Keratinocyte Anti−Inflammatory System is enhanced by Terra Pin Ferment Filtrate

Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases

ISSN: 2684-4281

Open Access

Mini Review - (2022) Volume 9, Issue 9

Keratinocyte Anti−Inflammatory System is enhanced by Terra Pin Ferment Filtrate

Gaku Furue*
*Correspondence: Gaku Furue, Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan, Email:
Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received: 01-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JPD-23-86040; Editor assigned: 03-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. P-86040; Reviewed: 17-Sep-2022, QC No. Q-86040; Revised: 23-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. R-86040; Published: 30-Sep-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2684-4281.2022.9.367
Citation: Furue, Gaku. “Keratinocyte Anti-Inflammatory System is enhanced by Terra Pin Ferment Filtrate.” J Dermatol Dis 9 (2022): 367.
Copyright: © 2022 Furue G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Skincare products play a pivotal part in precluding the dry skin convinced by colorful causes. Certain constituents can help to ameliorate the efficacity of skincare products. Galactomyces raise filtrate (GFF) is such a functional component. Its use began from the empirical observation that the hands of sake spirits who deal with incentive turmoil retain a beautiful and immature appearance. Accordingly, skincare products grounded on GFF are extensively used throughout the world. Recent studies have demonstrated that GFF activates an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and upregulates the expression of filaggrin, a vital endogenous source of natural moisturizing factors, in epidermal keratinocytes. It also activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2), the antioxidative master recap factor, and exhibits potent antioxidative exertion against oxidative stress convinced by ultraviolet irradiation and proinflammatory cytokines, which also accelerate inflammaging. GFF- intermediated NRF2 activation downregulates the expression of CDKN2A, which is known to be overexpressed in ancient keratinocytes. also, GFF enhances epidermal terminal isolation by upregulating the expression of caspase- 14, claudin- 1, and claudin- 4. It also promotes the conflation of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL- 37 and downregulates the expression of proallergic cytokine IL- 33 in keratinocytes. In addition, GFF downregulates the expression of the CXCL14 and IL6R genes, which are involved in inflammaging. These salutary parcels might bolster the potent hedge- guarding andantiinflammaging goods of GFF- containing skin formulae.


Galactomyces ferment filtrate PiteraTM • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor • NRF2 • Filaggrin • CDKN2A • caspase-14


The skin is a vital organ that protects the bodies of terrestrial creatures from the goods of dry harsh surroundings. It also acts as a functional hedge against external mechanical, chemical, and climatological stresses. For illustration, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) shafts and environmental adulterants induces varying degrees of oxidative stress in the skin and the posterior product of proinflammatory cytokines. Low- grade habitual inflammation is a significant threat factor for the type of accelerating growing known as inflammaging. An aged skin appearance and a corresponding histological frailty are exacerbated in sun- exposed areas of skin compared with those defended from sun. thus, the inhibition of oxidative stress by diurnal operations of suitable antioxidants might be salutary in braking skin inflammaging convinced by colorful environmental oxidative stress factors.

The hedge function of skin is substantially handed by its remotest epidermal subcaste, the stratum corneum or cornified subcaste. The mortal epidermis is composed of multiple layers of keratinocytes, including rudimentary, spinous, grainy, and cornified layers. Keratinocytes gain in the rudimentary subcaste, move up through the spinous and grainy layers, and die, but remain functional as corneocytes in the cornified subcaste, before eventually detaching from the skin. Corneocytes are the major factors of the cornified subcaste. still, other natural accoutrements , including the extracellular plates of lipids, similar as ceramides and cholesterol, and colorful natural moisturizing factors (NMFs), including free amino acids, pyrrolidone carboxylic acids, lactates, glucose, urea, hyaluronic acid, and electrolytes, are essential for maintaining a healthy skin – water balance. During the isolation process from the rudimentary to the cornified subcaste, keratinocytes successionally produce epidermal isolation complex proteins, similar as involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. The integration of these proteins into cytoskeletal keratin fiber is essential for the proper isolation of keratinocytes into corneocytes. The declination of filaggrin by proteolytic enzymes, similar as caspase- 14, in the grainy subcaste is also vital in the product of NMFs

Literature Review

Moisturizers basically correspond of colorful functional agents, including occlusive accoutrements and humectants. Occlusive accoutrements , similar as petrolatum and lanolin, are hydrophobic and help the evaporation of water from the skin by sheeting its face with a water- repellent subcaste that interferes with the bidirectional movement of water across the skin. Petrolatum is a classic illustration of an occlusive agent that reduces water loss through the epidermis by nearly 99.

Humectants, similar as urea, glycerin, and α- hydroxy acids, are composites that attract and bind water. They can draw water from the deeper epidermis and dermis. Moisturizers generally contain both occlusives and humectants to increase skin hydration and drop TEWL. In addition to the introductory occlusives and humectants, recent advancements in skin biology point to the salutary eventuality of topical operations of ceramides or NMFs in upregulating the skin- hedge function.

PITERATM, a technical Galactomyces raise filtrate (GFF), is a functional component present in multiple skincare phrasings that are used worldwide. Historically, exploration on GFF began from the empirical observation that senior sake spirits had wrinkled faces, while their hands, which were in constant contact with the sake turmoil process, retained a soft and immature appearance.

GFF- containing moisturizers are able of adding skin hydration and reducing TEWL. Clinical trials have also shown that the topical operation of GFF Pitera ™ improves intraday oscillations in facial greenishness, skin roughness, and hair severance size. Mask operation aggravates intraday oscillations in these facial skin conditions. Mask- convinced exacerbation of oscillations in greenishness and severance size is also perfected by topical treatment with GFF. Although the action mechanisms of GFF aren't completely understood, it has been demonstrated to operate as a potent antioxidative AHR agonist

Tight junctions are cell-cell junctions that connect closely adjacent cells. Mature tight junctions are found in the granular layer of the human epidermis and play an important role in the paracellular permeability barrier to water, solutes, and high-molecular-weight materials. The tight junction is a protein complex made up of claudins, occludins, and other plaque proteins like ZO-1. Among the tight-junction molecules, claudin-1 and claudin-4 are essential for maintaining the permeability barrier; this is typically assessed using measurements of transepithelial electric resistance (TER) for ion transport and labeled-tracer permeability for high-molecular-weight substance transport. A high TER and a low labeled-tracer permeability indicate that the tight junction has a stronger zipper function. Mice wearing a Complete Cldn1 deficiency causes death on the first day of life due to increased TEWL and leaky skin. Humans with CLDN1 deficiency have neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome, a very rare ichthyosis with severe permeability impairment. Downregulation of claudin-4 in keratinocytes treated with ochratoxin A, like that of claudin-1, is known to promote epidermal permeability barrier dysfunction.


Recent advances in skin biology not only give rational substantiation and a strategy for understanding the salutary goods of ornamental constituents, but can also help to ameliorate the efficacity of skincare products in treating colorful skin complaints. Ceramide- and NMFs- containing skincare products are good exemplifications of treatments that significantly palliate signs of dry skin, indeed in seditious skin conditions(). GFF is a functional ornamental component whose relinquishment was inspired by the empirical observation that sake spirits frequently had immature and soft skin on their hands. GFF has ago been shown to be a potent binary agonist for AHR and NRF2. The GFF – AHR axis upregulates filaggrin product and induces the expression of antiinflammatory IL- 37, with posterior downregulation of the expression of proallergic IL- 33. The GFF – NRF2 axis provides a potent antioxidative effect and is presumably salutary in precluding inflammaging, incompletely through the downregulation of CDKN2A. GFF might also meliorate inflammaging by downregulating the expression of CXCL14 and IL6R. In addition, GFF increases the expression of caspase- 14 and claudins, which are basically involved in epidermal terminal isolation and tight- junction development [1-5].


Medicinal TAMAs, similar as tapinarof, coal navigator, and glyteer, are potent binary agonists of AHR and NRF2(). numerous recent and ongoing clinical studies have demonstrated the remedial utility of TAMA in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis(). As the natural and functional parcels of GFF are analogous to those of TAMA, GFF might be distributed as an antioxidative ornamental AHR- modulating agent. still, the in- depth cellular mechanisms of GFF exertion haven't been completely illustrated in keratinocytes. Although GFF affects melanocytes( 77) and sebocytes( 46), the natural significance of GFF with respect to these cell types also remains unclear. Considering its antioxidative, hedge- guarding, and anti- inflammaging/ antisenescence parcels, GFF can be considered a potent ornamental agent for precluding and repairing skin damage caused by colorful external and internal cuts, and for maintaining healthy, immature- appearing skin by braking skin aging



Conflict of Interest



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