Radioactive materials are given to patients, to scatter through the body to obtain image spectrum of the specified organ. Radioactive products which are used in medicine are referred to as radiopharmaceuticals.
Medical use of radioactive materials falls broadly into two categories: diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Diagnostic procedures using radioactive materials, such as those used in nuclear medicine, involve the use of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to facilitate imaging of certain organs like technetium-99m in the diagnosis of bone, heart or other organs and radioactive iodine in the imaging of the thyroid gland by injecting into the patient and allow physicians to locate and identify tumors, size anomalies, or other physiological or functional organ problems. Therapeutic uses of radioactive materials include teletherapy, brachytherapy, and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The purpose of all three is to kill cancerous tissue, reduce the size of a tumor, or reduce pain. Radioactive materials used in medical applications are either byproduct material (nuclear material produced in a reactor), accelerator produced nuclear material, or radiation producing machines such as x-ray machines.