Ghafooripour Amin, Nidhi A, Barreto R and Rivera A
Of the existing flooring system types, steel flooring systems are often times overlooked due to their material cost. However, this problem can be addressed by prestressing steel and reducing the weight of each element. Through a three-part analysis, this research concludes that using prestressed steel for flooring systems, when in an optimal configuration, is economically viable. The first part focuses on tests to determine an optimal stringer shape for the flooring system between I-beams and trusses. Once it was determined that truss stringers required less steel for their span, stage two focused on finding an appropriate tendon profile with the goal of cost reduction in mind. The final stage used a comparative cost analysis to ensure that the flooring system with the stringer shape and prestressing tendon profile selected in the previous steps were economically beneficial to those who might choose to adopt this method. The results show that the prestressed truss with straight tendons has maximum efficiency.
Ghazal T, Elkassas E and El-Masry MI
Nowadays, the power industry prefers using overhead lines instead of burying cables due to cost requirements. In spite of that, a problem lies in the fact that many of the existing older transmission systems are built with minimal or no consideration of dynamic effects. Moreover, demands require taller and more slender towers that may be subjected to heavier dynamic loads, and may undergo larger responses. Consequently, the study of the overhead power line failure and its consequences on the supporting towers is essential, especially when being located close to wind farms with risks of severe vibrations. This is a fact when considering the economic costs of failure of transmission lines, as well as the cascade failure that may happen to adjacent transmission towers. This research aims to study the effect of heavier wind loading on the response of the conductive cables and subsequently the lattice steel tower-cable system. This was achieved by creating a finite element model using computer software (ADINA) and (SAP2000). It is shown that many improvements can be made in current design methods promoting a reliability–based design procedure on designing the transmission line systems near wind farms.
Farhad Riahi, Tadeh Zirakian , Bijan Sanaati and Samrand Mohamad Karimi
In this paper, the effects of transverse stiffeners for improving the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of thin steel plates under compressive loading have been investigated through consideration of two parameters, i.e. stiffeners number and height. Moreover, the deformations associated with the buckling stability of unstiffened and stiffened plates have been evaluated through detailed comparison. Numerous numerical models have been developed using ABAQUS and the buckling behavior has been studied through performing nonlinear static analyses. Plate’s largest deformation has been considered for comparison purposes which may not be necessarily located in the center of the plate surface. The use of stiffeners by and large increases the load-bearing capacity of the plates; however, it is shown that lack of proper detailing of stiffened plates may unfavorably result in the reduction of the load-bearing capacity and, in general, adversely affect the stability performance of such commonly-used slender members.
Poland is quite possibly the main creators of crudesteel and steel things in Europe. During the previous decade a critical number of associations in steelarea in Poland attempt to diminish their impact onnature, applying the guidelines of cleaner creation(CP). The revamping of the business and execution neweco-headways caused an extension in bit ofmaterial reusing, fusing steel scrap recoupedunderway techniques and from post-use reusing. Dependent upon such a steel waste, it very wellmay be returned to the system as essentialness sourceor rough material for steel creation or likely be traded as co-thing to other mechanical applications. The reuse of these things is basic for the section inferable from judicious and natural perspectives Such headings of steel waste use are solid with the'zero squander' strategy and they should be moreover inspected in Polish conditions, thinking about theconceivable results of progress, modernization and improvement of new foundations. Theseeco-advances will be especially reinforced by European resources in new programming period 2014-2020.As of late, unsustained mining practices have incited abuse of ordinary resources causing expansive regular defilement. What's more, continually extending interest formetals, declining mineral assessments and complex newstores are generally adding to a rising inozone hurting substance (GHG) spreads from fundamental metal creation. The result of this is certaintythat the mineral taking care of besides, metal creationarea is going under growing strain to improve thegeneral practicality of its exercises, especially bydiminishing essentialness use, GHG releases andwaste expulsion. Overall common consistence is a huge objective in corporate activities. Government associations and adventures have taken various exercises toadd to efficient new development. It is connected with themoving towards an inexorably round economy (CE).The thought of a round economy has been first raised byBritish environmental monetary specialists Pearce and Turnerin 1990, who raised that a regular open-completed economy was made with no inborn tendency to reuse, which was reflected by remunerating natureas a waste storehouse. The purpose of round economy isto decline the resources so the structure capacitieswork in an ideal way. A huge piece of elbowroom ofround economy structures is to save the additionalestimation of things to the extent may be practical andtake out waste ('zero waste'). To keep resources insidethe economy when a thing has shown up at a mind boggling finish to productively use it again and consequentlymake further worth. Progress to a logically roundeconomy requires full central change, and headway in affiliation, society, plans, advancements and asset techniques. As of now, the thought ofCE is familiar with the organization procedure ofnumerous associations around the planet
Seismic retrofitting of existing invigorated concrete (RC) structures, arranged in the latest many years inseismic locales, is perhaps the most bewildering tasks for essential subject matter experts: in fact, it consolidates afew issues, for instance, assessing the constraint of existingindividuals, arranging the supplemental ones and researching the whole design. This paper is arranged asa obligation to clarifying a segment of those issues.Most critically, a model subject to using 1Dlimited segments with fiber portion discretizationis proposed for recreating the lead of an expense genuine steel device that can be used as an association inY-shaped erratic bracings (EB): particularly, thecyclic response and the low-cycle exhaustion corruption is illustrated, taking into account the delayed consequences ofgot in a past exploratory assessment finished at theUniversity of Salerno. Moreover, the overall response of a current RC layout outfitted with the recently referenced devices is inspected by methods for NonLinear Time History (NLTH) assessments. Consideringthe lowcycle shortcoming often prompts essentiallyprogressively extraordinary seismic dislodging demand an impetus on the retrofitted structure: a close by association is disclosed between some specific features ofthe seismic signs got in the NLTH and the genuineimpact of low-cycle wearinessStrengthened Concrete (RC) designs and structuresplanned what's more, recognized in the previousdecades in quake slanted zones are regularly depicted by important levels of shortcoming, as featuredby the mischief and falls saw in on-going seismic occasions.In this way, existing RC structures are for the mostpart denied for retrofitting all together to upgradetheir level of seismic prosperity as demonstrated by thestructure codes right now in force. On a fundamentallevel, a couple retrofitting strategies can be looked for after.Some of them rely upon including further essential systems, for instance, bracings, which are routinely madeof steel. Likewise, these fundamental structures fuse sections that are prepared for spreading the data seismic imperativeness. Though a couple of physical marvels,(for model, disintegration of sliding surfaces, consistency ofliquids, yielding of metals, and so on) are considered for organizing and understanding these dissipative segments,gadgets subject to the hysteretic lead initiatedby the cyclic response of steel parts disfiguredpast their yielding limit are the most everynow and again used ones. Along these lines, the distinctive shapesright now open accessible are related to thediverse actual miracles occurring in hystereticdispersal. To be sure, these parts can yield underhub powers (i.e., Buckling Restrained Bracings), bowing minutes (i.e., ADAS, TADAS, "long" joins, and soforth.), shear (i.e., "short" joins, shear sheets) andtwist.
Kashmir lies in region where temperature in winter is very low. The temperature in Kashmir is often below 0°C during couple of months winter. Concrete mixed, transported and placed under low temperatures requires an understanding for the adverse effects of such environmental factors on the durability of concrete. The damage caused by extreme weather conditions can never be fully eliminated but efforts can be made to minimize these adverse effects. This research was undertaken to investigate the effects of Extreme weather on different properties of concrete and influence of early temperature on the strength of concrete. Three temperatures, two 5°C and one 25°C were selected and maintained for the first three days for freshly prepared concrete and during the early hardening state of concrete. After three days all the samples were cured at room temperature. The most common traditional mix of 1:2:4 was selected for the research work because it is used for maximum construction projects. Admixtures Sodium Nitrite was used to see useful effects of these during extreme weather conditions. After the conduct of research, it has been concluded that cold wheather concreting has serious effect on different properties of concrete, like strength, workability and rate of hardening, during the early hardening state. To eliminate the ill effects, it is the duty of the designer/engineer to plan in advance the selection of materials, types quality and quantity of admixtures and coordination of all phases of work so that conreting can be done safely without damage from freezing throughout the winter months in cold climates.
orrosion Ferro concrete is a composite material containing oflayered wire cross segments and rich cement sandmortar which presents genuine degree of malleabilityand essentialness engaging breaking point. In spite of the way that Ferrocement has validated itself as a fabulous materialfor negligible exertion dwelling, its toughness continues including concern inferable from the utilization weakness of the little broadness metallic wire networks.Assurance of help in Ferro concrete is ordinarily refined through the energizes wire work, extended amazing spread and thick mortar. These strategiesgive simply fragmentary confirmation to the stronghold againstconsumption. This article overviews the investigationsembraced to control disintegration in the Ferro concrete composites and as such improving the strength ofthe composites.There is an upsetting housing need Asia and the Pacificdistrict when everything is said in done and in the Indian setting explicitly. A judicious and a fundamental elective advancement material will contribute essentially in tacklingthe issue of housing. The course of action of appropriateresidences moreover, fundamental structure officesalongside seismic quake safe features, have been thesteady undertaking of the past researchers. Ferrocementhas validated itself as an amazing material forease tremor safe housing. Diverse investigation affiliations and non-government associations viz. CBRI,SERC, AVBC, HUDCO and some other private territory affiliations have also been locked in with multiplying the development for ground-breaking use of ferrocement units. The utilization helplessness puts aquestion mark on the convincing organization life offerrocement and its parts. Any procedure proposing theimproved life through use of utilization inhibitors will develop the ampleness of the Ferro cementmaterial structure for a more broad extent of usein upgraded zones including dwelling, cultivating, mechanical, terrestrial and marine, etc. Achievement of ferrocement, correspondingly similarly as with other materialrelies generally on its solidarity. Notwithstanding thefact that the ferrocement has validated itself as asuperb material for ease dwelling, uphold utilization is perhaps the main premise administeringsolidness of the ferrocement since the distance acrossof the wire networks used in ferrocement are a lotlittler as stood out from the customary strengthened concretecementThere is a disturbing lodging need Asia and the Pacific territory right when everything is said in doneand in the Indian setting expressly. A sensible and afundamental elective headway material will contribute through and through in dealing with the issue of lodging. Thegame plan of legitimate living courses of action furthermore, basic framework work environments close by seismic tremorsafe highlights, have been the predictable undertaking ofthe past scientists
Primary reaction under seismic loadings is ordinarily nonlinear and identified with numerous components, for example, underlying designs, material properties, inhabitance loads, quake risks and fragmented information on the framework. As every one of these components have their wellsprings of vulnerabilities, underlying reaction under seismic stacking has its probabilistic nature. Along these lines, the irregular variable for any primary interest follows a multivariate likelihood dispersion over the reconciliation space characterized by the breaking point states. Inspecting the probabilistic conduct of constructions under quake loadings needs to think about the wellsprings of vulnerabilities from all components. It is likewise realized that mathematical strategies, for example, the limited component strategy, are generally used to anticipate nonlinear primary reaction. The probabilistic primary interest is a discrete likelihood capacity of its connected factors.
David Boyajian* and Tadeh Zirakian
Construction practices involving the rehabilitating, retrofitting, and
reinforcing of concrete structures using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)
fabrics have been well documented. Experimental efforts to
characterize the effectiveness of this technology, however, have
included many large scale FRP-concrete tests for strength/stiffness
evaluations which do not detect delamination effects; small-scale tests,
on the other hand, only provide average interface strength properties
that neither describe failure mechanisms nor provide fracture
toughness data. In this paper, the experimental fracture mechanics
specimen known as the single contoured-cantilever beam (SCCB) was
used to obtain important quantitative results of FRP-concrete
interfaces as subject to a host of conditions: dry, freezing-thawing,
wetting-drying, fatigue, and surface roughness effects on the integrity
of the interface bond. The findings of this research effort demonstrate
both the importance of surface preparation towards achieving an
optimal bond as well as offering a means of gaging rates of degradation
of the interface under a variety of commonly encountered construction
Traditionally, risk management is segmented and conducted in
separate business units or departments (i.e. silos) within a company.
Under silo-based risk management, silos deal with their own risks, and
none single group or person in the company has a grasp of the entire
exposure that the company faces. This is attributed to the way people
think about solving problems, the existing organizational structure,
and the evolution of risk management practice. In addition, this is due
to the fact that each silo within a company possesses the best expertise
to address the risks within its area of responsibility.
LDG is an Excel macro to design for lateral wind and seismic loads
based on ASCE 7 and the IBC (International Building Code). The
objective of LDG is to provide numerical tables and optional graphs to
visualize lateral design data. The graphs reinforce important informed
intuition regarding force, shear and overturn moment distribution.
LDG requests user input of building size as well as wind and seismic
data. Building data includes x-width, y-length, number of stories, story
heights, and dead load. The data may be equal or variable for all
stories. LDG also requests wind and seismic importance factors, wind
speed, exposure- and gust-factors, etc. for wind design, R-factors, Sfactors,
etc. for seismic design. For clarity, seismic data is beige and
wind data green. Based on the user input LDG provides numeric table
and optional graphs defining for each level lateral force, shear and
overturn moment. For wind load LDG provides data in both X- and Ydirections.
The graphs may be displayed on the Excel input screen or
on a separate Excel screen. The attached screen includes seismic force
Fs, shear Vs, overturn moment Ms and wind graphs in X-direction,
force Fwx shear Vwx and overturn moment Mwx. The first column of
the wind table provides the wind pressure in psf. LDG includes a
separate tutorial to introduce the LDG features and use (Figures 1 and
Ghanbari Ghazijahani T
Brilliant ideas are worth as much as a complete research. Steel
structures have followed a quite well-trodden and yet challenging path,
particularly with the advent of new materials in construction industries.
As a result, innovative and stimulating ideas played a significant part,
since both researchers involving in constructions and/or industries
drew comparisons among different materials to achieve most optimal
ideas. In different research and construction projects, the major
concern that whether sole material or a composition of two (or more)
materials outweigh, has always been raised among decision makers.
Notwithstanding, the significant role of steel as a crucial element in
construction has remained inarguable. Despite this, the need for new
ideas has been always vitally felt to come up with innovations in steel
comparable with concrete and other materials. To this end, Journal
of Steel Structure and Construction (JSSC) aims to provide an open
international forum for bright ideas on steel structures. This paper
outlines the significance of the ideas in steel elements and puts few
instances forward among the new advances.
Iron has been used as construction material in human society for
long time. The first iron-chain suspended bridge, 106 m span Jihong
Bridge, was built in Southwest China in 1400s. In Europe, the first
cast iron bridge appeared in 1700s in Telford, England. Cast iron was
later replaced by more reliable wrought iron for construction of most
railway bridges in early 1800s. It was not until late 1800s / early 1900s
that steel structural systems appeared and took over iron in modern
construction industry. Based on the manufacturing procedure, steel
structures can be separated into two main categories: hot-rolled steel
and cold-formed steel. Accordingly, there are two independent design
and constructional systems.
Iron and steel demand is a leading indicator of national growth and has a major impact on the global economy. Iron and steel manufacturing, which has become the second largest energy user in industry, uses high-temperature furnaces. From 2000 to 2011, the sector's energy consumption increased by 6.2 percent annually, owing to rises in crude steel demand (IEA, 2014). Furthermore, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from iron and steel plants account for the largest proportion of CO2 emissions in the industrial sector, at about 27%.
Nepal, which is located in one of the world's most seismically active continental collision orogenic belts, has experienced a series of devastating earthquakes in the past . The Gorkha earthquake (Mw 7.8) in April 2015 was the most recent of these Himalayan thrust events, killing about 9,000 people in Nepal and nearby regions and injuring another 22,000 people. Following the long-term socioeconomic consequences of large earthquakes in the area, it is critical to establish a reliable and transparent system for quantifying the "real" degree of earthquake threat in major cities for the protection and preparedness of millions of people. We solve this issue by using a natural time analysis for earthquake nowcasting in 24 of Nepal's major cities.
While environmentally sustainable interior design (ESID) has become a major issue in interior design practise, the frequency with which interior designers make sustainable choices in real practise is still limited, according to the literature, especially when it comes to material selection. The goal of this study was to gain a thorough understanding of what constitutes a sustainable material choice, as well as to investigate the current supply and demand for green, sustainable, and Fair Trade (GSFT) products in the interior design field. In the first instance a desk study of currently available GSFT materials was undertaken.
Aerospace engineering is a subset of mechanical engineering that emerged relatively recently in human history when humans began to fly, first in the atmosphere and then into space. It is the science that underpins the design and construction of aircraft and spacecraft (aeronautical engineering) (astronautical engineering). Gliders, missiles, jet fighters, and space rockets are all designed, built, and tested by these engineers. Some work in naval design as well, since some of the rules that govern the flow of air (a fluid) around an aircraft easily translate to the flow of water (also a fluid) around a ship or submarine.
Several profound and dramatic transformations in the growth of the global aerospace industry have recently been observed: (A) the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) of All Electric Aircraft (AEA) design principle has been applied to a number of new-generation atmospheric vehicles1 such as the F-22, F-35, Airbus A380, and Boeing 787; (B) operated by the Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology project. With the development of reusable and hypersonic technology, the idea of Energy-Optimized Aircraft (EOA) has been proposed; (C) marked by the efficient operation of the X-37B, the boundaries between space and aviation vehicles have become blurry, accelerating the historic integration of the trans-atmospheric vehicles.
The sea-crossing bridges that connect the two sides of the strait are becoming increasingly important for economic development, transportation, and trade as the economy grows and trade expands. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, which was recently built in China, connects Hong Kong, Zhuhai, and Macao, cutting travel time between the three cities in half, and is critical to the economic development of Hong Kong, Macao, and the Pearl River Delta's West Bank. The long span of such sea-crossing bridges typically ranges from a few kilometres to tens of kilometres, and they are frequently positioned near the beach. Unlike land-based bridges, research has demonstrated that the wave force on bridges is a crucial control load that cannot be overlooked
Long-span bridges are increasingly being used to cross longer passages in international bridge engineering. More daring bridge crossings, such as the Messina Strait and the Strait of Gibraltar, are being considered as experience and development progress. The Norwegian government intends to construct a continuous motorway along the country's west coast. A motorway like this would have to cross multiple fjords with extremely long-span bridges, displacing current ferry links. Many of the bridge concepts being considered are incredibly thin, such as floating bridges with spans up to 5500 metres and suspension bridges with major spans exceeding 3000 metres. The design stresses for these sorts of structures are governed by the buffeting response from turbulent wind loading, hence uncertainties related to the description of the turbulent wind field must be adequately handled because it has a substantial impact on overall structural reliability
Major transportation corridors, including long-span bridges, connecting core cities in coastal areas have played an important role in lowering highway traffic mileages, enhancing city cooperation and exchanges, easing traffic congestion, and supporting regional economic development. However, as traffic volumes and truck proportions increase, the risk of serious accidents on long-span bridges has increased dramatically in China. According to data, the number of traffic accidents on typical long-span bridges in China has increased significantly in recent years. Due to large truck percentages, inclement weather conditions, and especially the physically dynamic bridge structures, which is one of the unique factors of long-span bridges, traffic accidents on long-span bridges have associated specific characteristics when compared to traffic accidents on ordinary highways
With the increasing severity of earthquake resistance and disaster reduction of offshore bridges, more scholars are paying attention to the impact of ground motion on reinforced concrete structures, particularly the impact of the failure of some components in the original system on the remaining components and the stability of the remaining new system under earthquake which has gradually become an important part of the seismic analysis and evaluation of the bridge structure
Journal of Steel Structures & Construction received 241 citations as per Google Scholar report