Commentary - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 10
Received: 28-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. jnmrt-23-90708;
Editor assigned: 30-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. P-90708;
Reviewed: 14-Oct-2022, QC No. Q-90708;
Revised: 20-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. R-90708;
, DOI: 10.37421/2155-9619.2022.13.513
Citation: Zant, Vander. “Posttraumatic Osteomyelitis Nuclear Medicine Imaging.” J Nucl Med Radiat Ther 13 (2022): 513.
Copyright: © 2022 Zant V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that utilizes radioactive materials to diagnose and treat various medical conditions. One of the most common nuclear medicine procedures is a bone scan, which is used to detect bone diseases and abnormalities. This imaging technique has become an essential tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of bone disorders, including cancer, infections and fractures. This article will provide a detailed overview of nuclear medicine and bone scan, including how it works, the benefits and risks and the applications of this technique in clinical practice. Nuclear medicine is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive materials to diagnose and treat various medical conditions .
The radioactive materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, are administered to patients through injection, ingestion, or inhalation and they emit gamma rays that can be detected by special cameras. These cameras, known as gamma cameras, capture images of the radiopharmaceuticals as they travel through the body, allowing doctors to visualize the structure and function of organs and tissues. Nuclear medicine imaging provides information that is not obtainable through other imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans and MRI scans. Nuclear medicine imaging works by using radioactive materials that emit gamma rays, which are detected by gamma cameras. The gamma cameras can detect the gamma rays emitted by the radiopharmaceuticals and create images that show the distribution of the radioactive material in the body.
Radiopharmaceuticals are designed to target specific organs or tissues in the body. For example, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are designed to accumulate in the bones, while cardiac radiopharmaceuticals are designed to accumulate in the heart. The specific radiopharmaceutical used depends on the type of imaging required and the condition being investigated. Once the radiopharmaceutical is administered, it is absorbed by the body and begins to emit gamma rays. The gamma camera captures the gamma rays emitted by the radiopharmaceutical, creating an image that shows the distribution of the radioactive material in the body. A bone scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that is used to detect bone abnormalities and diseases. It is a noninvasive procedure that involves the injection of a small amount of a radioactive material, usually technetium-99m, into the bloodstream.
The radiopharmaceutical travels through the bloodstream and accumulates in the bones, particularly in areas where there is increased bone turnover or blood flow. The gamma camera captures the gamma rays emitted by the radiopharmaceutical, creating an image that shows the distribution of the radioactive material in the bones. A bone scan can detect a range of bone abnormalities and diseases, including cancer, infections, fractures and arthritis.
A bone scan can detect bone abnormalities and diseases at an early stage, before symptoms become apparent. Early detection can lead to earlier treatment and better outcomes. Comprehensive imaging: A bone scan can provide comprehensive imaging of the entire skeletal system, allowing doctors to detect abnormalities in multiple bones.Guidance for treatment: A bone scan can help guide treatment decisions by providing information about the location and extent of bone abnormalities.The risks associated with a bone scan are minimal. The amount of radiation exposure from a bone scan is low and the risk of complications is low.
Patients suspected of having osteoporosis or at risk for developing it can be evaluated using a variety of radiographic and nuclear medicine methods. Osteoporosis can be detected with spinal radiographs without being sensitive. They are able to document the presence of tumors with metastatic spread or other lesions that have the potential to cause compression fractures. The proximal femur's trabecular pattern is evaluated using the Singh index. The trabeculae disappear in a specific order as bone loss occurs. The measurement of bone and cortical widths in the peripheral skeleton, typically the second metacarpal, is referred to as radiogrammetry. The method is best suited for population studies due to its low cost. It is not indicative of early osteoporosis. Photodensitometry involves taking a radiograph of a portion of a bone with a standard reference wedge. The bone and the wedge are compared in terms of density. The radiation dose is low and the precision is high (1.5 percent) in some laboratories. A drawback is that peripheral cortical bone is measured first. To measure bone density, single photon absorptiometry uses the transmission of 27.5 keV photons from an iodine-125 source. Most of the time, measurements are taken of the radial shaft, which show more cortical bone than the more reactive trabecular bone. Additionally, the calcaneus and the radius's distal end can be measured; The majority of the bone in these areas is trabecular. Although the radiation dose is low (less than 10 mrad), cortical bone evaluation results do not correlate well with spinal bone mineral content. As a result, the test does not detect spinal osteoporosis. To compensate for variations in the scanner, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans a reference phantom that is adjacent to the patient. The study makes it possible to evaluate the spine's trabecular bone independently of the cortical bone. 1-3 percent is precision. In older people, the presence of vertebral marrow fat reduces accuracy, resulting in spuriously low measured bone mineral values. Utilizing two X-ray energies, CT scanning can increase accuracy while decreasing precision [2-5].
In conclusion, a gadolinium-153 isotope source is used in dual energy photon absorptiometry to produce photons with two distinct energies. Evaluation options include the hip, spine, or total bone mineral content. The dose of radiation is low—less than 20 mrem. The scan shows the density of the cortical and trabecular bones, as well as any calcification in the area, despite the fact that the axial skeleton can be examined.