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Journal of Morphology and Anatomy

ISSN: 2684-4265

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Morphology of Dental Implant

    Jamie Debiais

    The information on nerves and vessels in the maxillofacial locale, especially the anatomical constructions in the maxilla, mandible, tongue muscles, and salivary organs, is fundamental for dental specialists. Furthermore, the constructions in the mandibular trench, sense of taste, and maxillary sinus ought to be seen well. The supply routes and nerves in the maxillofacial locale were seen in this examination. A few varieties in the beginning of the substandard alveolar supply route were found.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Nasal Morphology

    Paul Halde

    The upper respiratory tract, which fuses the nose, larynx, and windpipe, is capricious. Despite the unmistakably wide extent of size and external conditions of the nose among individuals and animals, there are in like manner clear interspecies differences in within life frameworks and physiology of the upper respiratory bundle. The justification this article is to immediately overview the close to life constructions, physiology, and limit of the upper avionics courses, with excellent reference to investigate office animals used in toxicology considers.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Morphology of the Human Brain: A 3D Analysis

    John Jorge

    Morphometric investigations in the early fetal stage (9â?13 postconceptional week) are basic for assessing typical mind development. In this examination, we evaluated successive morphological and morphometric changes in the fetal mind during this period utilizing highâ?resolution T1â? weighted attractive reverberation imaging checks. X-ray sectional perspectives (coronal, midâ?sagittal, and even segments) and 3D reproductions of the entire cerebrum uncovered successive changes in its outside morphology and inner constructions.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Arterial Blood Supply to Spinal Cord in Human

    David Smith

    A few creature models exist to analyze physiological and utilitarian changes after the spinal rope injury with plan to clarify information about the spinal string injury in human. This part analyzes the blood vessel spinal line blood supply or spinal rope injury and in human. The accompanying audit examines the current information, standards, idiosyncrasies, varieties and known contrasts in the blood vessel blood supply to the spinal rope in human. The spinal cord is fundamentally provided by the segmental spinal branches. Most of them start in the cervical part from the vertebral supply routes, in the thoracic part from the dorsal intercostal corridors and in the lumbar part from the lumbar conduits

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: Anatomy for Environmental Health

    Feng Liberek

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is an uninhibitedly open public resource that clergymen and interrelates engineered, quality/protein, total, affliction, animal, and transparency data. CTD can be used to address toxicological instruments for biological engineered substances and energize the time of testable speculations about what openings mean for human prosperity. At CTD, truly curated interchanges for substance affected totals are overhauled with life structures terms (tissues, fluids, and cell types) to portray the physiological plan of the uncovered event

    Volume 6, Issue 1 (2022)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Anatomical Variants of the Posterior Part of the Circle of Willis in Patients with Cerebrovascular Diseases

      Ana-Maria Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea*, Roxana Gabriela Cobzaru*, Carmen Valentina Rîpă, Cringuta Paraschiv, Irina Luciana Gurzu, Andrei Ionuț Cucu, Șerban Turliuc, Egidia Gabriela Miftode, Raluca Alina Dragomir and Anca Sava

      DOI: 10.4265/jma.2022.6.220

      Introduction: The current literature proves that the frequency of anatomical variants of circle of Willis (CoW) has not yet been sufficiently evaluated both in the Romanian population and internationally, and in the North East region of Romania there is no evidence of such research so far. The aim of this study is to identify the frequency and types of anatomical variants of the constituent arteries of the posterior part of the CoW in patients with cerebrovascular diseases diagnosed within the main Neurology hospital in the Northeastern region of Romania, based on macroscopic analysis of arterial specimens obtained at autopsy and to compare the results with data from updated literature.

      Material and Methods: Our research represents a descriptive observational study, conducted retrospectively on 96 patients with cerebrovascular diseases who died over a period of 30 months and underwent an anatomo-clinical autopsy. We analysed the general macroscopic aspects of all anatomical variants of the constituent arteries of the posterior part of the CoW, comparing these to the opposite arteries.

      Result: Out of the total of 96 available human brains, 28 cases (29.17%) presented anatomical variants of CoW, among which 11 cases (39.28%) presented at least one anatomical variant of the constitutive arteries of its posterior part. The average age of these patients was 59.18 years. 36.36% cases had a single anatomical variant, 54.54% cases had two anatomical variants, and 9.09% all of cases associated an anatomical variant of the posterior part of CoW and one of the vertebral arteries. Anatomical variations of the arteries of the posterior part of the CoW were observed in 14 arteries (31.81%) of all the 44 available, and consisted in unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia (20.45%) or absence (15.90%), located either on the right or on the left, and partial fetal posterior communicating artery (2.27%) located on the left side. We identified seven morphological patterns of the posterior part of CoW in the conditions in which its anterior part does not present any anatomical variants.

      Conclusion: The data obtained in the present research allow us to affirm that circle of Willis represents an anatomical structure with a great morphological diversity of its posterior part. This study contributes to the knowledge of this topic in Romania and allows comparisons with data obtained both in the country and abroad.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Anatomical Structure and Anatomy of Hand

      Claudia Florida*

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      Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Addison's Disease: Causes and Overview

      Claudia Wullimann*

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      Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

      The Use of 3D Printing Pelvis and Hip in a Complex THA Clinical Experience and Reports of Literature

      Chenyu Huang, Qingqiang Yao, Wei Liu, Yan Xu, Cheng Tang, Bo Wei, Jiayi Li and Liming Wang*

      Background: Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is a good solution of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH). However, patients diagnosed with Crowe type IV are difficult to deal with. With traditional operation skills, the operation time is quite long and the patients will lose a lot of blood.

      Case presentation: We present the case of a 58-year-old male patient who underwent left THA due to Crowe type IV DDH with the help of 3D printing models. Before the operation, we put the CT image into computer software named mimics. After getting the stl. Document, we use 3D printer to print the models out. By using the models, we planned the operation in advance. And after sterilizing the models, we put them in the operation area, which saves a lot of operation time and reduces much blood loss by giving surgeons a better anatomy view.

      Methods: A health institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 421 children with HIV/AIDS from to 2009-2018. The Time to develop TB was defined as the time from enrollment for ART care until the development of TB among children on ART. Variables with a P-value <0.25 at bivariate Cox regression analysis, were entered into the multivariable Cox model. Multivariable-Cox-regression model with 95% CI and AHR was used to identify significant predictor variables to develop TB at P< 0.05.

      Conclusion: THA with the help of 3D printing pelvis and femur can result in a relatively short recovery time and provide good clinical efficacy of type IV DDH patients.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      CT Classification of Vacuum Phenomenon Morphology and its Utility in Predicting Lumbar Vertebral Instability

      Noah Kelm*, Jennifer Hella, John B Westfall, Eric T Ballard and Macksood A Aftab

      Background: Lumbar vacuum phenomenon (VP) within the intervertebral disc has been classified based on CT imaging. We compared same-patient sagittal CT images and dynamic flexion-extension x-rays to determine if there is a difference in the amount of vertebral instability present between three VP morphologies on CT.

      Methods: Anterior subluxation measurements on x-ray were compared with same-segment VP on CT images from the same patient when both findings were present. VP were classified as spot, island, or linear. It was determined if there was a difference in the amount of anterior subluxation between the three morphologies. Secondary analysis looked at whether there was a difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups if patients had undergone a prior lumbar fusion surgery or not.

      Results: There was no difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups on dynamic flexionextension x-rays. There was also no difference between the three groups on flexion-extension x-rays when patients were separated based on if they had received or not received a previous lumbar fusion surgery.

      Conclusion: IVD VP morphology is not a useful indicator in determining vertebral instability preoperatively according to CT scan. Further fine-tuning of an IVD VP CT classification is needed to help radiologists and spine surgeons know when IVD VP presence is important.

       

      Volume 6, Issue 2 (2022)

        Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

        An Unusual Cause of Syncope in Children: Hot Water Epilepsy

        Niranjan Joshi*, Marwa Fawzy Abu Al Maaty Rady, Roshan Lal Koul, Hilal Nasser Al Riyami and Khalfan Salim Khalfan Al Sineidi

        DOI: 10.2684-4265.11.497

        The Syncope is defined as a sudden transient loss of consciousness with inability to maintain postural tone. Neuro cardiogenic or vasovagal syncope is the commonest cause of syncope in children. Approximately 30–50% of children are likely to have had a benign fainting episode before 18 years of age. However, syncope may be the 1st manifestation of an underlying life-threatening cardiac anomaly like prolonged QT syndrome or cardiomyopathy. Syncope in a young child is unusual and always warrants a thorough investigation. We present an interesting case of a one-year old Omani girl referred to us for evaluation of syncope.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Do We Know the Operating Principles of Our Computers Better than those of Our Anatomy of Brain?

        Janos Veghi and Adam J. Berki*

        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2022.6.226

        The increasing morphology of interest in understanding the behaviour of biological neural networks, and the expanding utilization of artificial neural networks in different fields and scales, both require a thorough understanding of how technological computing works. However, von Neumann in his classic ”First Draft” warned that it would be unsound to use his suggested paradigm to model neural operation, furthermore that using ”too fast” processors vitiates his paradigm, which was intended only to describe (the timing relations of) vacuum tubes. Thus, it is worth scrutinizing how the present technology solutions of anatomy can be used to mimic biology. Some electronic components anatomy bears a surprising resemblance to some biological structures. However, combining them using different principles can result in systems with inferior efficacy. The paper discusses how the conventional computing principles, components, and thinking about computing limit mimicking biological systems of morphology and anatomy.

        Research Pages: 1 - 4

        Calcification of Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in Lumbar Vertebrae

        Syeda Nasreen Fatimaa*, Syeda Parveen Fatimab, Syed Hamza Quadric, Syed Huzaifa Quadrid, Syeda Ayesha Asmae, Syeda Hafsaf and Syed Arshadudding

        DOI: 10.37421/ jma.2022.6.222

        Introduction: Examining and analysing the characteristics features of the vertebral column of human is an important part of the study in anatomy. The vertebral column includes 33 vertebrae that are arranged one upon the other and joined to each other by means of the intervertebral joints and ligaments, of which includes anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Diseases involving the ligaments end in numerous spectrums of ailments extending from backache to deformities and nerve entrapments.

        Material and methods: The current study was conducted on 25 dry bone sets. The anterior longitudinal ligaments were studied to find out if there was any change in texture; they were inspected and palpated for any sign of ossification. The study was done randomly at Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad

        Result: Only 5 of the 25 dry sets of vertebrae examined had indications of ossified ligaments at varying levels.

        Conclusion: Inflammation and ossification of the anterior ligament rarely cause symptoms or major functional issues in the patient. In exceedingly rare circumstances, these processes may be linked to the development of a degenerative back problem, however these instances are infrequent.

        Special issue on Anatomy and Morphology (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Morphology of Juniperus Cone and its Implications on Cone Evolution

          Xin Wang* and Xiuping Xu

          Background:The basic cone unit in Pinaceaeis called Bract-Scale-Seed Complex (BSSC), in which the scale is supposed to be equivalent to an axillary shoot bearing ovules in Cordaitales. This correlation established by Florin provides a rational foundation on which an interpretation for the origin of cones in at least most Coniferalesis built, and may be called Florin model for convenience. Cupressaceaeis a family in Coniferales, in which the ovule-scale and its subtending bract are thought fully fused and hard to distinguish by external morphology.

          Results: Different from Pinaceaeand other typical conifers, Juniperus(Cupressaceae)appears not following Florin’s model closely. For example, the cone of Juniperusoxycedrushas only three rather than more BSSCs in a whorl, and its fleshy fructification appears more like a berry rather than a typical coniferalean cone. In this paper morphology and anatomy of Juniperusoxycedrusfructifications are documented using Micro CT. New observation demonstrates clearly that three seeds alternate the three surrounding bracts in Juniperusoxycedrus.

          Conclusion:Such spatial arrangement is quite different from that in typical BSSCs, in which the ovules should be aligned with their subtending bract. Together with other unexpected features in other cupressaceous cones, Juniperusmay help to expand the avenue through which we can interpret the origin and homology of cones in Cupressaceaeand other conifers or gymnosperms in general.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

          CT Classification of Vacuum Phenomenon Morphology and its Utility in Predicting Lumbar Vertebral Instability

          Noah Kelm*, Jennifer Hella, John B Westfall, Eric T Ballard and Macksood A Aftab

          Background: Lumbar vacuum phenomenon (VP) within the intervertebral disc has been classified based on CT imaging. We compared same-patient sagittal CT images and dynamic flexion-extension x-rays to determine if there is a difference in the amount of vertebral instability present between three VP morphologies on CT.

          Methods: Anterior subluxation measurements on x-ray were compared with same-segment VP on CT images from the same patient when both findings were present. VP were classified as spot, island, or linear. It was determined if there was a difference in the amount of anterior subluxation between the three morphologies. Secondary analysis looked at whether there was a difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups if patients had undergone a prior lumbar fusion surgery or not.

          Results: There was no difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups on dynamic flexionextension x-rays. There was also no difference between the three groups on flexion-extension x-rays when patients were separated based on if they had received or not received a previous lumbar fusion surgery.

          Conclusion: IVD VP morphology is not a useful indicator in determining vertebral instability preoperatively according to CT scan. Further fine-tuning of an IVD VP CT classification is needed to help radiologists and spine surgeons know when IVD VP presence is important.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Structure and Anatomy of Hand

          Sarah Marlene*

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          Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Anatomy of the Human Liver, Role of the Segmentary Portal Branch V

          Durand Lopez Cesar Augusto* and Juana Raquel Durand Fernandez

          This Review is about the liver anatomy research around the world. Novelty findings in embryologic, tomographic images and dissection lead to a new concept: the liver has seven portal segments, and the segment V play an important role. The liver is a highly vascular organ. However, literature features only schematic descriptions of the intrahepatic anatomy based on theories that currently confuse radiologists and surgeons.

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