Neurological Disorders

ISSN: 2329-6895

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

      Research Pages: 1 - 9

      Knowledge and Understanding Differs Between African American Men and Caucasian Men When Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer

      Adam B. Sumlin*, Susan Camacho, Zahra Fayazi, Ali Houjaij, Oussama M. Darwish, Adrienne Groman and Alan Hutson

      DOI: 10.4172/2329-6895.10.9.512

      Purpose: African American (AA) men are diagnosed with Prostate cancer (PCa) approximately 3 years younger, more often in an advanced stage, and incurable, when compared to Caucasian American (CA) men. We seek to study whether this difference is due to factors related to, stress, and lack of knowledge of prostate cancer, race, or the combination of all these factors.

      Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 389 participants (234 CA and 135 AA men) for a possible diagnosis of prostate cancer over 3 years. Quantitative data was collected from patients on demographic status along with their level of knowledge of prostate cancer and anxiety related to their diagnosis and possible treatment. Exact Pearson chi-square tests were used to test the independence between race and various socio-economic factors.

      Results: In this study, for the first time, we investigated whether knowledge of the disease and anxiety following diagnosis and treatment could play a role in the disparity of prostate cancer among AA and CA men. We also confirmed that financial disparities among AA and CA men, with AA having more financial strain.

      Conclusion: Our study showed that lack of knowledge of PCa screening and early detection, and lack of understanding of the diagnosis in combination with increased anxiety among AA patients, can play a role in PCa disparity.

      Research Pages: 1 - 6

      Task-related Temporal Gamma EEG Coherence As A Marker Of Major Neurocognitive Disorder

      Dina Rodinskaia*, Crystal Radinski and Jake Labuhn

      DOI: 10.4172/2329-6895.10.9.513

      Background: Progressive deterioration of synaptic plasticity and synaptic connectivity between neurons is a neurophysiological hallmark of brain ageing and has been linked to the severity of dementia. We hypothesized that electroencephalographic evidence of the disruption of functional connectivity might be used to diagnose Alzheimer's dementia. Improving the accuracy and reducing the time needed to diagnose AD could allow timely interventions, treatments, and care cost reduction. In our previous study, we identified four promising markers. Temporal Gamma EEG coherence marker (TG_marker) was selected for evaluation.

      Methods: This blinded diagnostic test accuracy study examined diagnostic parameters for TG_marker in individuals with AD, vascular dementia, Parkinson's, depression and healthy controls. The TG_marker sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were evaluated.

      Results: TG_marker demonstrated high sensitivity (>89%) and specificity (95%) in all neurodegenerative groups with high PPV (>92%) and NPV (>93%).

      Conclusion: TG_marker could be a valuable tool in detecting neurodegenerative process in the brain and excluding dementia in TG_marker negative patients. More testing is needed to understand the role of neurodegeneration in pseudo-dementia and age related brain changes.

      Research Pages: 1 - 10

      Review Of Audiological Findings In SARS-CoV-2 Infection

      Nancy Sotero Silva, Carolina Karla de Souza Evangelista, Pedro de Franca Cavalcanti, Sheila Andreoli Balen, Hannalice Gottschalck Cavalcanti and Edgard Morya*

      DOI: 10.4172/2329-6895.10.9.514

      Since 2020 the world has been dealing with an acute respiratory syndrome pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The main symptoms are fever, cough, and tiredness, accompanied by smell and taste loss. Due to neurotropism and infection mechanisms, SARS-CoV-2 can cause several neurological and sensory injuries. Its auditory impacts are controversial; however, cochlear hair cells and auditory pathways might be damaged. The aim of this review was identifying evidence underlying clinical association between COVID-19 and auditory implications which would help diagnosis and treatment response. Studies identified in databases Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), Lilacs (Latin American Literature in Sciences Health), Pubmed (National Library of Medicine), Livivo and Scopus, published up to June 2021 for COVID-19 and auditory system impairments correlation and etiology were selected. Inclusion criteria were: Articles published in any language related to COVID-19 and audiological symptoms confirmed by audiological testing. Searching returned 1208 records and after applying eligibility criteria, 24 original research and 10 review articles were included. More frequent evaluations were pure tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, tympanometry, and acoustic reflex test, sensorineural hearing loss being most prevalent. Recent studies support the relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and audiological findings. Long term COVID-19 follow up should include systematic ea rly audiological evaluation.

      Summary: Recent findings support SARS-CoV-2 implications on cochlear hair cells and other auditory structures. Auditory dysfunctions are a possible consequence of COVID-19 since some symptoms such as sudden hearing loss, otitis, and tinnitus were reported. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 might contribute to congenital damages, impact on auditory abilities, and consequently, language acquisition. Raising potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the auditory system based on recent case reports brings attention to mechanisms that underlie clinical association. Long term follow up of hearing function in suspected and confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection will support more ef fective clinical intervention.

      Research Pages: 1 - 6

      The Effect Of Curcumin In The Recovery Of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

      Mohammadreza Saatian, Masoumeh Roustaei, Ebrahim Jalili*, Sara Ataei, Ali Poormohammadi, Maryam Farhadian and Ali Abdoli

      DOI: 10.4172/2329-6895.10.9.515

      Background: Traumatic brain injury is one of the most important causes of death in trauma patients among the different types of trauma worldwide. In this study, the effect of Nano curcumin on the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury, which was performed in humans for the first time, was investigated.

      Methods: This was a double blind and paralleled randomized controlled study that was conducted on 128 patients aged 18 to 70 with severe brain trauma. Patients were randomly assigned to two control groups (Standard care treatment+placebo) and an intervention group (Standard care treatment+oral Nano curcumin with the dose of 500 mg every 8 hours for three weeks). Changes in the level of consciousness, cerebral edema, kidney function, liver enzymes, sodium and potassium electrolytes, and brain function of patients in both groups were followed up and compared until 6 months after discharge.

      Results: The mean and standard deviation of age (Mean+SD) for the intervention group (14.44 ± 31.86 years) and control patients (14.86 ± 33.34 years) had no significant difference (p=0.543). Both groups were similar in terms of gender (p=0.669). The average level of consciousness of patients in the intervention group increased by about 3 units (p=0.004) and more than 2 units (p=0.002) at the time of discharge compared to the control group. By comparing the optimal performance of patients in the first (p=0.389) and second (p=0.309) trimesters after discharge, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups. The amount of brain edema caused by severe brain trauma on the 7th day of treatment was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p=0.038). The two intervention and control groups did not differ in terms of coagulation factors, liver enzymes, kidney function, and sodium on the 3rd and 7th days of hospitalization (P ≥ 0.05).

      Conclusion: Administration of oral Nano curcumin supplement in patients with severe brain trauma along with their routine treatment is effective in improving brain edema and their level of consciousness without causing coagulation, and liver and kidney complications. These findings are not only statistically significant but also clinically important.

      Research Pages: 1 - 9

      The Effect Of Exogenously Induced Magnetic Fields On Neurotransmitter Dynamics

      Manuel Rivas* and Marina Martinez-Garcia

      Over the past decades, there has been significant controversy regarding the role of exogenous electromagnetic (EM) fields on the dynamics of molecules in living cells. Here we present a model of electromagnetic forces in the synaptic cleft using the bidomain theory as a framework and the averaged field theory as the theoretical basis, suggesting that the exogenously induced magnetic field may modify the neurotransmitter dynamics. Our model is based on voltage cell membrane amplification due to the Hall Effect principle and the hypothesis that synaptic cleft electric conductivity is represented by tensors with non-zero off diagonal terms. The physical interpretation of the off diagonal components is explained, and analytical expressions for the induced magnetic field and conductivity tensor are derived.

        Review Pages: 1 - 13

        Potential Mechanisms for Human Genome Integration of Genetic Code from SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination: Implications for Disease

        Anthony M. Kyriakopoulos, Peter A. McCullough, Greg Nigh and Stephanie Seneff*

        Background: The integration of genetic code from RNA viruses into host DNA, once thought to be a rare or even impossible phenomenon, is now recognized as probable. The Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE)-1 mediated mechanism of insertion implies that many viral RNAs (apart from retroviral) can be reverse transcribed and then stably incorporated into DNA. Recombination between exogenous non-retroviral RNA and endogenous retroviral sequences that leads to reverse transcription and finally integration of the resulting cDNA into the host genome has been described. Recent data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequences can be transcribed into DNA and may be actively integrated into the genome of affected human cells, mediated by retrotransposons. In some SARS-CoV-2 infected patient specimens, there is evidence for a large fraction SARS-CoV-2 sequence integration and subsequent generation of SARS-CoV-2 human chimeric transcripts. Results: In this review, the potential role of mobile genetic elements in the etiopathogenesis of neurological, cardiovascular, immunological, and oncological disease and the possibilities of human DNA interference by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination are explored. Vulnerable germ line cells, cancer cells, and neurons can presumably all be targets for anomalous mRNA integration, especially in aging cells that show increased LINE-1 activity compared to younger cells. The mRNA coding for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in the vaccines has been carefully designed to increase stability and efficiency of spike protein translation, thus avoiding normal mRNA degradation pathways. This may increase the potential for genomic integration. If this should be the case, the predicted consequences pose serious potential risks to human health that are in need of clarification. Conclusion: Further toxicity evaluations are urgently needed to quantify potential emergence of interference with canonical DNA processes that could detrimentally impact the mRNA-vaccinated population.

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