Oxidative Stress | Open Access Journals

Journal of Molecular Histology & Medical Physiology

ISSN: 2684-494X

Open Access

Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances within the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the assembly of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, also as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is usually indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2− (superoxide radical), OH (hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling. Chemically, oxidative stress is related to increased production of oxidizing species or a big decrease within the effectiveness of antioxidant defenses, like glutathione. the consequences of oxidative stress depend on the dimensions of those changes, with a cell having the ability to beat small perturbations and regain its original state. However, more severe oxidative stress can cause necrobiosis , and even moderate oxidation can trigger apoptosis, while more intense stresses may cause necrosis.

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