addition, the animals treated in the test group had better surgical wound healing. Better healing of the surgical wounds of those treated with Spondia mombin L. was observed, with reporting that the healing activity can be attributed to tannins, stimulation of phagocytic cells, as well as anti-infective activities. the bacteria found in the surgical wounds of cats treated with the negative control, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hycus, Staphylococcus coagulase-negative, Corynebacterium sp. and Gram-positive bacilli strains, all bacterial strains isolated from the negative control were tested in vitro and presented inhibition halos for 0.5% chlorhexidine and for the decoction of the mombin leaves. The clinical feature of the animals understudy, we observed that the animals submitted to care with the decoction of Spondia mombin L., distilled water and chlorhexidine did not present significant differences regarding hyperemia, edema, secretion, crusting, and dehiscence, with the exception of the presence of secretion in 20% (3 females) of the negative control Conclusion & Significance: The decoction of Spondias mombin L. leaves proved antiseptic efficacy in the surgical wounds of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Nerologic exam in cats and dogs by Suelen Dalegrave

    Suelen Dalegrave

    The neurological exam in dogs and cats is extremely important for veterinarians, without that examination is impossible to determine which clinical approach would benefit our patients the most. Firstly, medical history of our patients must be collected from the owners following a detailed anamnesis must be conducted; some of the questions that need to be asked to the owner are the following: how is the evolution of the clinical signs since the last appointment?  What’s the normal behavior of the animal has that behavior change lately¿ when did you first notice these clinical signs¿ how quickly are they evolving¿ Does the animal has any existing condition¿ Does the animal take any medication¿ which one ¿ Has the animal threw up, had signs of diarrhea cough and/or sneeze¿ how are his feeding patterns¿ has he changed anything on his food and/or water consumption¿ Does he have his shots up-to-date¿ Are there any other animals showing the same clinical signs¿ Does the anima live indoors or outdoors¿ if he lives indoors does he have access to external areas¿ Has this animal travel elsewhere¿ etc. This questions can be followed by a series of specific question pertinent to the condition and clinical signs of each. The main components to a neurological examination are, behavior status of the animal, walking patterns, posture and reactions, examination of the cranial nerves, spinal reflexes, palpation, and pain response. Having in mind the main complain of our patients, physical as well as neurological examination we may them proceed to the next step in our case. For example, a neurological examination of a patient with cranioenchephalic trauma should not be the first thing we go to, instead we must follow the emergency ABC; or in the case of an animal with multiple fractures, the neurological examination will not be the first intervention we do with the patient, instead we should choose an exam that in the moment do not offer risk of aggravating the condition in which the animal. The tools which are used for a neurological evaluation are: pleximeter, the test the reflexes, hemostatic forceps, to evaluate pain reflexes, flashlight, to evaluate pupillary reflexes and a swab to test no nasal sensibility.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    Physiotherapy and acupuncture in young domestic felines (Felis Catus) with osteoarticular pathologies

    Toscano Maria Julia

    Over the last few years, Physiotherapy and Acupuncture have gained place as part of feline rehabilitation protocol, due to their positive outcomes when combined as part of a multidisciplinary approach team. In this way, it is possible to achieve optimal functional mobility and recovery in shorter times. As in other species, osteoarticular pathologies are often painful and appropriate treatment is required to improve the animal's quality of life. Both therapies, through different mechanisms of action, aim to: produce analgesia, prevent development of contractures, release fascia restrictions and muscle trigger points, restore normal ROM and promote postural reeducation. The objective of this clinical report is to highlight the importance of physiotherapy and acupuncture as a complement to conventional treatment in the early diagnosis of congenital or traumatic osteoarticular pathologies in felines.

    Methods: Two young feline patients were referred to Physiotherapy and Acupuncture who were diagnosed by medial patellar luxation and degenerative joint disease based on X-ray studies and clinical evaluation. All were treated with physical therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. Physiotherapy treatment used was: pulsed magnetic field, low level laser therapy and TENS. As part of kinesic protocol, massage therapy, passive range of motion and myofascial therapy were performed. Acupuncture treatment consisted on the application of needles in the following acupuncture points, Stomach channel (35E, 35bisE, 36E), Spleen Pancreas channel (6BP, 9BP), Gallbladder channel (34VB), Large Intestine channel (4IG), leaving the needles for 15 minutes. This technique was combined with moxibustion.

    Case Description 1: A 10 months old, entire male Persian breed feline, was referred with clinical signs of intermittent lameness of the right hind limb, reduced ROM, decreased willingness and ability to jump. The diagnosis of medial patellar luxation was confirmed by radiography.

    Case Description 2: A 3 years old, neutered male European common feline, with recurrent pain crisis in lumbo-sacral spine region, reluctance to move, with minimal response to injectable analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment. The radiography confirmed degenerative joint disease and listhesis in L7-S1 intervertebral space and 1st-degree hip-femoral dysplasia with a right predominance. On physical examination, hyperalgesia of lumbar and lumbo-sacral region was identified, as well as moderate gluteal muscle contracture. In both cases 10 alternating sessions of physiotherapy and acupuncture were carried out once a week.

    Results: The patients were treated with combined therapeutic sessions showing a substantial improvement after third session. The therapy allowed to reduced muscle contracture, pain relief, restored ROM and normal functionality.

    Conclusion: Combined Physiotherapy and Acupuncture as a complement to medical treatment in young feline patients with osteoarticular pathologies, demonstrate a notable functional recovery improvement. Early physiotherapy and acupuncture intervention should be considered as part of the pain management to prevent muscle atrophy, build muscle mass and strength, and increase flexion and extension ROMs. As well as they almost completely lack side effects and allow reducing the dose or even withdrawing the administration of anti-inflammatories and analgesics. Any rehabilitation programme should be tailored to the patient, based on the individual feline’s identified problems and needs.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Morphology of male and female reproductive tract of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

    Jessica Rodrigues Orlandin

    The Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is the largest species of this genus, despite having broad distribution in the Americas; it is included in the main list of endangered species. Their conservation is widely studied, but there is a lack of studies about their morphology. In order to contribute to the knowledge of its reproductive system, five male and female ocelots were examined macro- and microscopically by histological techniques. Macroscopic analysis of the male reproductive system revealed presence of prostate and bulbourethral gland located caudally to the urinary bladder and a penis with small spicules. Microscopically, the testes were encased by the tunica albuginea and divided it into lobules with 5-10 tubules per lobe. In females, macroscopic analysis demonstrated two ovaries position dorsally in the sublumbar region and caudal to the kidneys. The bicornuate uterus is composed by uterine horns (12 to 14 cm in length), which travels from the ovaries in a caudal direction to form a small uterine body (4 cm in length). The ovary analysis revealed, in longitudinal section, medullary region composed of loose connective tissue, a stroma rich in blood vessels, and an external parenchymal region surrounded by a tunica albuginea. The results of the study confirmed the similarity between ocelot's reproductive system as domestic cat's ones and showing for the first time the complete morphological tool to highlight these organs and tissue in this male and female endangered wild felid specie. The present study open venue for other researchers to consider morphological and preservationist features and aimed to help at long-term conservation of wild felines.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Early warning for ovarian diseases disease in dairy cows

    Yuxi Song

    Statement of the Problem: Inactive ovaries (IO) and ovarian cysts (OC) are two common ovarian diseases (OD) leading to infertility in dairy cattle. The cysts can be subdivided into follicular cysts (FC) or corpus luteum cysts (LC). Both disorders are associated with altered metabolites and hormones. There are currently no known effective biomarkers that can be used for OD early diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the plasma biomarkers of the OD in Holstein dairy cows that facilitate an early diagnosis of the diseases and control its progression. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The experiment was performed from 21 days postpartum and last for 4 weeks. Forty Holstein cows were divided into healthy control group (HC, n=22), IO group (n= 6), FC group (n= 6) and LC group (n=6) by rectal palpation or ultrasonography during this four-week period. Blood was collected via tail vein for measurement of plasma metabolites, minerals, and hormones on days 21 and 50 postpartum. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman correlation, binary logistic regression analysis and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, where applicable. Findings: OD compared with HC cows had greater (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and lesser (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on 21 d than OD cows. OD were positively correlated with plasma NEFA, and negatively correlated with plasma ALT, Ca, P and IGF-1. Early warning values for OD cows were plasma NEFA concentrations > 0.50 mmol/L, or Ca concentrations < 2.02 mmol/L on 21 days postpartum. Conclusion & Significance: Plasma NEFA and Ca could be used as early-warning indicators for OD in dairy cows. The present findings provide a new strategy for prevention and control of OD in the future.


    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Evaluation of the health care effect of ketosis in intensive cattle farms and the new measures of propylene glycol in the prevention and treatment of ketosis

    Zhijie Wang

    Statement of the Problem: Perinatal period is the key period for dairy farming. Ketosis caused by energy deficiency is easy to cause deficiency of immune system function, which increases the incidence of other postpartum diseases and brings adverse effects on the performance, health, and economic benefits of cows. Researchers have reported that ruminants cannot directly utilize monosaccharides, but mainly generate a series of volatile fatty acids through the decomposition of carbohydrates. Propylene glycol is a health care preparation for perinatal ketone disease, but its application lacks standards. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effect of perinatal propylene glycol on the prevention and treatment of ketosis and to provide a new plan for the prevention and treatment of ketosis in dairy cows. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The perinatal health care measures and effects of ketosis in several intensive cattle farms were investigated and the health care measures were improved according to the results. Comprehensively evaluate the effect of the new measures of propylene glycol on the prevention and treatment of ketosis, and provide a more standard and effective perinatal ketosis health care program for intensive cattle farms. Findings: Health measures and effects of propylene glycol on intensive cattle farms were not consistent. The newly improved health regimen (supplemented with 500 mL propylene glycol on day 7 and 14 postpartum) significantly reduced the risk of ketosis in cows by 2.5 times and increased net profit per cow. Conclusion & Significance: Intensive dairy farms can promote a new ketosis health care program to prevent the occurrence of ketosis and improve the economic benefits of dairy farms. It provides technical support for ensuring the health of dairy cows and improving economic benefits.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 2

    Disinfecting effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on duck eggs originated from a duck breeding farm; determination of the total CFU count on the egg surface

    Gyorgy csiko

    Occurrence of disease outbreaks that can be attributed to the food industry due to bacterial or other pathogen contamination has been well known since centuries. Disinfection with efficient but at the same time least harmful compounds is a subject of major importance throughout the whole food production process for food- and animal-safety aspects. Since poultry meat is a major food source for humans, it is highly important to reduce the germ count on the surface of eggshells, in order to prevent the risk of spreading pathogens; e.g. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    The usage of biocides as disinfectants has been widespread since many decades. The hyper-pure chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution at low concentration is an “Ideal Biocide” based on its good performance towards microorganisms, and due to the fact that it does not harm humans or animals and is environmentally friendly.

    The goal of study was to examine the disinfecting effect of ClO2 on the surface of duck eggs and to achieve a significant decrease of the total germ count on the egg´s surface.

    Three experiments on duck eggs have been carried out, using a combination of different ClO2 and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC´s) concentrations. For the first experiment, the effect of ClO2 was almost the same for all concentrations (30, 100 and 300 ppm) that have been tested. In the next experiment we combined ClO2 with a QAC disinfectant. The highest decrease in total germ count (10-5) occurred with QAC treatment in combination with ClO2 fogging. During the third measurement, QAC concentration was reduced. The highest germ count reduction was achieved by the combination of 0.2% QAC spraying and 100 ppm ClO2 fogging.  Overall, ClO2 alone cannot remove all microorganisms, but in combination with a formaldehyde-free disinfectant, the effectiveness of ClO2 is increased and also spores can be destroyed.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as a psychoactive herbal medicine for the treatment of behavioral disorders in dogs

    Alexandre Pongracz Rossi1& Caroline Marques Maia2*

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an herbaceous and perennial plant that is native to Europe, West Asia and North Africa, which have been widely used as an herbal medicine [1]. It is one of the most largely used medicinal plants around the world [2], being one of the best characterized herbal medicines [3]. St. John’s wort is the only herbal alternative to synthetic medicines for the treatment of depression [4]. In Europe,it is widely used to treat psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression[5]. In Germany, sales of this herb exceeded those of all antidepressants combined [6].

    St. John's wort is an accepted alternative to synthetic antidepressants or even behavioral therapy for the treatment of depression [7,8]. Significant clinical results were demonstrated in a study that conducted a meta-analysis based on 23 clinical trials, with 1757 outpatients suffering from mild or moderate depression [9].The effects of St. John's wort in this study were better than placebo and just as effective as standard antidepressants [9]. In addition, similar anxiolytic effects of St. John's wort have also been demonstrated [10,11]. Thus, this herb is the most recognized and used herbal medicine in the treatment of depression and anxiety in humans, with well-studied active principles, effects, mechanisms and drug interactions [12,13]. Furthermore, St. John's wort is not associated with serious adverse reactions in humans and appears to be well tolerated in our body [12]. This herb triggers fewer adverse reactions than synthetic drugs for the treatment of psychic disorders [6]. Adverse reactions commonly include gastrointestinal symptoms (0.6%), allergic reactions (0.5%), fatigue (0.4%) and restlessness (0.3%) [14], with phototoxicity reported in cattle and sheep that fed on this herb [15]. In addition, St. John's wort also has a number of other effects that can also be beneficial. It can be used to treat stress, sleep problems, nocturnal enuresis, bacterial and viral infections, respiratory conditions, peptic ulceration, inflammatory arthritis, cancer and skin wounds [16], besides other positive effects more recently reported [13]. Even a significant analgesic effect has already been demonstrated for St. John's wort [17].

    Although the action mechanism of St. John's wort has not yet been fully elucidated [18], some studies have shown that such mechanism is linked to the inhibition of serotonin reuptake[18,19,20], in addition to the effect as norepinephrine inhibitor and in the dopamine reuptake[18]. In veterinary medicine, serotonin and norepinephrine uptake inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treating problems related to separation anxiety in dogs [21], which reveals the potential of using St. John’s wort, with a similar mechanism, for the treatment of this disorder in dogs. Moreover, even though there are still few studies of this herb as a psychoactive agent for dogs [22,23], studies in rats have shown great potential for the treatment of both depression [24]and anxiety [24,25].

    Another aspect that should be highlighted is that, even with few studies in dogs [22,23], this herb has been recommended and used in practice by veterinarians. There are even specialized sites which are at least relatively reliable that show the advantages of using this herb in the treatment of behavioral disorders in dogs [26,27]. This, in addition to the fact that St. John's wort has been traditionally used for so long in folk medicine, especially considering oriental medicine, reinforces its potential as an herbal medicine for dogs. However, as St. John's wort has been reported as an herbal medicine that potentially caninvolve in several drug interactions [28],also in dogs [22,23], it is important evaluating each individual case and particular context and taking this into account when recommending the use of this herb for the treatment of behavioral disorders in these animals. In fact, H. perforatum interacts with some important drugs, such as cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors, cytostatic substances, anticoagulants, contraceptives and oral hypoglycemic agents [29]. Despite this, it is worth noting that not all drug interactions are, in fact, relevant for dogs. For example, the drug interaction reported in studies with contraceptives is clearly insignificant in the case of dogs.

    Thus, the potential of this herb to treat depression and anxiety in dogs is clear, and this is an area of investigation that still needs to be more explored to better determine the most appropriate dosages and potential risks specifically for dogs. This is not so simple, as the funding for such research probably will need to come from outside the pharmaceutical industry, because treatments based on herbal medicines cannot be patented, that is, financial incentives for scientific research that drives the pharmaceutical market are limited in this area [12]. However, this should not preclude the development of new scientific research considering the use of St. John’s wort as a psychoactive agent for dogs, as it has great potential for the treatments of behavioral disorders in these animals, including for canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCDS), which is similar to Alzheimer's disease in humans [30].

    We conclude that St. John's wort is a herbal medicine with great potential for the treatment of behavioral disorders such as anxiety and depression in dogs. Although there are still just a few studies with these animals, it is aphytotherapic that has been recommended by veterinarians and specialized websites to treat such disorders and that is widely recognized and used in the treatment of symptoms of depression and anxiety in humans. In addition, its potential as a psychoactive agent for dogs is emphasized by the advantages of promoting other potentially positive effects, besides causing fewer adverse reactions than synthetic drugs. However, more studies are needed to better determine specific concentrations, dosages and risks for dogs, which should probably depend considerably on funding from outside the pharmaceutical industry.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 3

    Treatment of behavioral disorders in dogs with herbal medicines

    Alexandre Pongracz Rossi1 & Caroline Marques Maia2*

    Dogs can strongly bond with their keepers, but when they express behavioral disorders, these are often seen as undesirable behaviors by the keepers[1,2]. This is a widespread issue in the population of domestic dogs[3,4,5]. The expression of such behaviors frequentlyresults in a failure of the bond between dogs and their keepers[6,7], which commonlyculminates in relinquishmentor even euthanasia of dogs [8,9,10]. In fact, such undesired behaviors of dogs are among the main causes of abandonment of these animals [10,11,12]. A recent study showed that keepers who relinquish their dogs to shelters point out that behavioral problems of these animals influenced their decision to abandon these animals,at least in some way (65%) or even strongly (43%) [13]. In addition, such undesired behaviors can also be a source of stress for dogs [14,15] and, consequently, they can negatively affect the welfare of these animals.

    Considering behavioral disorders expressed by dogs, disorders associated with anxiety, such as separation anxiety, are among the most common behaviors considered as problematic by dog keepers[16,17]. Separation anxietyis usually expressed by behaviors that can easily bother dog keepers, such as urination or defecation in inappropriate places, excessive vocalization or destruction of home objects [18,19]. Moreover, dogs can also express depressive conditions as a behavioral disorder, especially after experiencing some kinds of aversive events, such as when they are deprived of their keepers or after the loss of a social partner [20]. In these situations, dogs can become profoundly inactive and unresponsive [20], which can indicate they are showing behavioral signs similarly to depression, both considering the public domain [21,22] and the scientific literature [16,23,24].

    In this context, the importance of properly treating anxiety disorders and depression in dogs to improve the welfare conditions of these animals and the relationship with their keepers is clear. Thus, an interesting possibility for such treatments is the use of psychoactive herbal medicines to relieve such symptoms, which have been popularly recommended for humans[25]. Herbal medicines have been used even more than the traditional synthetic medicines for the human treatment of depression in some countries, such as Germany [26]. In fact, the use of herbal medicines in the treatment of diseases- including behavioral disorders - has increased in Brazil, even considering thetreatments for pets, because although only 1% of the Brazilian market of herbal medicine is aimed at the veterinary sector, it is the one thatgrows more (rate of 25% per year)[27].

    Herbal medicines are obtained only from active vegetable raw materials, and they cannot include isolated, synthetic or natural active substances in their composition, nor the associations of these with plant extracts [28]. They are characterized by knowledge of the effectiveness and risks of their use and also by the reproducibility and constancy of their quality [28]. Thus, they are drugs that have their action already proved through pharmacological and toxicological studies [28], similarly as synthetic drugs, that is, herbal medicines are registered only after the confirmation of their action and quality.

    The general use of alternative and complementary medicine, also considering therapy with herbal medicines, is common in several countries, including studies based on populations from Australia, Europe and the United States [29]. Considering dogs, some alternative products for the treatment of behavioral disorders, such as nutritional supplements, herbal medicines or pheromones - in addition to traditional synthetic medicines - have been shown to be safe and effective [30,31,32]. However, there are still some barriers of stigma, as well as controversies, about the use of psychoactive drugs in the treatment of psychic disorders in general, even considering the use of alternative products, such as the herbal medicines, in the treatment of behavioral problems in dogs [33,34].

    Keepers seem to be more comfortable about giving psychoactive medications to their dogs, including alternative treatments such as nutritional supplements or herbal medicines, when they had personal experiences with these drugs and substances in their own treatment of anxiety or depression [35]. On the other hand, it is also necessary to be careful considering the use of these medications with dogs, because people commonly think that once phytotherapics are natural medicines made from plant extracts, they cannot cause any harm, which is a mistake. Herbal medicines are usually subject to fewer checks than other medicines, with less rigorous efficacy and safety criteria sometimes, besides possibly not having a standardized preparation and being more prone to contamination, replacement, adulteration, incorrect dosage, as well as inadequate labeling and advertising [36]. Thus, caution is need when using phytotherapics. Furthermore, herbal medicines, similarly as more traditional synthetic drugs, can interact with the active principles of other medications and cause drug interactions that can be harmful and toxic [37,38].

    We conclude that phytotherapics, which are medicines with proven action by pharmacological and toxicological studies, have great potential as psychoactives for the treatment of behavioral disorders such as anxiety and depression in dogs. As the expression of these disorders is a source of stress for dogs and their keepers and is one of the main causes of abandonment of these animals, herbal medicines can be an important tool to help dealing with this problem. In fact, its use in treatments of diseases, including behavioral disorders, has increased for pets as dogs. However, it is necessary to be careful with the use of these medicines for dogs, because as they are made only from plant extracts, it is common that people think they can use them freely, without caution or professional monitoring, which can cause serious problems.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 4

    Study on abortive diseases in the local n'dama bovine breed and proposed control measures at the level of progebe sites (republic of guinea)

    Diallo AOS


    One of the main constraints affecting the productivity of the Guinean herd is the high number of abortions in most farms, the causes of which are often not diagnosed. A survey carried out in various regions of Guinea showed a prevalence of bovine brucellosis of 6.9% in 1982. Most of the animals carrying hygromas had a positive response to the 3 serological tests which are, seroagglutination of Wright, the buffered test and the complement fixation. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases responsible for abortions in order to implement prophylactic measures.

    Material and methods

    This survey was carried out in 2013 and focused on animals of the N'Dama breed from multiplier herds in the primary project sites, namely Boké, Gaoual, Beyla and Dinguiraye. Taking into account the moderate size of the herds and their homogeneity, the similarity in the management of the herds, all the animals belonging to the breeders of the same village were considered as a single herd. The sampling unit was the village herd. The survey protocol was based on a targeted sampling of 26 village herds, two of which were based on the livestock market located in the urban commune of Beyla (places where breeders from various origins gather for sale). A total of 366 (33%) multiplier cattle were selected and examined from 1,122 animals sampled.

    Blood samples were taken from the sampled animals for brucellosis and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). Pap smears and preputial scraping were done for trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis.

    In the field, the blood collected was decanted, centrifuged, aliquoted and stored in a refrigerated cooler, then sent to the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (LCVD) in Conakry for the serology of brucellosis and Rift Valley fever ( FVR).

    For bacterial and parasitic samples, samples were collected from bulls by scraping the preputial mucosa with a sterile swab. In females, samples were obtained by scraping the cervix with a sterile swab.

    The brucellosis samples were subjected to the seroagglutination plate test, the rose Bengal test (RBT) and the complement fixation reaction (RFC) to confirm the results.

    The ID Screen® Rift Valley Fever Competition Multi-species Kit was used for the detection of IgM (indicating a recent infection) and IgG (sign of an old infection) immunoglobulins for RVF.

    The samples for the detection of bacteria and parasites were subjected on the one hand to the Gram stain in order to identify the bacteria and on the other hand to the direct method to demonstrate the vegetative forms of trichomonads. The smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa for confirmation of positive samples by the direct method.


    At each site, it was not possible to obtain the same number of samples; this, taking into account the availability of breeders and the clinical cases observed.

    The results of analyzes carried out in the village herds and the cattle market showed that trichomoniasis, campylobacteriosis and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) are not present. On the other hand, brucellosis was found in the majority of the sites. It was often expressed clinically by the presence of hygromas (6 cases counted), abortions (often reported) and sterility in infected females.

    The overall prevalence of brucellosis found was 11.75% (43 cases out of 366 samples). Out of a total of 26 flocks visited, 11 were positive for Brucella abortus, ie 42.31%.

    Among animals over 14 years of age, there were no positive 0.00% [0.00-43.91] cases, while for those aged 2 to 5 years, a relatively low prevalence 9, 19 [5.60-14.54] was found. In general, there is no significant difference between the prevalence of different age groups (p-values �??�??= 0.2).

    The most affected site was that of Moussadou Falikoudou in Beyla with 43.90%. With regard to age, the highest seroprevalence was observed in the same prefecture at the level of the age group of 10 to 13 years, ie 18.37 [9.24-32.50].


    Brucellosis appears to be the main cause of abortions in village herds in the primary sites of PROGEBE-Guinea. Recommendations should be made in order to limit the spread of the disease, on the one hand, in endemic ruminant cattle and, on the other hand, in breeders who are exposed to the infectious agent. They could lead to capacity building of livestock and animal health services in case detection at borders, in livestock parks and at weekly markets.

    Volume 5, Issue 3 (2021)

      Short Communication Pages: 2 - 2

      Impacts of Air Contamination on Monkeys

      Jeng Liberek*

      DOI: 10.37421/ahbs.2021.5.135

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      Editorial Note Pages: 1 - 1

      Nutrients Needs of Animals

      Jhump James*

      DOI: 10.37421/ahbs.2021.5.e094

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      Volume 4, Issue 1 (2020)

        2021 Conference Announcement Pages: 1 - 2

        Young Researchers Awards: Young Scientist Awards & Best Poster Awards at 49th Global Nursing & Healthcare Conference

        Rosa Leda Bellin

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        Editorial Note Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial Highlights for Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science

        Jain Sudipta

        I am pleased to introduce Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science (AHBS) a rapid peer reviewed Journal which serves a multidisciplinary area for research and attracts a wide range of topics in the fields of animal behavior, physiology, pathology, health, animal vaccines, endocrinology, animal reproduction, and neuroscience, veterinary medicine, ethics involving animals in the clinical research, animal nutrition, animal growth and development, animal welfare, genetics and breeding, and livestock science. I am pleased to announce that, all issues of volume 3 were published online well within the time and the print issues were also brought out and dispatched within 30 days of publishing the issue online during the year of 2019.

        The Journals aims to flourish and to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.

        During the calendar year of 2019, AHBS received a total of 30 manuscripts, out of which 21 articles (70%) were rejected in the preliminary screening due to plagiarism or being out of the format and peer review process. During 2019 around 5 articles were subjected for publication after they are accepted in the peer review process. In the 2 issues of Volume 3 published during the year 2019, a total of 5 articles were published (at an average of 2.5 articles per issue) of which, articles were published from authors all around the world. Globally articles have been accessed by the research scientists and also cited.

        During the calendar year 2019, a total of two Editors, five Reviewers joined the board of AHBS and contributed their valuable services towards contribution as well as publication of articles, and their valuable reviewer comments will beneficial to publish quality of article in the Journal.

        I take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Regina Alvesmfs during the final editing of articles published and the support rendered by the editorial assistant, in bringing out issues of AHBS in time. I would also like to express my gratitude to all the authors, reviewers, the publisher, the advisory and the editorial board of AHBS, the office bearers for their support in bringing out yet another volume of AHBS and look forward to their unrelenting support to bring out the Volume 6 of AHBS in scheduled time.

        Volume 5, Issue 1 (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Cause for the Occurrence of Freemartin and its Influence on Livestock Reproductive Performance: A review

          Alemitu Adisu*, Wondosen Zewdu and Tesfaye Moreda

          Livestock reproductive performance is a prerequisite for any successful livestock production program and it is depends up on the factors viz. parturition interval, ovarian activity, days open, fertility and age at first parturition, litter size and annual reproductive rate. However, the above mentioned factors are influenced directly or indirectly by the occurrence of freemartin animal within the flock or farm. The objective of this review was to organize the condensed information about the causes for the occurrence of freemartin, development and way of examining a freemartin animal and its influence on livestock reproductive performance. A freemartin is genetically female, but has many characteristics of a male. The ovaries of the freemartin do not develop correctly, and they remain very small, also the ovaries do not produce the hormones necessary to induce the behavioral signs of heat. The external vulvar region can range from a very normal looking female to a female that appears to be male. Usually, the vulva is normal except that in some animals an enlarged clitoris and large tufts of vulvar hair exist. It can be diagnosed in a number of ways ranging from simple examination of the placental membranes to chromosomal analysis. Understanding about the freemartin syndrome is important to take measure by the livestock keepers, farm managers or veterinarian to cull the heifer at her early age or keep it as a teaser bull and/or as draft animal.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Reproductive Performance of Indigenous Cow Breeds of Ethiopia: A Review

          Alemitu Adisu* and Wondosen Zewdu

          The aim of the review is to condense the information about reproductive performance of different indigenous dairy cattle breeds of Ethiopia on parameters viz. age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), day open (DO), number of service preconception (NSPC). These parameters also affected by different factors associated with either to the management such as method of husbandry, feeding system, estrus detection, semen quality handling as well as factors related to cow’s management such as age, body condition score, post-partum problem, disease event, milk yield and genetics, feed shortage/poor nutrition with poor husbandry and herd health management are important factors that contributed to reproductive inefficiency. Appropriate feed resources and reproductive health management, a reliable AI service and an appropriate level of husbandry could be the management options to reduce/alleviate some of the prevailing problems related to reproductive efficiency. Thus the responsible body; ministry of agriculture has to be given more emphasis to reduce the influence of different factors on the reproductive performances of indigenous cattle through enhancing the skills of expertise and farmer by providing different level of training as well as by providing different inputs on appropriate time

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Increase in Milk Yield and Weight of Bovines by using MozziQuit Mosquito Trap Device in Cow Sheds??Evaluation on Control of Mosquitoes and other Nematoceran Insects

          Ignatius Orwin Noronha, H.R.V. Reddy, Placid E. Dâ??Souza, H. Dhanalakshmi and B.S. Pradeep

          All warm blooded vertebrates are affected. In large populations Mosquitoes cause irritation and extensive blood loss to livestock resulting in anemia, reduced productivity of milk and sometimes even death. Mosquitoes are a great nuisance and their bites do cause painful reactions making cows panic. They also play an important role as intermediate hosts and as vectors in several important parasitic and viral diseases of domestic animals and man viz., filariosis, Canine heart worm disease, Malaria, dengue, chikungunya, equine viral encephalitis etc. The Author and the Managing Director of Leowin Solutions Pvt. Ltd. is the Innovator of MozziQuit mosquito trap device priced Rs. 1,800/- per unit inclusive of 18% GST which attracts, traps and kills female mosquitoes every day in large numbers at lowest operating cost of less than 10 paisa per day without use of any chemicals or consumables or emission of any UV Radiation very safe for use in cow sheds ( MozziQuit device was evaluated to find the possibility of its use for providing relief to cows and animals in live farms. The study was carried out by Dr. Placid E. D’Souza, Professor & Head, Dept of Veterinary Parasitology as well as by Staff from constituent Veterinary Colleges of Karnataka Veterinary, Animal & Fisheries Sciences University of Bidar Dr. H. Dhanalakshmi, Dr. B. S. Pradeep, Dr. G. S. Mamatha and Assistant Professors under instructions from Dr. H.R.V. Reddy, Director of Research of KVAFSU of Bidar. The study reveals relief to workers in cow shed from mosquito bites besides increase in Milk Yield as well as increase in Weight of Bovines after using MozziQuit in cow shed as the cows get maximum relief by trapping and killing of biting mosquitoes by MozziQuit device everyday.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Beneficial Increase in Milk Yield and Weight of Bovines by using MozziQuit Mosquito Trap Device in Cow Sheds-Evaluation on Control of Mosquitoes and other Nematoceran Insects

          Ignatius Orwin Noronha, HRV Reddy

          Plasma biomarker assays have become a trend for risk evaluation in Alzheimer’s disease. Several studies have been performed to explore their preclinical performance. However, there are very few studies on the storage stability of the reagents used in these assays. The determination of the storage stability of reagents is important because reagents may be stored for a few months prior to end use. In this work, the stability of the reagents used for assaying plasma amyloid β 1-40 (Aβ1-40), Aβ1-42 and total tau protein (Tau) was assessed using immunomagnetic reduction. Reagents immediately after synthesis and reagents in opened vials were used to assay the concentrations of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 and Tau in human plasma samples. The recovery rates of the concentrations of biomarkers at different times after synthesis of open vial were calculated to determine the period of stability of reagents. The results showed that the reagents stored at 2°C-8°C were stable for at least 52 weeks. The reagents in open vials were stable for at least six weeks. These stabilities indicate that the reagents used to assay plasma Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 and Tau levels are verifiably qualified for clinical use.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Evaluation of MozziQuit Mosquito Trap Device in the Control of Mosquitoes and other Nematoceran Insects benefiting Increase in Milk Yield and Weight of Bovines

          Ignatius Orwin Noronha

          All warm blooded vertebrates are affected. In large populations Mosquitoes cause irritation and extensive blood loss to livestock resulting in anemia, reduced productivity of milk and sometimes even death. Mosquitoes are a great nuisance and their bites do cause painful reactions making cows panic. They also play an important role as intermediate hosts and as vectors in several important parasitic and viral diseases of domestic animals and man viz., filariosis, Canine heart worm disease, Malaria, dengue, chikungunya, equine viral encephalitis etc. The Author and the Managing Director of Leowin Solutions Pvt. Ltd. is the Innovator of “MozziQuit” mosquito trap device priced Rs. 1,800/- per unit inclusive of 18% GST which attracts, traps and kills female mosquitoes every day in large numbers at lowest operating cost of less than 10 paisa per day without use of any chemicals or consumables or emission of any UV Radiation very safe for use in cow sheds. “MozziQuit” device was evaluated to find the possibility of its use for providing relief to cows and animals in live farms. In this study reveals relief to workers in cow shed from mosquito bites besides increase in Milk Yield as well as increase in Weight of Bovines after using “MozziQuit” in cow shed as the cows get maximum relief by trapping and killing of biting mosquitoes by “MozziQuit” device every day.

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