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Effect of Herbal Based Aluminium Nanoparticles on Anti-Microbial Property of Cotton Textiles
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Journal of Textile Science & Engineering

ISSN: 2165-8064

Open Access

Research - (2021) Volume 11, Issue 8

Effect of Herbal Based Aluminium Nanoparticles on Anti-Microbial Property of Cotton Textiles

Adnan Shikder*
*Correspondence: Adnan Shikder, Department of Textile Engineering BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Bangladesh, Email:
Department of Textile Engineering BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Bangladesh

Received: 05-Feb-2021 Published: 24-Aug-2021
Citation: Adnan Shikder. "Effect of Herbal Based Aluminium Nanoparticles on Anti-Microbial Property of Cotton Textiles." J Textile Sci Eng 11 (2021): 452.
Copyright: © 2021 Adnan Shikder. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

In house extraction of floral base Nano Particle (Al-NPS) was applied on cotton fabric by using padding technique. Zone of inhibition was used to identify the antibacterial property. In this present study, an endeavor was made to finish cotton textiles with herbal based aluminum nanoparticles with different ratios to impart the antimicrobial finishes. Aluminum Nanoparticle synthesized with plant source as core material and variation of concentration of leaf extracts with reducing agents has produced different ratios. The Al-Nps treatment with different percentage (4% & 5%) of herbal (Neem & Guava) base precursor was with different ratio 1:1, 2:1, 5:1 & 10:1 amplifying the antimicrobial & antifungal properties of the treated fabric. Pad dry curing was carried at 140°C for 3 mins. After that evaluated the antibacterial property, wash fastness property, geometrical parameters of the specimen with treated nanoparticles and untreated fabric by using qualitative method AATCC-147, 2004 for the growth of inhibition and AATCC-30, 2004 for antifungal activity. Antibacterial action was found to zero in knitted untreated fabric.

Keywords

Pad dry curing • Al-Nano particles • Nanotechnology • Antimicrobial Activity

Introduction

Cotton textiles have been elongated apperceived as one of the media that fortifies the magnification of microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Proteins in keratinous fibers and carbohydrates in cellulosic fiber can responsible for nutrients and energy sources under propitious conditions providing an outstanding medium for devotion, transfer and spread of contamination causing microbial growth. Soil, ingredients from sweat and some culminates on textiles will additionally fuel the process. The desideratum for antimicrobic textiles goes hand- in-hand with elevate in resilient strains of microorganisms. Natural fibers such as cotton, linen, wool, silk, etc, are greatly applied in comfortable garments but pose threat for their utilization. Due to lack of their competency to efficacious resist magnification of microorganisms which engender cross infestation, obnoxious odors and determinately fabric deterioration. Microbial bulwark as a special finish can be an avail in the precarious situation. Such a finish can impart double defensive characteristics. The first narrates to the auspice of the textile from microbic or odor-causing microorganisms. The second for bulwark of textile itself from impairment caused by mold, fungus or rot-engendering microorganisms. So many chemicals have been laboring to convey antimicrobic commotion to textile materials [1].

The study about intrigued for the utilization of nanotechnology in the textile industry has incremented quickly. This is primarily due to arraying nanotechnology. Fibers are best substrates where an astronomically immense superficial area is present for a given weight or volume of the fabric. The synergy between nanotechnology and textile industry uses this property of substantially huge interfacial area and a drastic transmutation in energetic is experienced by macromolecules or supra molecular clusters in the vicinity of a fiber when transmuting from a wet state to dry state [2].

100 nm or less at least has a dimension of nanoparticles. Due to advanced surface areas of Nano constituents can be highly responsive; It find their application in variety of fields like medicine, electronics, food, fuel cells, batteries, water treatment, chemical sensors, pharmaceuticals, dairy industry, textiles etc. The application in textiles, to accomplish of improvement or change in property of the raw material or improvement in its functional properties [3].

In which different functional performances, textile materials are treated with Nano materials which are designed at creating culminated fabrics. It can augment by incorporation of nanoparticles of mechanical properties of textile fiber. Such properties are tensile strength, tearing strength, wrinkle recovery and stiffness. The fastness properties of dyed textile substrate have been affected by treatment of nanoparticles [3].

The mechanical properties of textiles can be modified by incorporation of carbon Nano tubes engineering TiO2, SiO2, Ag, Cu & Zn nanoparticles application on textile materials [1].

Due to increase cognizance among people about eco-friendliness, great concern has been diverted towards the utilization of organic products with higher acceptability level. Many natural products possess antibacterial properties, the extracts of which can be utilized for antimicrobial culminating on textiles material. The durability, shelf life and antimicrobial efficiency depends on the type of technology utilized in extraction, characterization and application. The present research study has considered nanotechnology for development of antimicrobial textiles [1].

Literature Review

Fabric Description

Cotton is a natural soft fiber which grows around the seeds of the cotton tree. In spun technique the fiber turn into yarn or thread, that makes a soft, breathable textile which is the most widely used [4] (Figures 1 and 2) (Table 1). From the above composition it is clear that, cellulose is the major constituent of cotton fabrics. Cellulose has an experimental formula (C 6 H 10 O 5) n and fresh cellulose is a white substance

Table 1: Chemical composition of cotton.

Cellulose 85.5%
Oil and Wax 0.5%
Proteins, Pectose and  
Coloring substances 5.0%
Mineral matters 1.0%
Moisture content 8.0%
textile-science-engineering-Cellulose

Figure 2:Cellulose Structure.

Self-possessed of D-Glucose units are present in an exceedingly open chain polysaccharide of cellulose. Between C-1 of 1 glucose unit and C-4 of the subsequent glucose unit are joined by β-glycosides linkage. It ranges from 300-2500 of D-Glucose units. Cellulose is created of repeat units of the monomer glucose.

Cotton macromolecule i.e. glucose contains three functional groups that are liable to the reaction. Among the functional groups one is primary alcohol From the above composition it is clear that, cellulose is the major constituent of cotton fabrics. Cellulose has an experimental formula (C6H10O5) n and fresh cellulose is a white substance (-CH 2OH) and also the other are secondary alcohol. During the dyeing with reactive dyes, the first alcohol reacts with the reactive groups of the dyes.

The fabric with high G. S. M has more primary alcohol in an exceedingly specific (Square meter) area. Thus, when dyes or chemicals are connected with this fabric then the number of dye uptake or, chemical uptake are more. Because, the first alcohol is that the main constituent for the bond forming reaction. Thus, the number of the first alcohol during a specific area is answerable for the variation of the depth of colorizes different constructed fabric (Figure 3).

textile-science-engineering-Structure

Figure 3: Structure of plain fabric.

Nanotechnology

Nano science is a modern field of technology which plays an ascendant role in day to day life aspects. It deals with engenderment, manipulation and application of material extending in nanometers. It has an impact in human life that plays a role in all spheres mainly in the field of nanotechnology [5].

It is defined as the enterprise of engenderment and application of structures, contrivances and structures through control of the size and shape of the material at the nanometer scale. It is withal an emerging interdisciplinary technology which has a wide range of application in many areas, including material science, mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, plastics, energy, aerospace etc [1].

Nano word is initiated from Latin word, which means “dwarf”. In other words, it’s the knowledge of materials and contrivances whose assemblies and constituents demonstrate novel and considerably altered physical, chemical and biological phenomenon due to their Nano scale size [6].

Thus, Nano science is outlined as the manipulation of matter on associate degree of atomic, molecular, and supra molecular scale involving the design, engenderment, classification and application of various Nano scaled materials in numerous potential areas providing novel scientific advances mostly in the field of contemporary science. Nanotechnology is the division Science that significantly deals with the development that occurs at molecular level and of Nano length scale size [6].

Nanoparticles definition by various organizations

According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO):

A particle spanning 1–100 nm (diameter).

According to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM): An ultrafine particle whose length in 2 or 3 places

According to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM):

• An ultrafine particle whose length in 2 or 3 places is 1–100 nm. According to National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):

• A particle with diameter between 1 and 100 nm, and a fiber spanning the range 1–100 nm. According to Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP):

• At least one side is in the Nano scale range [7].

History: The history of Nano science touches the event of the ideas and experimental work falling under the broad class of nanotechnology. In 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman verbalize “There's many Room at the Bottom”, during which he described the chance of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "Nano-technology" was first utilized by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it had been not prominent. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler independently utilized the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book ‘Engines of Engenderment: the approaching Era of Nanotechnology’ [1].

Nanotechnology emergence as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work. It was also the junction of experimental advances such as the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in 1981 and the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 (Chen, 2012). Until the beginning of the 20th century, the atomic theory was considered only as a simple hypothesis. In conclusion it was lastly accepted as a fact by the skillful experiments of the French Physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin [1].

Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles amplify the mechanism that determines with function of nanoparticles on size, physical-chemical properties of nanoparticles medium and etc. Because of, kenned of exaggeration mechanism which give possibility to regulate of preparation of nanoparticles and to get nanoparticles with given parameters (mean diameter, variance, coefficient poly disparity and other) and characteristics (magnetic moment). Nanoparticles amplification of component is sufficient unpredictable cycles and depended from many conditions like temperature, viscosity, concentration of medium and etc [6]. Nanoparticles are appealing increasing consideration because of their potential applications and exceptional properties, which are unequivocally affected by their size, morphology and structure [1].

Classification of nanoparticles

Nano particles can be sorting at two types: i) Organic Nano particles. ii) Inorganic Nano particles.

Organic nanoparticles: It may incorporate carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes) while portion of the inorganic nanoparticles may include magnetic nanoparticles, decent metal nanoparticles (like gold and silver) and semiconductor nanoparticles (like titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, copper nanoparticles).

Inorganic nanoparticles: It does offer superior material properties with functional flexibility. Because of their size geographic and advantages over available chemical imaging drugs agents. Inorganic nanoparticles have a potentiality for medical imagination as well as for treating diseases. There is a growing awareness in inorganic nanoparticles that have been broadly used for cellular delivery due to their multipurpose features like wide availability, rich functionality, and good biocompatibility, capability of targeted drug delivery and controlled release of drugs.

Properties of Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles properties ascribed as bellow.

Size of the Particle: Due to their particle size a non-soluble substance can be solubilized with the transportation of Nano size to application of life science. Large surface area: intense surface effect i.e. reactivity, high energy surface area, higher solubility, adsorption etc.

Electronic particle changes: quantum effect of particles <10nm, importance for optoelectronic application.

Nano Particle structure

Nano particle is a complex mixture, although it is often considered as simple structure. But everyone must accept that it has at least two different aspects. One they can fascinate well-lit like a dye can and liquefy like any other small particle. It already been told that Nano particle has exceptionally high shallow area to their volumetric ratio, that makes them foremost constituent. A Nano particle may drive into two or three layers. A functionalized surface, deliberately added a shell material and other is core material [8]

The surface: The functionalized surface combines with range of metallic ions, tiny molecules, surfactants, or polymers. The convenient way to prepare the Nano particles is the charged surface that disperses in aqueous media. Sometimes the surface has not sufficient for stabilization of localized charged. In a considerable many case, to use tiny molecule to fix of the external by covalent bond or also contain a certain group that capable of carrying charges.

The shell: It is middle portion between surface and core of the particles. In a sense the outermost veneer of any inorganic Nano material may be considered to be deferent from that core is called the shell.

The core: It is the heart of the Nano materials and use to refer as the Nano particles itself. It is a typically practice in the physical sciences where the specific properties of the Nano particle under study are generally related to the core composition. It has to be noted but that normally the properties of interest to the physics and chemistry communities’ area unit habitually conquered by the properties of the core. In any case, identical rules don't fundamentally apply to ecotoxicology. It is highly like that the center of the nanomaterial will play a key role in the nanoparticle destructiveness; be that as it may, this does not mean that the destiny and natural conduct of a nanoparticle will be overwhelmed by center composition.

Factors Affecting Synthesis of Nanoparticles

Specific Methods and technique: From physical techniques and chemical or biological protocols in presence of organic or inorganic organism can be produce Nano particles. Each of the methods or techniques has drawbacks and benefits.

pH Factors: An important factor that can affect the Nano particles synthesis in chemical or biological reconciliation. Nano particles sizes are influenced by the mild pH solution medium.

Temperature: It is another potential factor that effects on synthesis of Nano particles. On chemical protocols it is need less than 350ºc whereas physical required highest temperature.

Pressure: The Nano particles size & shape is affected by the mediums pressure. The reduction rate of metal ions using biological agents has been found to be much more expeditious at ambient pressure conditions.

Time: The quality and type of nanoparticle scored utilizing green innovation are incredibly impacted by length of time for which the response medium is brooded. Additionally, the characteristics of the synthesized nanoparticles were moreover changed with time and enormously affected by the synthesis prepare, introduction to light, and capacity conditions, and so forward [9].

Particle size and shape: It plays an important role in deciding the possessions of nanoparticles. For case, nanoparticles melting points have been reported to reduce when the estimate of the nanoparticles reached the nanometer scale. The type of energy usually used through the analysis of the nanoparticles stimulates the modification within the form of the nanoparticle. The energetic nature and form of the synthesized nanoparticles greatly have an effect on their chemical properties.

Proximity: Individual or isolated nanoparticles are available contact or on the topic of the surface of other nanoparticles, alteration in their properties is decided in most of the cases. This dynamic behavior of the nanoparticles will be employed in creating lots of tuned nanoparticles. There have many proposals of the vicinity impact of nanoparticles like the particle charging, the substrate interactions, and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles (Table 2).

Table 2: Measurements of techniques for nanoparticles.

Techniques Measures Affectability Notes
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Particle size and characterization Less than 1nm Expansion to TEM can give more information e.g checking microscopy (STEM), tall resolution TEM (HRTEM) or estimations as environment TEM.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Particle size and characterization Less than 1nm Can be used in –situ as natural SEM.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Particle size and characterization 1nm-8µm A form of scanning prude microscopy (SPM), Requires less time and cost than SEM and TEM.
Photon Electron Microscopy (PCS) Average particle size and size distribution 1nm-10µm Based on energetic light scrambling an expansion of the procedures is photon cross correlation spectroscopy (PCS) n for tall concentration opaque suspension giving molecule measure and stability of nanoparticles.

Aluminum: Light, tough and utilitarian, these are the potentials that make Aluminium one of the popular materials of our time. We can find it in the homes where live in, in the automobiles which we drive, in the trains, aircrafts that take us transversely long distances, in the mobile phones and computers we utilize on a 24-hours bedrock, our fridges inside shelves and in modern interior designs, but 200 years ago very little was kenned about this metal. Aluminum offers a rare combination of significant properties. One of the lightest metals within the world which nearly three times lighter than press but it's too remarkably solid, greatly adapted and corrosion safe since its surface is continuously secured in a greatly thin and however exceptionally hard (solid) layer of oxide form. It doesn't magnetize, have an awesome power conductor and shapes combinations with essentially all other metals [12].

Element Properties

Atomic number: 13.

Atomic weight: 26.9815.

Melting point: 660°C (1,220 °F).

Boiling point: 2,467°C (4,473 °F).

Specific gravity: 2.70 (at 20 °C [68 °F]).

Valence: 3.

Electron configuration: 1s², 2s², 2p⁶, 3s², 3p¹.

Aluminum nanoparticles: Aluminum nanoparticles are thermodynamically stable over a wide temperature range. Their structure like corundum with oxygen atoms assuming hexagonal adjacent packing with alumina ions filling two third of octahedral sites in lattice [10,19]. It has determined that the particle performance was additionally influenced by particle size, form and surface charge. Nanoparticles have a habit to mix in hard and saltwater because of particle interface with organic substance presence in water. Particle aggregations also are influenced by hydrogen ion concentration and saltines, that state dispersion ability of particles within suspension that result in alter toxicity valuations. Before implementation of toxicity studies bound vital structures ought to be taken into thought like particle size, size distribution, morphology, composition, area, surface chemistry and particle reactivity in resolution which require to be accurately characterized as conditions [11].

Antibacterial properties of Al nanoparticles: For centuries, civilization has utilized aluminum for its antibacterial qualities. Aluminum nanoparticles have showed antibacterial exercises more than Aluminum. Minute sums of aluminum nanoparticles can loan antimicrobial impacts to hundreds of square meters of its materials. Typically more effective and demonstrated to have antibacterial movement within the definition of micro scale to Nano scale measured particles. It has antibacterial action against E. coli and S.

aureus. Aluminum has powerful biocidal properties. It particles, either alone or in complexes, have been utilized for centuries to clean fluids, solids and human tissue. The biocidal instrument of aluminum and aluminum naps makes a difference it as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral operators, with accentuation on novel wellbeing related applications. Aluminum nanoparticles have antibacterial activity against E. coli. Synthesized alumina-silver complex nanoparticles by a modest, reproducible, wetchemical method, with the surface of the oxides adjusted with oleic acids. Preparatory antiseptic or antibacterial ponders performed that utilizing Disc diffusion tests against E. coli suggested that the compound nanomaterial’s have immense potential as antimicrobial agents [12] ()Table 3.

Table 3: Nanomaterial Applications.

Nanomaterial’s Properties/ Application
Carbon Nano fibers
  • Increased pliable strength
  • High chemical resistance
  • Electrical conductivity
Carbon black nanoparticles
  • Improved abrasion resistance & roughness
  • High chemical resistance
  • Electrical conductivity
Clay Nano particles
  • Electrical heat and chemical resistance
  • blockage of ultra violet light
  • Flame retardant and anticorrosive
Metallic Nano particles (Ag, Au, Cu)
  • Antimicrobial
  • Self-sterilization
  • Anti-odor
Metal oxides nanoparticles (TiO2, AlO3, ZnO, MgO)
  • Photo catalytic conductivity
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Ultra violet ray absorption
  • Photo-oxidizing activity against chemical biological species
    • Antimicrobial self -sterilization
Carbone Nano tubes
  • 100 times tensile strength of steel at one sixth of the weight.
    • Electrical conductivity similar to copper
    • Good thermal conductivity
Chiton Nano fibrils
  • Improved tensile strength
  • Improved temperature resistance

Microorganism

Our surroundings are encompassed by endless number of micro-organism; therefore nothing in this world is free from the influence of micro-organisms. However, result of micro- organisms might be pleasant or destroying. In majority of the case micro-organisms cause problems within the service and life of materials. A really prime reason for this is often that the microorganisms are too living things and they need nourishment for their survival, which they can get from the resources on which they live, coming about in corrupting them [10].

Bio corrosion has been defined as any undesirable modification within the properties of a cloth caused by the important activities of organisms [11].

Micro-organisms that outbreak on textile product not solely but incorporates a harmful result, but also stance a serious danger to human life. Significantly hazardous are the infective microorganism’s gift on materials that get direct interaction with shape, like on bandages and surgical mask, this might lead to skin infection, and even cardio vascular syndrome and respiratory disorder [12].

Textile materials and clothing are known to be at risk of bacterial assault, as these give huge extent and retain wet required for bacterial growth. It’s already state that natural fibers have protein and cellulose, etc. which give fundamental prerequisites like oxygen, humidity, nutrients, supplement and temperature for multiplication of microorganism. Micro-organism cause problems with basic materials and handling substances, moist forms within the plants, roll or bulk products in capacity, bound up products in capacity and transport. Microorganisms repeat their structure through sequence transfer and their fast multiplication permits them to grow colonies at extreme rates overwhelming larger areas quickly [1].

Infectious deprivation of cloth depends totally on their chemical composition. Fabrics of natural origins are predominantly at risk of attack by microorganisms. Micro-organism can attack on any quite materials surface in step with following steps [12]:

1. Micro-organisms adhere against the surface of fabric either by attachment or accretion.

2. Propagation of connected contagious cells.

3. Enzyme generation or its formation.

4. Bio degradation of fabric.

5. The fabric polymer degree of reduction by chemical process.

6. Degradable product.

Microbes

Microbes are universally. They are found within the ocean, the soil, deep in the crust of the world, in ice, in hot springs and hooked up to and at intervals different organisms as pathogens, proportionate and dependent. Blood is one among the few milieus wherever they typically do not thrive. It's been calculable that their square measures 4 to 5 × 1030 prokaryotic cells on earth, with the open Ocean, soil, and oceanic and global subterranean showing the best profusions [13].

A microbe, or “microscopic organism,” may be a physical object that's too tiny to be seen with the oculus. We would like to use a magnifier to determine them [13].

There are sensible and dangerous types of micro-organisms. Numbers of species of micro-organisms that exist are found all over within the setting, on our clothes and on our bodies. Microorganisms are the sole waste material sources that manufacture all kinds of pollutants: particulates, gases and infectious biological. They are human aggravations, sensitizers, toxic - response agents, causes of illness, and easy discomforting agents. Microorganisms are the foremost effective pollutants within indoor, on garments and on furnishings. They include a variability of micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and viruses [14].

Microorganism activity on cotton: Textiles made up of natural fibers are usually a lot of vulnerable to bio deterioration than are the artificial (manmade) fibers. This is as a result of their spongy deliquescent structure recalls water, gas and nutrients, providing excellent environments for microorganism growth. Items such as starch, protein subsidiaries, fats & oils utilized in wrapping up of materials can moreover advance microbial development. Micro-organisms could attack the complete substrate, that's the textiles fibers or could attack just one parts of the substrate, like softener contained therein, or cultivate on dirt that has accumulated on the product surface. Overwhelming invasion which comes about in putrefaction and breakdown of the filaments and ensuing physical changes such as misfortune of quality or adaptability may cause the texture to fall flat in benefit. The cellulose is assaulted chemically by the activity of extracellular proteins (enzymes) created by the micro-organisms for the reason of getting nourishment. Strands such as cotton, flax (Material), jute and hemp are exceptionally helpless to assault by cellulolytic (cellulose- digesting) parasites. [15]. Cellulose is diminished by micro-organisms by a process called enzymatic hydrolysis. This hydrolysis involves a multistage decay of polysaccharide to aldohexose brought approximately progressively by the proteins 1,4-endo- β-D-glucan Cellobiohydrolases and glucohydrolase of β-D-glycosides. Microorganisms are able of creating proteins which break down hemicelluloses and pectin’s [16]. Indeed, the whole degradation of polysaccharide are often accomplished by enzymes, made by the fungi and referred to as cellulose (Figure 5).

textile-science-engineering-Microns

Figure 4: Microns to Nanometres-Biological/Chemical/ Atomic

textile-science-engineering-breakdown

Figure 5: Cellulose breakdown by influence of enzyme.

Types of organism:

A bacterium affected by antimicrobial activity is known as antibacterial.

A fungus affected by antimicrobial activity is known as antimitotic.

The Way of function: According to the ways of function of the antimicrobial as are

Conventional leaching type. Unconventional leaching type.

Based on type of activity: Active materials Passive materials.

Materials and Methods

Fabric Selection

The utilization of textile materials made from normal natural fibers is always developing for a wide assortment of applications. Based on its normal properties, cotton texture is among the very popular materials. In any case, due to the need of hostile to microbial property their utilization is constrained in certain applications. Cotton texture forms ideal place pathogenic microbes to setting and develop since of its permeable and hydrophilic structure. To overcome these confinements, there is an ought to confer a compelling hostile to microbial wrap up, at the slightest taken a toll conceivable [1].

Here it was taken single jersey plain knitted fabric (Scoured): G. S. M.: 162 Organisms Selection: In arrange to evaluate the viability of the hostile to microbial action of the cotton fabric, which is treated with aluminum nanoparticles; Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Fungi was selected for the present study.

Preparation of plant sources: Fresh and good quality leaves were collected. It was sorting the better leaves from the buds & cleaned thoroughly using ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and distilled water in ratio 1:10 as shown in figure 6.1 and 6.2.

textile-science-engineering-Weighing

Figure 6.1: Weighing of plants.

textile-science-engineering-Cleaning

Figure 6.2: Cleaning of plants.

The cleaned leaves were dried within the plate drier at 50ᵒC. It was taken note that the drying time was not steady but changed for each sort of plant source. The dried clears out were ground to fine powder.

Synthesis of Nano-particles: Synthesis of Al-NPs was carried out at ZXY International FZCO In-house Lab, North Badda, and Dhaka. The process Al-Nps, 10 gm of leaf powder (which was prepared from plant source) was mixed with 100 ml distilled water and boiled with stirring at 100ᵒC for 30 minutes. The extract was at that point filtered using Whatman’s No.1 filter paper. The extraction was collected in a clean conical flask and put away at 4ᵒC until further use. This was alluded as the precursor preparation as shown in figure 3.3. Now in reduction of aluminum ions, that extraction was mixed with freshly prepared 0.01M aqueous solution of Al₂SO₄ and was kept for incubation for 24-48 hours shown at figure 3.5. The pale-yellow color solution changed into light brown color, which demonstrated the formation of aluminum nanoparticles. Standardization of the antecedent and the reducing agent (aluminum sulfate) extent alongside hatching period was carried out to distinguish the reasonable conditions for getting aluminum nanoparticles in numerous shapes [17].

Finally, with 4 different proportions and 2 plant sources, a total of 8 Al-NPs samples were synthesized shown (Figures 7-9).

textile-science-engineering-Cleaning

Figure 7: Extraction of precursor.

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Figure 8: Reducing agent solution transparency compared distilled with water.

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Figure 9: Synthesis of Nano particle with different ratio.

Testing of antimicrobial property for treated knitted fabric

Assessment of antibacterial activity AATCC- 147: The procedure followed for Antibacterial test – agar diffusion method (AATCC147) is given below: Bacterial action was assessed by a modified subjective AATCC 147 test method for the development hindrance of Escherichia coli. The nutrient agar was prepared and poured in petri dishes. The agar plates were allowed to cool. On the cooled agar, 24hours refined E. coli and swabbed. Then, the treated fabric samples were cut into 1 cm diameter and placed in the petri dishes. These petri dishes were incubated at 37±2°C for 24 hrs. After 24 hours of incubation, the plates were observed for the zone of bacteriostatic around the fabric sample and the zone of clearance (inhibition) was measured in millimeter. The bacterial activity was evaluated based on the ‘Inhibition Zone’, which was calculated by:

(T-D)

W= ―

2

W = No growth of bacterial (zone of inhibition).

T = Test specimen and clear zone total diameter in mm. D = Test specimen diameter in mm.

Preparation of test specimen: The test specimens were cut to the required size using templates from both untreated fabrics and treated fabrics.

Atmospheric conditions: Earlier to testing, the test examples were conditioned for 24hours within the standard environment of 67 ± 2 percent relative mugginess and 27 ± 2°C temperatures in such a way to uncover all parcels of the fabric to the standard environment until the dampness balance was achieved.

Geometrical parameters

Yarn count: The count of the yarn is the numerical expression, which characterizes its fineness. Yarn number of textures was decided by the roundabout strategy of tallying the number of yarns per unit mass utilizing Beesley’s balance [18].

Fabric count: The number of wale loops and course loops per 25mm (1 in.) was counted for knitted fabrics.

Fabric thickness: Thickness called as the distance between one surface and it’s opposite. To determine the fabric, thickness a tolls names thickness gauge was used. Test specimen was conditioned for 24h prior to testing. Fabric was laid flat on plate or anvil of the micrometer and the upper plate. A known arbitrary pressure was applied between the plates. Fabric thickness was recorded on the dial of the micrometer. The mean value of 5 data taken at different location of the fabric surface was calculated [18].

Results and Discussion

Preparation of Plant Source: The selected sources for biosynthesis of aluminum nanoparticles were the leaves of Guava (Psidium guajava), Neem (Azadirachta indica). All the sources each of 100 gms was cleaned in an arrangement of ethyl liquor and refined water of 1:5 proportion and dried in a plate dryer at 50 °C as shown in figure 4.1 and 4.2 it was observed that time required for drying and the sum of dried material obtained was not same for those two sources. Afterward, the dried leaves/Petals were grounded into a fine powder and this powder was utilized within the amalgamation of aluminum nanoparticles. It was noted from the above Table 4.1 that, there was a significant reduction in the weight of the plant sources after drying; this may be attributed to moisture content in the material. This loss was high in Neem Petals and less in Guava leaves. Under constant drying temperature, the time taken for drying varied across the sources though the weight of source was same. It had reported that Neem leaves take more drying time than Guava. After drying weight of Guava & Neem reduced by 72.43% & 81.81% respectively shown in figure 15.

Table 4: Weight of plant sources at different stages & time taken for drying.

Plant Source Time taken for drying (in min) Weight of leaves Weight of leaf after grinding (in g) Loss of weight in percentage
Before drying (in g) After drying (in g)
Guava 30 100 58 50 72.43%
Neem 50 100 55 50 81.81%
textile-science-engineering-Synthesis

Figure 10: Zone of inhibition of antimicrobial activity.

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Figure 11: Bacterial colony growth.

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Figure 12: Spreading the bacterial colony into a Petri dish.

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Figure 13: Extraction of water from plant surface.

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Figure 14: Drying of plant sources.

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Figure 15: Weight of plant sources at different stages & time taken for drying.

Conclusion

The innate properties of textiles fibers, especially cotton provide scope for the growth of micro-organism. In addition, the structure and chemical process may further aggravate the problem. Invasion by microbes causes cross-infection and odor development when the fabric is worn next to skin. The prerequisite for antimicrobial finishes in textile is significantly required to dodge and control contamination apart from defending the textile item from deterioration. Demanding of comfort, clean and hygienic textile goods rapidly increased market for antimicrobial finishes has been created. With the collaboration of newest method and technologies the growing demands of consumer in terms of health & hygienic can be fulfilled without compromising issues related to safety for human.

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is of extraordinary utilized due to the achievability, elementary, fetched compelling, eco-friendly and their reliability nature. Aluminum particularly in its Nano scale has distinct antibacterial undertaking and low cost associated with other comparative metals. In this present study Neem & Guava possessing antimicrobial property were used as core material for synthesizing of Al-Nps. The biological reduction of al+ ions by aluminum sulphate as reducing agent and alleviating agent were proven to be possible elements for synthesis of NPs. NPs exhibited light brownish & dark brownish color in aqueous solution. This eco-friendly method in the direction of the synthesis of NPs has many advantages such as value addition to the product, increased rate of penetration, preoccupation material.

E. coli was used for the evaluation of the antibacterial property of all Al- Nps by agar diffusion method. The smaller ratios of nanoparticles from these two-plant sources showed better biocidal activity compared with the others. Nanoparticles synthesized from plant sources with different ratios showed good antibacterial activity with zoi from 0.6mm to 4.8mm. In 2:1 ratio nanoparticle of both plants indicated that good result in all aspects. At 5% concentration treated knitted fabric of Neem & guava Al-Nps in 2:1 shows good zoi as 4.9mm & 2.1mm respectively. On the other hand, 10:1 ratio of neem at 4% & 5% concentration give closer results apart from the others. Only 5% concentration of guava in 2:1 & 5:1 gives also closer results compared with neem in the same. The test method was followed AATCC-147-2004 for antibacterial activity and wash fastness property is evaluated that after 1st wash the biocidal reduction carried out as well as zoi was found 3.3 mm from 4.9 mm of 5% neem Al-Nps in 2:1 fraction & 1.5 mm from 2.1 mm of same concentrated guava Al-Nps. Here we seen that the reduction value of guava slower than neem. But in 5th wash at all concentration of guava did not survive against antibacterial activity. On other side both 4% & 5% concentration of neem both proportion of nanoparticles showed good result than at least guava. The overall reduction result minimized at 5% absorption both 2:1 and 5:1, showed biocidal reduction as 47% and 75%. At 4% absorption that two rationale biocidal reduction as 68% & 100%, where as other did have chances against fight to bacteria. Antifungal commotion of these two plant nanoparticles gave good rating value 1 in 2:1 and 5:1 at 4% & 5% concentration, which means no growth of bacteria before washes. After the 1st laundering with 2:1 had same antibacterial activity as before but, after 5th wash it dropped down the value 3 as indicated moderate growth of microorganism for both ratios of Nano particles. With referring the remarkable result, we seen in 10:1 of Nano particle at 4% & 5% attention placed good value than others. Geometrical parameters it given the yarn count was increased 30Ne to 32.5Ne or 33.5Ne for 2:1 and 10:1 ratio at 4% & 5% concentration by neem Al-Nps. Aside for guava Al-Nps it showed 30Ne to 32Ne & 34Ne. Fabric count for knitted fabric has marginally expanded since of the unwinding shrinkage after wash. The decreasing of fabric thickness was observed knitted finished sample over the unfinished sample, which might be occurred due to the compression during padding process. In terms of fabric GSM, it being increased 162 to 172 of neem Nano particles & 162 to 180 we had for guava nanoparticles. There is petition for eco-friendly textile materials since of emerging needs of those in angles of welfare and cleanliness that can be contented by utilize of antimicrobial treated fabric in a natural way employing plant source at Nano level. Nano-particles of neem and guava were found to act as barrier in contradiction of microorganism of cotton fabric. It was also found that the 2:1 ratio nanoparticle appeared admirable biocidal activity because of that ratio have inferior Interaction of nanoparticles against the antibacterial activity of knitted fabric increased when the particle size is decreased of those two plants. Suggestion of this study

The results of the study can be exploited for treating children’s articles of clothing, medical items, PPE, underpants, handkerchiefs, towels, and other wellbeing care items.

References

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