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Neurological Disorders

ISSN: 2329-6895

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 8, Issue 5 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    The Socio-Personal Effects of Epilepsy on Adolescents in the Metropolitan City, Karachi

    Shehzeen F. Memon*

    DOI: 10.37421/J Neurol Disord.2020.8.429

    Introduction: Epilepsy is characterized by uncontrolled, recurrent seizure attacks in one or more body parts of a person. It is related to abnormal brain activity which can be genetic, can be caused by drugs or infections or may even be idiopathic in nature. Epilepsy is a widely stigmatized disease in Pakistan which affects a person’s mental and social wellbeing but the socio-personal effects of the disease have not been discussed immensely in this part of the world.

    Methodology: The following article is a cross-sectional study conducted at the National Epilepsy Centre, Karachi from June, 2018 to March, 2019 for a span of 10 months after prompt approval from the institutional review board. Parents of 70 adolescents were handed out a questionnaire devised on the basis of Rutter-Parent Questionnaire and GHQ-30. The final data was analyzed by mean of Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 using descriptive statistics and Pearson-correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

    Results: Out of the 70 adolescents, 46 (64.8%) attended school while 24 (35.18%) did not. Out of the 46 who attended school, males were 35 (50%) while females were 11 (15.7%). 14 (20%) had received primary education, 21 (30%) had received secondary education, 12 (17.1%) received higher education and 3 (4.3%) went to religious schools. 44 adolescents (62.8%) took active parts in sports, 8 (11.4%) never played sports, 35 (50%) faced difficulties in school, 35 (50%) had a good school life despite the disease. Teachers of 42 (60%) and peers of 36 (51.4%) children supported them in the process. Around 60 (85.7%) children made friends easily. 14 (20%) children were the reason for arguments in the family while parents of 44 (62.8%) children denied any family quarrels due to their children. 29 (40%) children had a good sleep free of nightmares due to their seizures, while 22 (31.4%) children complained of bad dreams.

    Conclusion: Approximately a quarter of the total number of parents who took part in the study perceived epilepsy to be a burden for the healthy social and mental well-being of their children whereas the remaining parents were hopeful about their child’s disease. Further studies need to be done city-wide to study the psychosocial effects of the disease not only on the children but also the family.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Role of Ultrasound in Diagnosis and Prediction of Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Sandra M Ahmed*, Hanan A Amer, Hadeer M Hassan and Dalia M Labib

    DOI: 10.37421/J Neurol Disord.2020.8.430

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage, despite being less frequent than ischemic stroke, has a worst early outcome and poorer prognosis. Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) size is one of the important predictors of outcome. CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis and follows up of ICH yet needs the patient to be moved to radiology department which can be difficult for some ICU patients. Bedside ultrasound can be a potential reliable tool for assessing ICH size. Aim Assessing the utility of ultrasound in diagnosing and predicting outcome of ICH Subjects and method Thirty patients with spontaneous ICH has been selected and diagnosed by CT scan of the brain. Brain transcranial sonography (TCS) was done just after the CT. Multiple clinical scales were done and correlated to hematoma size detected by TCS. Results The results showed excellent reliability for hematoma volume assessment using CT and TCS, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 95% CI 0.963 (0.923-0.983). Hematoma size by TCS showed a very good correlation to most of the clinical scales. Conclusion Bedside TCS can be a reliable tools for diagnosis and prediction of outcome of patients with ICH specially those who are difficult to be transported.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Editor Note for Journal of Neurological Disorders

    Kenneth M Heilman*

    DOI: 10.37421/J Neurol Disord.2020.8.431

    Dear Colleagues, we are delighted to announce that we are releasing regular articles in Volume 8, Issue 5 (2020) in our journal. Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Neurological Disorders: Athanasios K Petridis, Kenneth M Heilman and Hiroshi Nakanishi. Neurological Disorders ISSN (2329-6895) is a peerreviewed and open access journal under Hilaris Publication. We kindly invite you to find out more about our journal at https://www.hilarispublisher.com/ neurological-disorders.html .

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Note for Journal of Neurological Disorders

    Hiroshi Nakanishi*

    DOI: 10.37421/J Neurol Disord.2020.8.432

    Journal of Neurological Disorders is an international journal which distributed articles all around in the prime field of nervous system science, neurobiology, brain research, electrophysiology, intellectual sciences and its connection to cerebrum sciences to the bleeding edge of applied improvements in the control.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Journal of Neurological Disorders

    Beverley Smith*

    DOI: 10.37421/J Neurol Disord.2020.8.433

    One of the major Neurological Disorder is the Neuroaxonal damage which is the pathological substrate of permanent disability in various neurological disorders. Reliable quantification and longitudinal follow-up of such damage are important for assessing disease activity, monitoring treatment responses, facilitating treatment development and determining prognosis. The neurofilament proteins have promise in this context because their levels rise upon neuroaxonal damage not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but also in blood, and they indicate neuroaxonal injury independent of causal pathways.

    24th International Conference on Neurology & Neurophysiology (2020)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Past Conference Editorial of Neurophysiology 2020

      Sheikh Abdul Saeed

      Conference  Series  LLC  Ltd  hosted  the  “Neurophysiology”, during March 16-17, 2020 at Berlin, Germany with the theme, “Contemporary Strategies for Prevention and Control of Neurological disorders”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence.

      We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.

      Neurophysiology 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Neuroscience.

      Neurophysiology Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.

      Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Neurophysiology”.

      • Sheikh Abdul Saeed, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Neurophysiology 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and also the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC Ltd thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Neurophysiology.

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “25th International Conference on Neurology & Neurophysiology, which will be held during March 15-16, 2021 at London, UK. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Training Institutes, Young researchers, Data Management Companies, Hospital General Counsel, Legal Nurse Consultants, Manufacturing Medical Devices Companies, students and delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of Neurology & Neurophysiology with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.

      Bookmark your dates for “Neurophysiology 2021, London” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

      Changes in the GABAergic signalling in the prefrontal cortex of mice model of posttramautic stress disorder

      Arina Serbina

      It has  been  suggested  that  the  neurons  of  prefrontal  cortex, along with the hippocampus and amygdala, can undergo morphological and molecular remodeling during the development of stress-related disorders, such as PTSD. Pathological remodeling of the GABAergic inhibitory signalling during stress disorders might bring significant contribution to impairment of synaptic plasticity and cognition. In this work we have used an experimental model of PTSD in mice, based on a single prolonged stress protocol and studied alterations in the synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex. The stress state in the animals was evaluated with the aid of open field and elevated cross-maze behavioral tests. We have found an increase in the quantal amplitude of GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (mIPSCs) in the neurons of prefrontal cortex of stressed animals. There was also elevation in the frequency of mIPSCs in neurons of the stress- group vs control group. These results demonstrate that that exposure to stress can cause an up-regulation of the GABAergic inhibitory system in the prefrontal cortex. In the experiments on long-term potentiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP), we have observed that the amplitude of LTP induced by the theta-burst stimulation in the prefrontal cortex synapses of stressed mice was much lower than in the control group. The data obtained suggest that stress-induced up-regulation of inhibitory signalling can affect long-term synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex and thereby contribute to cognitive impairment.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

      Neurophysiology of sleep and sleep-wake disorders

      Dharitri Parmar

      Sleep     and     wakefulness     are     important     physiological manifestations of brain, even for clinicians. Review on Physiology of Sleep includes wakefulness as they are interchangeable, interdependent states. On discussion with introduction to sleep which includes sleep cycle; types of sleep; sleep waves neurotransmitters, pathways, circuits and receptors are summarised. Role of higher centres, parts of brain and other factors (steroid, biological rhythm, aging etc) are reviewed. Its implication in various sleep disorders and recent advances in neurophysiology related to sleep are described.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

      Influence on drug and substance abuse on the disease outcome in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

      Felix-Martin Werner

      Many    schizophrenic    patients,    who    are    treated    with antipsychotic drug, do not adhere to the pharmacotherpy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative treatment, and their long-term administration is not secure. Instead of following the pharmacotherapy, some patients tend to consume alcohol and tobacco, and even amphetamines and cannabis. The reason of the patients to not adhere to the pharmacotherapy will be discussed, and the effect of alcohol, tobacco and drugs on the disease outcome will be addressed. Appropriate measures to make the patients to renounce of substances and drugs and to improve the patients’ adherence to the pharmcotherapy will be described. Alterations of classical neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, mesolimbic system and prefrontal cortex will be mentioned. The different compounds of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabidiol (a psychotomimetic) and cannabidiol (exerts antipsychotic actions). The effect of alcohol, tobacco and drugs to worsen the antipsychotic treatment will be pointed out. Appropriate measures to improve the antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and to reduce the consumption of substances and drugs are the administration of long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs and psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy Some new drugs, for example the cannabis compound cannabidiol that shows antipsychotic properties and ß-varenicline, a nicotinergic cholinergic agonist, might be administered when substance abuse (cannabis, nicotine) occurs.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

      Therapeutic effect of novel antidepressant drugs interfering with receptors of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

      Felix-Martin Werner

      Major depression is a frequent psychiatric disease, which is mainly treated by different antidepressant drugs. However, one third of the depressive patients remain treatment-resistant. In major depression, in the brainstem, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, alterations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the belonging neural networks are updated. Starting from these findings, novel antidepressant drugs and combination of different antidepressant drugs are suggested. In the prefrontal cortex, glutamatergic neurons, which receive a postsynaptic excitatory potential from D2 dopaminergic neurons, exert a presynaptic inhibition upon M1 muscarinic cholinergic neurons via NMDA receptors. Medium spiny GABAergic/somatostatin neurons, which receive projections from M1 muscarinic cholinergic neurons, presynaptically inhibit D2 dopaminergic neurons via GABAA/somatostatin1 receptors. The combination of an NMDA receptor antagonist, for example ketamine with an M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, for example scopolamine, exert a rapid, long-lasting antidepressant effect. In preclinical studies, the antidepressant effect of orvepitant, an NK1 receptor antagonist, has been demonstrated: this antagonist reaches a complete antagonism of NK1 receptors. In clinical studies, the combination of an NMDA receptor antagonist with an M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist should be investigated indepth as well as the therapeutic effect of orvepitant. In clinical studies, the antidepressant effect of a triple reuptake inhibitor should be examined and compared to current antidepressant drugs. The superior therapeutic effect of antidepressant drugs like venlafaxine, a selective noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake inhibitor and bupropion, a selective dopamine and nordrenaline reuptake inhibitor and their adverse effects will be pointed out. Non-pharmacological measures to enhance the antidepressant effect will also be discussed.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

      Deformed non-local neural network for retinal vessel segmentation

      Junping Zhao

      Vessel  segmentation  is  a  challenging  problem  in  medical image segmentation, as it requires knowing the location of each tiny blood vessel and understanding the global semantic information. Previous method has demonstrated that long-range dependencies information plays an important role in understanding global segmentation information. To capture long-range dependencies information, researchers often use non-local structure. However, it requires too much computing power and a large amount of GPU memory. In this paper, we present a deformed non-local (DNL) neural network structure for retinal vessel segmentation. DNL inherits the structure of the Non-local module, but it changes the operation rules of non- local weight matrix multiplication, which can greatly reduce the problem of excessive computation and memory usage. Meanwhile, we introduce the atrous spatial pyramid pooling module to increase the receptive field of the networks, which showed that it is effective to resample features at different scales for accurately and efficiently classifying regions of an arbitrary scale. The proposed method was evaluated on retinal vessel datasets and experimental results show that it outperforms state-of-the-art methods. For a 128 × 128 input, DNL is around 2.5 times faster than a non-local block on GPU.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Effect of Lactobacilli on spatial memory and hippocampal APP gene expression in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease

      Maryam Noorbakhshnia

      Background     and     Aim:     Alzheimer's     disease     is     a neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with progressive degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons that leads to memory loss. Overexpression and production of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is the most significant factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have found a role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, which can affect cognitive and memory abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactobacilli on the spatial memory and expression of APP gene in the hippocampus of Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

      Methods: Adult male wistar rats weighing (240–250 g) were used. Animals received either saline, Alcl3 (100 mg/kg), lactobacilli, or lactobacilli plus ALCL3 by oral gavage for 42 days. Lactobacilli contained L.plantarum, L.rhamnosus, and L.reuteri. Morris water maze test was used for evaluating spatial memory. After completion of the behavioral test, animals were sacrificed and hippocampi dissected, and stored at

      -80°C. Finally, the level of APP gene expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR.

      Results: Our results indicated that ALCL3 significantly impaired spatial memory and intensified hippocampal APP gene expression. Pre-treatment with lactobacilli improved memory in control rats and prevented memory and APP deterioration in ALCL3 treated rats.

      Discussion: lactobacilli used in this study can prevent destructive effect of AlCl3 on memory and can introduce as a way to prevent Alzheimer's disease, possibly via decreasing APP gene expression. However, more investigations are necessary to know related cellular and molecular mechanisms.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

      Progress of neuroendocrine modulators in the field of pediatric neurorehabilitation

      Ni Hong

      Many endocrine   regulators   are   widely   expressed   and secreted in the brain, and play important neuromodulatory roles in physiological and pathological processes such as brain development, brain function protection, and brain injury repair. In addition, many endocrine regulators undergo significant changes in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurological diseases and can be used as biological markers for early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of diseases. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the effects of endocrine modulators on pediatric neurological diseases, especially epilepsy, dravet syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy and ADHD. These advances stem from a series of research advances on specific endocrine regulators such as melatonin, leptin and ghrelin, as well as ketogenic diet (KD) . KD is a nutritional therapy that has been found to be beneficial against refractory epilepsy, and has also been proposed to treat many other neurological disorders. Recently, we opened a column in the magazine “Frontiers in Endocrinology” in collaboration with scholars from Italy and India: "Endocrine Modulators of Neurological Processes: Potential Treatment Targets of Pediatric Neurological Diseases". Here, we summarize the new progress of the articles published in the column, hoping to provide useful clues for future research.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

      Edit efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy in cerebral palsy children with asymmetric hand impairment

      Rattana Rattanatharn

      Objective: To determine the efficacy of short-interval program of constraint-induced movement therapy on hand function training in asymmetric hand impairment cerebral palsy.

      Study design: Randomized single-blinded controlled trial study.

      Subjects: Asymmetric hand impairment cerebral palsy in Srisangwal School, Foundation for the Welfare of the Crippled System.

      Methods: Sixteen cerebral palsy spastic triplegia (8-14 years old) were assigned randomly to either CIMT or control group. Both groups participated in occupational therapy program for 1 hour per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. CIMT group wore slings on their less impaired arms during therapy session and the slings were removed at the end of each session. To assess the effect of hand function of participants by the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function, counting the number of the coins that patient was able to put in the box within 3 minutes and stereognosis before training and after training for 8 weeks.

      Results: Sixteen cerebral palsy spastic triplegia were divided equally into two groups. One participant in the control group was dropped out from the study because he had surgical intervention in his impaired arm. There was statistically significant (P< 0.05) improvement of hand function by Jebsen- Taylor Test of Hand Function and counting the amounts of the coins in the box within 3 minutes after training for 8 weeks in CIMT group but there was no significance in control group.

      Conclusion: CIMT is efficacious to improve fine motor function in asymmetric hand impairment cerebral palsy.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

      Effectiveness of meditation programs in empirically reducing stress and amplifying cognitive function and boosting individual health status: A review

      Reshu Gupta

      Meditation had long been believed to possess a multitude of putative beneficial effects which it could bestow upon it’s practitioner, but it was not until the 1960’s that scientific exploration into the process began. Rigorous increase in randomized controlled trials on mindful interventions has been observed in past two decades. It has been shown, with increasing evidence, to harbor a myriad of positive effects, a few including, but not limited to, stress reduction, cognition enhancement, an increase in memory, boosted intelligence, etc. Such profound positive influences have led to it being rather commonly deployed to promote general health and treat stress and stress related conditions. Meditative modalities are broadly classified as those stressing on mindfulness, concentration or automated self-transcendence. Certain popular modalities such as transcendental meditation follow the use of a mantra such that one transcends to a state where focused attention is absent. In contrast, others such as mindfulness-based stress reduction are based on present focused awareness or mindfulness. While it is not clear if these differences influence the result of  practice, all classes are broadly considered ‘meditation’ and studied as such. The session shall evaluate the increasing evidence of mindfulness intervention by reviewing and discussing the effects of indfulness interventions on boosting memory, recall, learning and reducing stress levels along with the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of such interventions. This shall provide a robust understanding of the process involved in benefits of practicing mindfulness.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 11 - 11

      Teaching neurophysiology in an integrated problem base learning curriculum: A KSAU-HS experience

      Sheikh Abdul Saeed

      Problem  Based  Learning  (PBL)  in  Medical  Education  was introduced almost 50 years ago by McMaster University. In this teaching and learning strategy students work as a team to solve complex real-world clinical problems. This introduction had a ripple effect far beyond the confines of the Medical Education. Today hundreds of medical schools worldwide have adopted this strategy utilizing integrated system approach. King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences opened its door for the first batch in 2004 in its Riyadh Campus and in 2010 at its Jeddah campus. University of Sydney PBL integrated curriculum was employed and over the years it has been gradually amended to suit local needs. It’s a six-year, three phase programme. In Phase I, emphasis is on English language and strengthening the Basic Sciences including Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Ethics and introduction to contextual, integrated Problem Based Learning. In Phase II, students apply their Basic Medical Sciences knowledge (Anatomy, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Pathology) in a system based, contextual process revolving around Clinical cases. Didactic lectures are used to reinforce learning from the PBL. Moreover, learning is strengthened by relevant Clinical Skills sessions. In the Phase III, students go through Clinical rotations in various clinical disciplines, learn clinical skills on real patients as well as on state-of-the-art mannequins and apply their Basic Medical Sciences knowledge to solve clinical cases. In this presentation we have concentrated on Neuropysiology teaching and learning in Phase II.

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