Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

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Articles in press and Articles in process

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

    Evaluation of In vitro Antifungal Activity of Some Plant Extractives

    Eugene Sebastian J Nidiry*

    Thirty-two extractives of seven plants obtained using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were tested for their in vitro antifungal activity against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among these extractives, ethyl acetate extractives of onion seeds, chilli seeds and chilli pericarps and methanol extractives of chilli seeds and chilli pericarps exhibited more than 20% mycelial growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.5% level. Methanol extractives of Solanum viarum berries and ethyl acetate extractive of soybean leaves exhibited more than 20% mycelial growth inhibition at a concentration of 1.0% level. Thin layer chromatographic bioautography showed that hexane and ethyl acetate extractives of onion seeds, chilli seeds and chilli pericarps exhibited spore germination inhibition of Cladosporium cucumerinum at a dose of 1.0 mg.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Effects of Lead on Human Health: A Review

    Tayaba Mohsin*

    Lead is one of the most abundant naturally occurring heavy metal. When it is in low concentration it is beneficial for the physiological and biochemical activities in living organisms, however when its concentration exceed up to a certain limit it cause the serious health problems. It is non-biodegradable poisonous metal, today it has become a global health issue. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by the lead toxicity. Developing countries use the lead for their beneficial purposes and it became a common environmental pollutant. However in developed countries the people take preventative measure and apply the management strategies to control the lead toxicity up to a certain limit. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and its continuous use raise the level of lead in every country, cause the serious threats such as carcinogenicity, renal failure, high blood pressure, brain damage, hematological effects, reproductive system damage both in men and women, heart diseases, bone screening, liver damage etc. The effect of lead can be decreased by the number of techniques used today such as chelatin therapy and different types of medications.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Trend Test and Change-Point Detection for Concentrations of I-131 in Drinking Water and Dairy Milk in the U.S. Midwest

      Alec Sithole*, Jones Mutua and Gwen Lack

      Radioactive iodine (I-131) is one of the radionuclide byproducts of uranium and plutonium fission or neutron capture by Tellarium-130. I-131 decays to Xenon and releases β-particles and γ-radiation. Due to its release of IR during nuclear decay, I-131 is a potent radioactive hazard to public health. In this study, I-131 data from the EPA database, measured from drinking water and pasteurized dairy milk in the U.S. Midwest, were analyzed using non-parametric trend test and change-point detection techniques. We perform the Gaussian Kernel (G-K) smoothing to separate long-trends from the random noise in the data. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) rank correlation and Theil-Sen’s (T-S) tests indicated the existence of positive trends on the data. Furthermore, the Pettitt's Homogeneity (P-H) tests revealed statistically significant increases (α=0.05, p?0.0001) in I-131 radiation levels between the periods 1978-1983 and 1984-1990 in pasteurized dairy milk. With regards to drinking water, we noted significant increases between 1978-1995 and 1995-2017. We recommend further studies to determine the possible factors contributing to the periodicities in the data.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Phytoplankton Determination of the Trophic Status and Portability of Aiakhuakhuari River, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

        Raymond Sunday Ezenweani*, Mabel Amen Akhere and Catherine Olamiposi Ikudaisi

        DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2023.13.719

        A limnological study of phytoplankton composition of Aiakhuakhuari river in Oredo local government area was carried out for six months to assess the water quality using phytoplankton composition of the river. Three sampling stations were chosen and phytoplankton samples were collected (using 55 μm plankton net) and values for air temperature, water temperature, pH and total dissolved solids were estimated in situ. A total of 135 phytoplankton species were identified comprising 4 divisions namely; bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, euglenophyta and cyanophyta. Bacillariophyta, which was represented by two orders (centrales and pennales), dominated the phytoplankton taxa, of which they accounted for 45.92% of the total phytoplankton composition. The division Chlorophyta made the second highest contribution (38.52%), with bulk belonging to the order Zygnematales. The euglenophyta was represented by one order (Euglenales) and three genera (Euglena, Trachelomonas and Strombomonas) contributed 8.89%, while cyanophyta made the least contribution (6.67%) and had 4 genera (Dactylococcus, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Anabaena). The high and low relative abundance of bacillariophyta and cyanophyta respectively, indicate that Aiakhuakhuari river is not polluted, oligotrophic and low in productivity. The physic chemical parameters also showed that the river was not polluted when compared with WGO and SON standard for portable water. It recommended that there should be routine check on the portability of all sources of portable water for safety and health sustainability.

        Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

        Environmental Recommendation to Mitigate Beirut Explosion Consequences

        Ahmed Hesham

        Beirut harbor explosion on 4th August 2020, carried out in the quarantine area of highly flammable substances caused, white gases emissions followed by reddish-brown gases emissions. The previous epidemiological studies stated that nitrogen dioxide has appeared to be a good indicator of the pollutant mixture. Furthermore, animal toxicological studies show that prolonged exposures can cause decreases in lung host defences and changes in lung structure. Beside many adverse health effects on human organs like on blood, liver and spleen. Also, cause hypertension, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases and even death

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Oreochromis niloticus and Sediments in River Galma, Kaduna State, Nigeria

          Abubakar Mohammed Ndagi*, Umar Bayero, Adesakin TaiwoAdekanmi, Yusuf Abdullateef, Ibrahim K.A and Sakan M.S

          Pesticides usage in agricultural fields to control pests could be extremely toxic to non-target organisms like fish and affects fish health through impairment of metabolism, sometimes leading to mortality. The present study was carried out to assess the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment samples and Oreochromis niloticus obtained from River Galma. Soxhlet extraction process was employed for fish while sediment extraction was done using a mixture of n-hexane and acetone. The extracts were cleaned-up and analyzed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS). DDT, Mirex, Pentachlorophenol, Malathion, Chlordane and TNT were detected in the study area. Endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, alpha BHC and heptachlor were not detected in all the samples analyzed. Chlordane was the only detected pesticide in fish sample during wet season. The findings provide evidence of pollution of some of the organochlorine pesticide residues in River Galma. This shows that the River Galma is contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. Hence, serious need for continuous monitoring of these pesticide residues in water, sediments, fish and the environment is required in order to prevent various environmental and public health hazards that may arise from these pollutants.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Note on Genetic Toxicology

          Aluwamiyo Soka

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          Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

          Treatment with Antidotes for Pediatric Toxicological Exposures

          Boded Hanya Ryavaso

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          Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

          Transgenic Techniques for Iron, Zinc, and Iodine (IZI) Bio fortification in Crops

          Pradip Kumar Saini*, Shambhoo Prasad and Jitender Bhati

          Micronutrient malnutrition is a major problem in poor nations, particularly in Asia and Africa, where millions of school-aged children and pregnant women suffer from it. Because they eat carbohydrate-rich but micronutrient-deficient plant-based diet, poor individuals are more vulnerable to malnutrition and hidden hunger. The spread of high-yielding but low-micronutrient cultivars exacerbated the malnutrition. Supplementation and food fortification of staple foods with minerals are two ways that can be used to address the issue of proper nutrition security. However, supplementation and fortification are neither possible nor cost-effective for iodine, particularly iron. To treat micronutrient deficiencies, genetic bio fortification of crops has recently developed as a self-targeted and non-recurrent strategy. Because there wasn't enough genetic variation in the crossable gene pools, most traditional breeding methods were limited. Furthermore, it lacks the micronutrient and iodine accumulation-related modulation of target gene expression. At this point, genetic engineering-based food bio fortification appears to be a potential strategy to solve hidden hunger, particularly in areas where breeding is difficult due to a lack of genetic diversity.
          Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

          A Review Paper on: Cadmium Toxicity

          Maryam Rasheed*

          A review has been made of current knowledge, published and unpublished, relating to cadmium toxicity. Cadmium is a heavy metal that occurs as a natural constituent in earth crust along with Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc. Cadmium is vastly used in batteries, coating, plating, alloys etc in various industries. Human are commonly exposed to cadmium by inhalation and ingestion. Cadmium enters in air and binds to small particles where it can combine with water or soil causing contamination of fish, plants and animal in mono form. Spills at hazardous waste sites and improper waste disposal can cause cadmium leakage in nearby habitats. Foodstuff like liver, mushroom, shellfish, mussels, cooca power and dried seaweeds are cadmium rich increasing the concentration in human body and in food chain lead to acute and chronic intoxication due to bio magnification. Health effects include diarrhea, stomach pain, bone fracture, reproductive failure and possibly even infertility, damage to central nervous system, psychological disorders. The organic matter in soil absorbs cadmium increasing the risk of survival of various plants and also increase uptake of toxin metal in food. The review is about the study of toxicity mechanism of cadmium in human beings and plants and biological phenomena involved.

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