Wastewater Filtration and Water Treatment

Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Review - (2022) Volume 12, Issue 12

Wastewater Filtration and Water Treatment

Nishan Mohanty*
*Correspondence: Nishan Mohanty, Department of Environmental Science, University of Charles Darwin, Ellengowan, Australia, Email:
Department of Environmental Science, University of Charles Darwin, Ellengowan, Australia

Received: 01-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. Jeat-23-93059; Editor assigned: 03-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. P-93059; Reviewed: 17-Dec-2022, QC No. Q-93059; Revised: 22-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. R-93059; Published: 29-Dec-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2022.12.692
Citation: Mohanty, Nishan. “Wastewater Filtration and Water Treatment.” J Environ Anal Toxicol 12 (2022): 692.
Copyright: © 2022 Mohanty N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


With regards to ecological decontamination and energy creation, MXenes have tempted a ton of thought, including the photocatalytic oxidation of natural pollutes weighty metals adsorption, detecting and catalysis and energizing creation and energy stockpiling. MXene materials are still in their infancy, so it will be challenging to turn them into products that can be sold. More and more researchers are looking into these devices applications and performance. MXenes are most frequently discussed in energy conversion, biomedical and storage studies, while environmental cleaning and wastewater treatment have received less attention. MXenes and MXene-based composites are analyzed in this survey for their application in the expulsion of undesirable impurities from water, with specific accentuation on colors and weighty metals. MXenes structure and function in the removal process, as well as their regeneration after removal, are all taken into consideration and evaluated.


Photo catalytic oxidation • Catalysis • Carbonitride • Transition metal


Due to global population growth and industrialization, an increasing number of pollutants, including hazardous refractory contaminants, organic dyes, pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are entering water resources on a large scale. A brand-new kind of transition metal carbide or carbonitride material known as two-dimensional (2D) MXene has shown that it can adsorb a variety of heavy contaminants, particularly metals like chromium, copper, lead and mercury. In addition, MXenes are excellent adsorbents for waste removal because they have a tunable band gap (0.92–1.75 eV), excellent thermal stability and significant damage resistance. For the purpose of removing contaminants from water, MXene nanocomposites are discussed in this review article. An overview is provided of the concept of water remediation, the applications of MXene-based nanocomposites and the effects on the degradation of contaminants in water and wastewater. Additionally, future developments in MXene-based nanocomposites for environmental and water treatment applications.

Literature Review

As social economies continue to grow, there is an ever-increasing demand for water. Notwithstanding, there is a lot of water on this planet that can't be used immediately, bringing about a tremendous inconsistency between the requests of individuals for water and the accessible water assets. In order to find solutions to these kinds of issues, researchers must devise novel strategies for rationally increasing the amount of water used. Different handling methods have been found for water remediation, including parting of water, emanating refinement and antibacterial cleansing of seawater. Photo catalytic technology and adsorption have both played a significant role in the development of water treatment equipment. A few high level 2D nano materials for natural remediation were examined. They were advantageous, but they also had a number of drawbacks, such as a high price, a low retention capacity and poor chemical and thermal stability. Two-dimensional substances containing nitrides and transition metal carbides, known as MXenes, with the chemical formula Mn+1XnTX, have attracted the attention of scientists as a potential solution to the shortcomings of conventional 2D nano materials. MXenes are suitable for a wide range of industrial applications due to their chemical, physical and functional properties. Due to their high metallic electrical conductivity, high hardness and excellent chemical stability, early transition metal carbides and nitrides are regarded as important compound groups. They have been studied as bulk ceramic materials for decades in high-temperature applications and cutting tools. Functional composites, catalysts and electrochemical energy storage are two additional applications. It is challenging to reduce the dimensionality of transition metals from solid 3D solids to nano materials, such as 2D sheets and 1D nano ribbons or nanotubes, due to the strong bonds between carbon/nitrogen atoms and transition metals (mostly covalent or metallic bonds [1].

Yury Gogotsi and Michel W. Barsoum made the initial MXene discovery in 2011. As Ti3AlC2 is submerged in hydrofluoric corrosive (HF), it is feasible to specifically eliminate the aluminium layer to get 2D titanium carbide Ti3C2 nano sheets with extraordinary general properties. Consequently, the "MXene" family is utilized to ascertain the relationship between the MAX phases and their dimensions. MXenes typically have a thickness that is related to the n in MXenes (Mn+1XnTx) and ranges from 1 to 2 nm. MXenes are mostly made by selectively etching the A layers from the precursor MAX phase (Mn+1 AXn), where M stands for transition metal, A stands for any element in groups 12–16 (including Cd, Al, Si, P, S, Ga, Ge, As, In, Sn, Tl and Pb), X stands for carbon and/or nitrogen and n stands for one, two, or three.

MX phases typically consist of A layers sandwiched between octahedral Mn+1Xn structures with a weak bond between M–A and relatively strong M–X bonds. Around 30 MXene pieces have been accounted for in the examinations that were ready from the Maximum stage antecedents, for the most part by adding progress metals to the M layer. MXenes can be found in a variety of forms, but Ti-based MXenes, like Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx, are the ones that are most commonly used in environmental applications. MXenes unique layered structure and two-dimensional morphology allow them to be enhanced by combining with other substances. MXenes have excellent electrical conductivity, flexibility and tunable properties thanks to this particular chemical structure [2].

For future water remediation, the development of MXenes and MXene based on nanomaterials was an excellent option. The ability of MXenebased nanocomposites to decompose toxic environmental pollutants from water through photodegradation was superior. Due to their superior thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent thermal and mechanical stability and high solubility in water when compared to other 2D nanomaterials, MXene nanostructures have become a hotbed for environmental photocatalysis. In general, MXene-based composites offer twice as many advantages as MXene on its own.

Various investigations have demonstrated that MXenes and their composites are profoundly successful at discarding weighty metals, colors and radionuclides as a result of their design, which has a few properties, including a huge explicit surface region, more noteworthy capacity to collect light and more limited dispersion defeats for e− and h+ that have been photoexcited. Based on the encouraging findings of common studies, these unique materials have a lot of room for improvement in spite of a lot of obstacles. MXene is certain to produce the next generation of adsorbents and catalysts in the field of water and environmental remediation [3].

Because of various difficulties looked by scientists, the MXene-based nano materials study is currently at a beginning phase regardless of the broad use of these sorts of materials in eliminating toxins like colours, as well as natural and inorganic particles. The theoretical concept for using MXenebased nanomaterial has grown in recent years, but the experimental part is moving more slowly. The potential applications of MXene-based nanomaterials in practice include the following. In continuous operating systems, the use of MXenes as an adsorbent should be investigated; MXenes are typically synthesized with hazardous HF, which poses serious health risks. HF can be subbed with greener or less harmful synthetics to guarantee a harmless to the ecosystem MXene union.


In order to improve the effectiveness of adsorption mechanisms, it is necessary to investigate the surface properties of MXene-based nano materials; For MXenes, developing a large-scale, cost-effective and environmentally friendly production system opens up new commercial applications; MXenebased nano materials must be tested for their toxicity to humans and the environment before they can be used in other biomedical applications. Another important challenge for practical applications is separating the photo thermal nanoparticles from the surface of the MXene-based photo thermal membrane. This reduces the membrane's photo thermal efficiency and causes secondary pollution. Chemical bonding or grafting might be able to create a stronger adhesive bond than physical attachment between the photo thermal nanoparticles and the membrane surface in this instance. MXene quantum dots (MQDs) are a new generation of smart nano systems that can be used in a variety of wastewater purification applications [4-6].


In the beginning phases of the undeveloped organism, notwithstanding angiogenesis, MXene nano sheets were assessed for possible harmfulness. Avian embryos incubated for three and five days served as the experimental model. As per the review, 46% of MXene-uncovered undeveloped organisms passed on somewhere in the range of 1 and 5 days after openness, showing that MXene could adversely influence embryogenesis. After five days of incubation at the tested concentrations, MXene also stopped the angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane. Seven genes, including those that control cell survival, proliferation, cell death and angiogenesis, were found to be deregulated in the brain, heart and liver tissues of MXene-treated embryos as opposed to their matched controls in the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) analysis. Multiple systematic and analytical studies are required to identify the dangers posed by MXenes and their poisonous effects. The compounds biodegradation, solubility, dispersion and persistence as a poison must also be investigated.



Conflict of Interest



  1. Morrow, Paul L., Simon Stables, Kilak Kesha and Rexson Tse, et al. "An outbreak of deaths associated with AMB-FUBINACA in Auckland NZ."E Clinical Medicine25 (2020): 100460.
  2. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  3. Cao, Yiqun, Tao Jiang and Thomas Girke. "A maximum common substructure-based algorithm for searching and predicting drug-like compounds."Bioinform24 (2008): i366-i374.
  4. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  5. Baruffaldi, Federico, April Huseby Kelcher, Megan Laudenbach and Valeria Gradinati, et al. "Preclinical efficacy and characterization of candidate vaccines for treatment of opioid use disorders using clinically viable carrier proteins."Mol Pharm15 (2018): 4947-4962.
  6. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  7. Barrientos, Rodell C., Eric W. Bow, Connor Whalen and Oscar B. Torres, et al. "Novel vaccine that blunts fentanyl effects and sequesters ultrapotent fentanyl analogues."Mol Pharm 179 (2020): 3447-3460.
  8. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  9. Banister, Samuel D., Mitchell Longworth, Richard Kevin and Shivani Sachdev, et al. "Pharmacology of valinate and tert-leucinate synthetic cannabinoids 5F-AMBICA, 5F-AMB, 5F-ADB, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-CHMICA and their analogues."ACS Chem Neurosci7 (2016): 1241-1254. 
  10. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  11. Bilal, Muhammad, Hafiz MN Iqbal and Damiá Barceló. "Persistence of pesticides-based contaminants in the environment and their effective degradation using laccase-assisted biocatalytic systems."Sci Total Environ 695 (2019): 133896.
  12. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

Google Scholar citation report
Citations: 6232

Environmental & Analytical Toxicology received 6232 citations as per Google Scholar report

Environmental & Analytical Toxicology peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In

arrow_upward arrow_upward