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Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 10, Issue 2 (2020)

    Environmental Toxicology and pollution management (2020)

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

      Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effect and Oak Decay Phenomena under Factors and Effects of Drought Eutrophication and its Impact on Phenol - Flavonoids of the Tree and its Relation to the Environment and Global Warming

      Alireza Kiyou marsian

      The purpose of this article is to identify the factors causing oak deterioration, oak forest drought and sustainable forest management (effective control and pest control, seeding time for seed production, etc.), conservation, development and use of forest resources, oak drying relationship With seasonal climate change on a global scale. Oak is one of the most valuable biological and nutritional resources for humanity. The findings of this study indicate that the drying of this valuable tree has caused significant damage to oak forest habitats. The feedback from this phenomenon increases the water vapour, the premature melting time of snowfall, the temporal and spatial distribution, and the distribution of snowfall and solar radiation to the ground, reflecting infrared rays from the earth and the occurrence of global warming. In general, oak shrinkage is a complex situation that illegally hunts for various factors including fungi, pest infestation such as leaf moths, crushing soil animals and the disappearance of natural oak controllers such as squirrels from factors such as identifying pathogenic fungi, controlling pests to cut down trees, cutting and removing contaminated parts of the tree such as branches, providing the moisture needed by making crescent shapes to collect rainwater and  removing weeds that Leading to Lorentus disease is suggested.  Findings in the study area indicated that most of the symptoms of tree decline and damage to the tree were between the classes with moderate canopy dryness (33-66%). From the trunk of the tree, early fall, vascular sap was a common symptom of unhealthy trees.

      A worldwide temperature alteration alludes to worldwide midpoints, with the measure of warming differing by locale. Examples of warming are free of where ozone harming substances are produced, on the grounds that the gases endure adequately long to diffuse across the planet; nonetheless, confined dark carbon stores on day off ice do add to Arctic warming. Since the pre-modern period, worldwide normal land temperatures have expanded twice as quick as worldwide normal surface temperatures. This is a result of the bigger warmth limit of seas, and in light of the fact that seas lose more warmth by evaporation. Over 90% of the extra energy in the atmosphere framework throughout the most recent 50 years has been put away in the sea, warming it. The rest of the extra energy has softened ice and warmed the mainlands and the atmosphere.

      The Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have warmed a lot quicker than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere has substantially more land, yet additionally more snow zone and ocean ice, on account of how the land masses are masterminded around the Arctic Ocean. As these surfaces flip from mirroring a great deal of light to being dull after the ice has softened, they begin retaining more warmth. The Southern Hemisphere previously had little ocean ice in summer before it began warming. Arctic temperatures have expanded and are anticipated to keep on expanding during this century at over double the pace of the remainder of the world. Melting of icy masses and ice sheets in the Arctic upsets sea flow, including a debilitated Gulf Stream, causing expanded warming in certain zones.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 2 - 2

      Enhancing Biogas Production by Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Carbon Rich Co-Substrate

      Jyoti Kainthola1, R K Rai2 and Ajay Kalamdhad3

      Food waste management by anaerobic digestion is proved to be a potential alternative than composting, landfilling or incineration. It can lead to renewable energy production coupled with the minimization of waste volume and greenhouse gas emissions. Low C/N ratio of food waste inhibit the process stability and decreases the methanogenesis rate, so enhancement of biogas yield and degradability is often required to optimize by co-digesting it with another substrate. Co-digestion balances the carbon and nitrogen and increases digester performance and operations more efficiently. The addition of rice straw as co-substrate avoided the ammonia inhibition and volatile acid accumulation during the process and increases the process stability. Mixing food waste and rice straw balances the C/N ratio to 25, which is required for the maximum biogas production, whereas in case of food waste C/N ratio was 14.5. The study was performed in batch reactor under mesophilic (35+2oC) condition. The result showed that balancing C/N ratio increases the biomethane yield and 75 % of the methane was produced during initial 15 days. Methane yield and VS removal efficiency were higher significantly in comparison to mono-digestion of food waste. The biochemical methane potentials (BMP) of food waste and rice straw was calculated in a 1 L anaerobic reactor in mesophilic condition. The optimum methane yield of 0.295 m3/kg- VS was obtained which was 41.7% higher compared to the individual digestion food waste. The methane content and biogas production was obtained to be 62.37 % and 0.438 m3/kg- VS which was much higher than the mono-digestion value.

      High solids (dry) digesters are intended to handle materials with a solids content somewhere in the range of 25 and 40%. Dissimilar to wet digesters that cycle pumpable slurries, high solids (dry – stackable substrate) digesters are intended to handle strong substrates without the expansion of water. The essential styles of dry digesters are constant vertical fitting stream and cluster burrow even digesters. Consistent vertical attachment stream digesters are upstanding, tube shaped tanks where feedstock is ceaselessly taken care of into the highest point of the digester, and streams descending by gravity during absorption. In group burrow digesters, the feedstock is kept in passage like chambers with a gas-tight entryway. Neither one of the approaches has blending inside the digester. The measure of pretreatment, for example, toxin evacuation, depends both upon the idea of the waste streams being prepared and the ideal nature of the digestate. Size decrease (crushing) is useful in nonstop vertical frameworks, as it quickens absorption, while bunch frameworks abstain from pounding and rather require structure (for example yard squander) to decrease compaction of the stacked heap. Ceaseless vertical dry digesters have a more modest impression because of the more limited viable maintenance time and vertical plan. Wet digesters can be intended to work in either a high-solids content, with an all out suspended solids (TSS) fixation more noteworthy than ~20%, or a low-solids focus under ~15%.

      High solids (wet) digesters measure a thick slurry that requires more energy contribution to move and handle the feedstock. The thickness of the material may likewise prompt related issues with scraped area. High solids digesters will normally have a lower land prerequisite because of the lower volumes related with the moisture.[citation needed] High solids digesters additionally require adjustment of customary execution counts (for example gas creation, maintenance time, energy, and so forth) initially dependent on exceptionally weaken sewage absorption ideas, since bigger divisions of the feedstock mass are possibly convertible to biogas.

      Low solids (wet) digesters can move material through the framework utilizing standard siphons that require fundamentally lower energy input. Low solids digesters require a bigger measure of land than high solids because of the expanded volumes related with the expanded fluid to-feedstock proportion of the digesters. There are benefits related with activity in a fluid climate, as it empowers more careful dissemination of materials and contact between the microscopic organisms and their food. This empowers the microbes to all the more promptly access the substances on which they are taking care of, and builds the pace of gas creation.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 3 - 3

      Speciation of Selected Heavy Metals in Some Abandoned Mining Pond Sediments of Barkin-Ladi Lga, Plateau State Nigeria

      Nangbes Jacob Gungsat, Buba Mamman Wufem, Choji Vincent Dung, Sase Terver John, Jaya Godfrey Nenrit

      Industrial and anthropogenic activities have resulted in high levels of heavy metal contents in some environmental aquifers such as mining abandoned ponds in like that in Barkin-ladi, thus creating imbalance in the biotic and abiotic regimes of the ecosystem. This study reveals the level and concentration of some selected heavy metals in the mining ponds which includes Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Sediment samples from these selected ponds were obtained and various fractions of the elements were produced by sequential extraction of the sediment samples using the modified Tessier et al (1979) procedures. Concentrations of these heavy metals were determined using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (MP-AES), Agilent 4210. The results obtained showed that Lead and Cadmium were present in all the sites and fractions except for Cd were it was very low in all sites. Mean value were in the order of Pb> Cd > Ni > Cr with mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cd = 0.023±0.003, Cr = 0.004±0.002, Ni = 0.008±0.002 Pb = 0.136±0.007. Results also indicated that Cd and Cr are predominantly available in all fractions 1 – 9 and 3 respectively. Cd and Pb shows significant positive correlation, indicating likely existence either as similar specie or same point source. The presence of Lead in all sample sites shows that Lead is possibly associated with Tin, since study areas were all abandoned tin mining site. The research generally reveals that the heavy metals determined were in potentially available forms that could pose serious health problems to the agricultural and aquatic systems, especially Pb, Cd and Cr.  Consistently, handfuls are harmed or murdered in recreational mishaps on mine property. Most of the passings are disconnected to mine investigation, nonetheless. Drownings in open quarries and ATV mishaps on relinquished mine properties are the primary driver of unintentional passing. The U.S. Branch of Labor takes note of that since 1999, "in excess of 200 individuals have passed on in recreational mishaps at surface and underground dynamic and deserted tasks across the country." Due to these conditions, the Mine Safety and Health Administration dispatched the "Remain Out – Stay Alive" crusade, which is a public mindfulness crusade pointed toward notice and instructing kids and grown-ups about the risks of investigating and playing on dynamic and surrendered mine locales. It tends to be dangerous and hindering to dwell near a surrendered coal mining site. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was passed in 1977 out of two sections; one to control impacts of dynamic mines, and one to direct surrendered mines. SMCRA likewise started a relinquished mine territory store, in which an expense was charged for every huge load of coal delivered. This income was appropriated to a limited extent to the United Mine Workers Association (UMWA) towards retirement assets, just as to the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to proceed with tasks. There is still around $2 billion in assets that are undistributed hitherto.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 4 - 4

      Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Museums and other Exhibition Areas

      Olympia Nisiforou, Petros G Savva, Costas N Costa

      The cultural heritage of each country represents a unique and irreplaceable witness of the past. Nevertheless, in many occasions such heritage it is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and reckless behaviors. Even if such exhibits are now located at Museums, they still receive insufficient protection due to improper environmental conditions.

      Hence, it is imperative for an innovative low-cost system, to systematically monitor indoor air quality, since conventional methods are quite expensive and time consuming.

      The present study gives an insight of the indoor air quality of the National Byzantine Museum of Cyprus. Systematic measurements of particulate matter, bio-aerosols, concentration of targeted chemical pollutants (including Volatile organic compounds -VOCs), temperature, relative humidity and lighting conditions as well as microbial counts have been performed using conventional techniques. Measurements showed that the monitored physiochemical parameters do not vary significantly within the 12 sampling locations apart from some cases. Seasonal fluctuations of ammonia were observed, showing higher concentrations in the summer and lower in winter. The outdoor environment does not greatly affect indoor air quality in terms of VOC and NOX. According to VOC’s identification measurements, those were performed using a portable system, the GC / MS TORION T-9.

      The measurements were used to validate an innovative low cost air-quality monitoring system that has been developed within the present work. The developed system is able to monitor the average concentrations (on a bidaily basis) of several pollutants and presents several innovative features, including the  prompt alerting in case of increased average concentrations of monitored pollutants, i.e., exceeding the limit values defined by the user.

      In spite of the fact that its utilization has now been restricted in numerous nations, the broad utilization of asbestos in mechanical and homegrown conditions in the past has left a possibly exceptionally hazardous material in numerous areas. Asbestosis is a constant fiery ailment influencing the tissue of the lungs. It happens after long haul, weighty presentation to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Victims have serious dyspnea (windedness) and are at an expanded danger with respect to a few distinct kinds of cellular breakdown in the lungs. As clear clarifications are not generally focused in non-specialized writing, care should be taken to recognize a few types of applicable sicknesses. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), these may characterized as; asbestosis, cellular breakdown in the lungs, and Peritoneal Mesothelioma (by and large an uncommon type of disease, when more inescapable it is quite often connected with drawn out presentation to asbestos).

      Organic wellsprings of air contamination are likewise found inside, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, individuals produce dust from minute skin chips and deteriorated hair, dust parasites in sheet material, covering and furniture produce compounds and micrometer-sized fecal droppings, occupants transmit methane, shape structures on dividers and creates mycotoxins and spores, cooling frameworks can brood Legionnaires' illness and form, and houseplants, soil and encompassing nurseries can deliver dust, residue, and form. Inside, the absence of air flow permits these airborne poisons to gather more than they would somehow happen in nature.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 5 - 5

      Air pollution: Sources, Deforestation, Renewable Energy

      Garland Susan

      Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental issue we face in the world today, it has caused adverse effect such as cancer, cardio vascular diseases and high mortality rate. High population density is a high huge contributory factor of air pollution in cities and urbanized area.

      Due to the current growth of the World’s population income and energy consumption and an increase in population in some areas of the world, there is need to monitor the quality of air in area in the State.

      In monitoring the quality of Air in the state, three sample areas were used in Lagos state of Nigeria, which are Omole, Ikeja and Oshodi, and the percentage of CO, NO, and PM were obtained in the sample areas twice in a week, for three consecutive weeks, both at the rush and unrushed hour of the day, with the gases detectors, and the result was analyzed. From the analysis, there was little or no significant differences between the rush hour and the unrushed hour of the gases, the gases at the sampled areas are very high when analyzed, and they are more than the normal standard of the suppose concentration of gases that are supposed to be at the atmosphere. Due to the polluted air in the environment in the sample area, people who live at the area are highly at risk.

       

      Air contamination hazard is a component of the risk of the toxin and the presentation to that poison. Air contamination presentation can be communicated for a person, for specific gatherings (for example neighborhoods or kids living in a nation), or for whole populaces. For instance, one might need to compute the introduction to a perilous air toxin for a geographic territory, which incorporates the different microenvironments and age gatherings. This can be determined as an inward breath introduction. This would represent day by day presentation in different settings (for example distinctive indoor miniature conditions and outside areas). The introduction needs to incorporate diverse age and other segment gatherings, particularly babies, youngsters, pregnant ladies and other touchy subpopulations. The presentation to an air toxin should coordinate the groupings of the air poison as for the time spent in each setting and the individual inward breath rates for every subgroup for every particular time that the subgroup is in the setting and occupied with specific exercises (playing, cooking, perusing, working, investing energy in rush hour gridlock, and so forth) For instance, a little kid's inward breath rate will be not as much as that of a grown-up. A kid occupied with overwhelming activity will have a higher breath rate than a similar youngster in an inactive movement. The every day presentation, at that point, necessities to mirror the time spent in each miniature natural setting and the sort of exercises in these settings. The air poison fixation in every microactivity/microenvironmental setting is added to show the introduction. For certain toxins, for example, dark carbon, traffic related presentations may overwhelm absolute introduction regardless of short presentation times since high fixations concur with vicinity to significant streets or interest to (mechanized) traffic. An enormous segment of complete every day introduction happens as short pinnacles of high focuses, however it stays indistinct how to characterize tops and decide their recurrence and wellbeing sway.

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