Vaccines | Open Access Journals

Immunochemistry & Immunopathology

ISSN: 2469-9756

Open Access


Vaccine, suspension of damaged, destroyed, or broken micro-organisms or toxins or of antibodies or lymphocytes mainly administered for disease prevention. By stimulating the immune system to combat the virus, a vaccine may confer active immunity against a specific harmful virus. If the antibody-producing cells, called B cells, are activated by a vaccine, they remain sensitized and ready to react to the agent should they ever reach the body. Also, a vaccine can confer passive immunity by providing an animal or human donor with antibodies or lymphocytes already made. Injection vaccines are usually given, but some are given orally or even nasally. Vaccines applied to mucosal surfaces, such as those lining the intestine or nasal passages, appear to stimulate a greater response to an antibody and may be the most effective route of administration. British physician Edward Jenner introduced the first vaccine, who in 1796 used the cowpox virus (vaccinia) to confer protection against smallpox, a related virus, in humans. However, before that use the vaccination principle was applied by Asian doctors who gave dried crusts to children from the lesions of people suffering from smallpox to protect against the disease. While some developed immunity, some developed the condition. Jenner’s contribution to confer immunity was to use a substance similar to, but safer than, smallpox.

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