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Journal of Morphology and Anatomy

ISSN: 2684-4265

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Morphology of Dental Implant

    Jamie Debiais

    The information on nerves and vessels in the maxillofacial locale, especially the anatomical constructions in the maxilla, mandible, tongue muscles, and salivary organs, is fundamental for dental specialists. Furthermore, the constructions in the mandibular trench, sense of taste, and maxillary sinus ought to be seen well. The supply routes and nerves in the maxillofacial locale were seen in this examination. A few varieties in the beginning of the substandard alveolar supply route were found.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Nasal Morphology

    Paul Halde

    The upper respiratory tract, which fuses the nose, larynx, and windpipe, is capricious. Despite the unmistakably wide extent of size and external conditions of the nose among individuals and animals, there are in like manner clear interspecies differences in within life frameworks and physiology of the upper respiratory bundle. The justification this article is to immediately overview the close to life constructions, physiology, and limit of the upper avionics courses, with excellent reference to investigate office animals used in toxicology considers.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Morphology of the Human Brain: A 3D Analysis

    John Jorge

    Morphometric investigations in the early fetal stage (9â?13 postconceptional week) are basic for assessing typical mind development. In this examination, we evaluated successive morphological and morphometric changes in the fetal mind during this period utilizing highâ?resolution T1â? weighted attractive reverberation imaging checks. X-ray sectional perspectives (coronal, midâ?sagittal, and even segments) and 3D reproductions of the entire cerebrum uncovered successive changes in its outside morphology and inner constructions.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Arterial Blood Supply to Spinal Cord in Human

    David Smith

    A few creature models exist to analyze physiological and utilitarian changes after the spinal rope injury with plan to clarify information about the spinal string injury in human. This part analyzes the blood vessel spinal line blood supply or spinal rope injury and in human. The accompanying audit examines the current information, standards, idiosyncrasies, varieties and known contrasts in the blood vessel blood supply to the spinal rope in human. The spinal cord is fundamentally provided by the segmental spinal branches. Most of them start in the cervical part from the vertebral supply routes, in the thoracic part from the dorsal intercostal corridors and in the lumbar part from the lumbar conduits

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: Anatomy for Environmental Health

    Feng Liberek

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is an uninhibitedly open public resource that clergymen and interrelates engineered, quality/protein, total, affliction, animal, and transparency data. CTD can be used to address toxicological instruments for biological engineered substances and energize the time of testable speculations about what openings mean for human prosperity. At CTD, truly curated interchanges for substance affected totals are overhauled with life structures terms (tissues, fluids, and cell types) to portray the physiological plan of the uncovered event

    Volume 6, Issue 1 (2022)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Anatomical Variants of the Posterior Part of the Circle of Willis in Patients with Cerebrovascular Diseases

      Ana-Maria Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea*, Roxana Gabriela Cobzaru*, Carmen Valentina Rîpă, Cringuta Paraschiv, Irina Luciana Gurzu, Andrei Ionuț Cucu, Șerban Turliuc, Egidia Gabriela Miftode, Raluca Alina Dragomir and Anca Sava

      DOI: 10.4265/jma.2022.6.220

      Introduction: The current literature proves that the frequency of anatomical variants of circle of Willis (CoW) has not yet been sufficiently evaluated both in the Romanian population and internationally, and in the North East region of Romania there is no evidence of such research so far. The aim of this study is to identify the frequency and types of anatomical variants of the constituent arteries of the posterior part of the CoW in patients with cerebrovascular diseases diagnosed within the main Neurology hospital in the Northeastern region of Romania, based on macroscopic analysis of arterial specimens obtained at autopsy and to compare the results with data from updated literature.

      Material and Methods: Our research represents a descriptive observational study, conducted retrospectively on 96 patients with cerebrovascular diseases who died over a period of 30 months and underwent an anatomo-clinical autopsy. We analysed the general macroscopic aspects of all anatomical variants of the constituent arteries of the posterior part of the CoW, comparing these to the opposite arteries.

      Result: Out of the total of 96 available human brains, 28 cases (29.17%) presented anatomical variants of CoW, among which 11 cases (39.28%) presented at least one anatomical variant of the constitutive arteries of its posterior part. The average age of these patients was 59.18 years. 36.36% cases had a single anatomical variant, 54.54% cases had two anatomical variants, and 9.09% all of cases associated an anatomical variant of the posterior part of CoW and one of the vertebral arteries. Anatomical variations of the arteries of the posterior part of the CoW were observed in 14 arteries (31.81%) of all the 44 available, and consisted in unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia (20.45%) or absence (15.90%), located either on the right or on the left, and partial fetal posterior communicating artery (2.27%) located on the left side. We identified seven morphological patterns of the posterior part of CoW in the conditions in which its anterior part does not present any anatomical variants.

      Conclusion: The data obtained in the present research allow us to affirm that circle of Willis represents an anatomical structure with a great morphological diversity of its posterior part. This study contributes to the knowledge of this topic in Romania and allows comparisons with data obtained both in the country and abroad.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Anatomical Structure and Anatomy of Hand

      Claudia Florida*

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      Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Addison's Disease: Causes and Overview

      Claudia Wullimann*

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      Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

      The Use of 3D Printing Pelvis and Hip in a Complex THA Clinical Experience and Reports of Literature

      Chenyu Huang, Qingqiang Yao, Wei Liu, Yan Xu, Cheng Tang, Bo Wei, Jiayi Li and Liming Wang*

      Background: Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is a good solution of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH). However, patients diagnosed with Crowe type IV are difficult to deal with. With traditional operation skills, the operation time is quite long and the patients will lose a lot of blood.

      Case presentation: We present the case of a 58-year-old male patient who underwent left THA due to Crowe type IV DDH with the help of 3D printing models. Before the operation, we put the CT image into computer software named mimics. After getting the stl. Document, we use 3D printer to print the models out. By using the models, we planned the operation in advance. And after sterilizing the models, we put them in the operation area, which saves a lot of operation time and reduces much blood loss by giving surgeons a better anatomy view.

      Methods: A health institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 421 children with HIV/AIDS from to 2009-2018. The Time to develop TB was defined as the time from enrollment for ART care until the development of TB among children on ART. Variables with a P-value <0.25 at bivariate Cox regression analysis, were entered into the multivariable Cox model. Multivariable-Cox-regression model with 95% CI and AHR was used to identify significant predictor variables to develop TB at P< 0.05.

      Conclusion: THA with the help of 3D printing pelvis and femur can result in a relatively short recovery time and provide good clinical efficacy of type IV DDH patients.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      CT Classification of Vacuum Phenomenon Morphology and its Utility in Predicting Lumbar Vertebral Instability

      Noah Kelm*, Jennifer Hella, John B Westfall, Eric T Ballard and Macksood A Aftab

      Background: Lumbar vacuum phenomenon (VP) within the intervertebral disc has been classified based on CT imaging. We compared same-patient sagittal CT images and dynamic flexion-extension x-rays to determine if there is a difference in the amount of vertebral instability present between three VP morphologies on CT.

      Methods: Anterior subluxation measurements on x-ray were compared with same-segment VP on CT images from the same patient when both findings were present. VP were classified as spot, island, or linear. It was determined if there was a difference in the amount of anterior subluxation between the three morphologies. Secondary analysis looked at whether there was a difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups if patients had undergone a prior lumbar fusion surgery or not.

      Results: There was no difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups on dynamic flexionextension x-rays. There was also no difference between the three groups on flexion-extension x-rays when patients were separated based on if they had received or not received a previous lumbar fusion surgery.

      Conclusion: IVD VP morphology is not a useful indicator in determining vertebral instability preoperatively according to CT scan. Further fine-tuning of an IVD VP CT classification is needed to help radiologists and spine surgeons know when IVD VP presence is important.

       

      Volume 6, Issue 2 (2022)

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Do We Know the Operating Principles of Our Computers Better than those of Our Anatomy of Brain?

        Janos Veghi and Adam J. Berki*

        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2022.6.226

        The increasing morphology of interest in understanding the behaviour of biological neural networks, and the expanding utilization of artificial neural networks in different fields and scales, both require a thorough understanding of how technological computing works. However, von Neumann in his classic ”First Draft” warned that it would be unsound to use his suggested paradigm to model neural operation, furthermore that using ”too fast” processors vitiates his paradigm, which was intended only to describe (the timing relations of) vacuum tubes. Thus, it is worth scrutinizing how the present technology solutions of anatomy can be used to mimic biology. Some electronic components anatomy bears a surprising resemblance to some biological structures. However, combining them using different principles can result in systems with inferior efficacy. The paper discusses how the conventional computing principles, components, and thinking about computing limit mimicking biological systems of morphology and anatomy.

        Research Pages: 1 - 4

        Calcification of Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in Lumbar Vertebrae

        Syeda Nasreen Fatimaa*, Syeda Parveen Fatimab, Syed Hamza Quadric, Syed Huzaifa Quadrid, Syeda Ayesha Asmae, Syeda Hafsaf and Syed Arshadudding

        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2022.6.223

        Introduction: Examining and analysing the characteristics features of the vertebral column of human is an important part of the study in anatomy. The vertebral column includes 33 vertebrae that are arranged one upon the other and joined to each other by means of the intervertebral joints and ligaments, of which includes anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Diseases involving the ligaments end in numerous spectrums of ailments extending from backache to deformities and nerve entrapments.

        Material and methods: The current study was conducted on 25 dry bone sets. The anterior longitudinal ligaments were studied to find out if there was any change in texture; they were inspected and palpated for any sign of ossification. The study was done randomly at Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad

        Result: Only 5 of the 25 dry sets of vertebrae examined had indications of ossified ligaments at varying levels.

        Conclusion: Inflammation and ossification of the anterior ligament rarely cause symptoms or major functional issues in the patient. In exceedingly rare circumstances, these processes may be linked to the development of a degenerative back problem, however these instances are infrequent.

        Volume 6, Issue 3 (2022)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Anatomy-imaging Analysis of the Labio-Maxillo-Palatine Clefts with Getting Printed 3D Models

          Ruxandra Vatavu*

          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2022.6.241

          Labio-maxillo-palatine clefts are malformations of viscerocranium that require a multidisciplinary team for establishing a diagnosis and treatment, involving multiple specialties such as plastic surgery, maxillofacial surgery, ENT, paediatrics, speech therapy, orthodontics. For the accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment these patients require multiple explorations that will involve multiple doses of irradiation. The exploration of these patients starts at an early age and that’s why should have a limited indication. CBCT is a modern exploration that offers a low dose of irradiation. The principle that CBCT uses is similar to the principle of explorations real-time imaging in operating rooms when surgery takes place. Bone defects in the labio-maxillo-palatine clefts require a correct evaluation for the planning of the augmentation intervention of these defects, and the CBCT allows for an optimal 3D assessment to determine their dimensions and the bone required. The use of these explorations facilitates the operating steps. With the development of CBCT, visualization programs and analysis of these explorations were also developed, with necessary tools in linear and volumetric measurement of alveolar bone defect. We performed a retrospective study on patients with labio-maxillo-palatine clefts, diagnosed in the Paediatric Surgery Clinic, Saint Mary's Children's Hospital, Iasi in 2019 to demonstrate the need for an accurate diagnosis using this radiological technique, CBCT and digital planning, and on printed 3D models of surgical interventions to correct alveolar bone defects of the labio-maxillo-palatine clefts.

          Volume 6, Issue 4 (2022)

            Volume 7, Issue 1 (2023)

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

              Unraveling the Anatomy and Development of the Human Ear: Insights into Hearing and Balance Functioning and Disorders

              Bowers Robert*

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.257

              The human ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for detecting sound and maintaining balance. It is composed of three main parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Each part plays a critical role in the process of hearing and balance.

              Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

              The Morphology and Functional Significance of the Carpal Tunnel Retinaculum

              Becker Richard*

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.258

              The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway in the wrist that allows the median nerve and several tendons to pass from the forearm to the hand. The carpal tunnel retinaculum, also known as the flexor retinaculum, is a thick band of connective tissue that forms the roof of the carpal tunnel. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the wrist and ensuring the smooth movement of the tendons and nerves that pass through the carpal tunnel.

              Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

              The Importance of Understanding the Morphology and Function of the Knee Joint in Diagnosing and Treating Knee Injuries

              Jason Gellis*

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.259

              The human knee joint is one of the most complex and frequently used joints in the body. It plays a critical role in supporting the weight of the body, absorbing shock, and facilitating movement. The knee joint is composed of several key structures, including the femur, tibia, patella, and a network of ligaments, tendons, and muscles.

              Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

              Pain Perception and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Structural Analysis of Neural Pathways

              Jorgo Ristevski*

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.261

              The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a region of the brain located in the frontal lobes, just behind the prefrontal cortex. It is part of the limbic system, which is involved in emotion regulation and the formation and retrieval of memories. The ACC has been implicated in a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes, including attention, decision making, conflict monitoring, empathy, and pain perception.

              Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

              The Anatomy and Function of the Ulnar Nerve: Insights into Diagnosis and Treatment of Ulnar Neuropathy and Related Conditions

              Rachel Keeffe*

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.260

              The human ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the upper extremity, responsible for providing motor and sensory innervation to the hand and forearm. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord in the neck. From there, it travels down the arm, passing through several important structures such as the axilla, the medial side of the upper arm, and the elbow joint.

              Volume 7, Issue 2 (2023)

                Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                Exploring the Aging Brain: Morphological and Functional Changes and Their Effects on Cognitive Function

                Andrew Cuff*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.262

                The human brain undergoes a range of changes during the aging process, both morphologically and functionally. These changes can impact cognitive function, including memory, attention, processing speed, and decision-making. The human brain undergoes a range of morphological and functional changes as a natural part of the aging process. Some of these changes can have significant impacts on cognitive function and overall brain health.

                Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                Comparative Study of the Muscles of Mastication in Anthropoid Primates

                Elizabeth Steell*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.263

                Anthropoid primates have evolved unique adaptations in their muscles of mastication in response to their diverse feeding habits. For example, some primates, such as colobus monkeys, have elongated and slender temporalis muscles, which are likely adaptations to their specialized diet of leaves and other tough plant material. Other primates, such as baboons and gorillas, have larger and more robust muscles of mastication, which are likely adaptations to their diet of harder and tougher plant material.

                Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

                Clinical Applications of CT Scans in the Human Female Pelvis

                Rosa Coolen*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.264

                CT (computed tomography) scans of the human female pelvis are a valuable tool for studying the structure and function of the female pelvic region. The pelvis is a complex structure that consists of several bones, including the sacrum, coccyx, and two hip bones (also called the innominate bones). In females, the pelvis is shaped differently than in males to accommodate the passage of the baby during childbirth. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the human female pelvis using CT scans is a valuable tool for understanding the anatomy and morphology of the pelvis. CT scans are a type of medical imaging that can produce detailed 3D images of the human body, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the structure and function of various organs and tissues.

                Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Exploring the Functions and Interactions of the Digestive System

                Leonid Rusin*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.265

                The human gastrointestinal tract is a long, muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, and is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive system, is a complex series of organs that work together to break down food and absorb nutrients. It consists of several organs, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

                Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                A Comparative Study of Laryngeal Muscles in Humans and Non-Human Primates: Understanding Anatomy and Function

                John Morris*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.266

                The larynx, also known as the voice box, plays a critical role in speech and breathing. The laryngeal muscles are responsible for controlling the movement and position of the vocal cords, which are essential for voice production. While the laryngeal muscles are well-studied in humans, less is known about their anatomy and function in non-human primates. This study aims to compare the laryngeal muscles in humans and non-human primates to better understand their evolutionary development and potential functional differences.

                Volume 7, Issue 3 (2023)

                  Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                  Medical Anatomy of the Human Digestive System

                  Kramer Martin*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.274

                  The human digestive system is an intricately designed network responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients and eliminating waste products from the body. Comprised of numerous organs, glands and specialized tissues, this vital system ensures our survival by facilitating the conversion of food into the energy and nutrients necessary for growth, maintenance and overall well-being. In this article, we will embark on a journey through the anatomy of the human digestive system, unraveling its structure and functions. The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and tissues that work together to process food, extract nutrients and eliminate waste products. Understanding the medical anatomy of the digestive system is crucial for healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat digestive disorders effectively.

                  Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                  Advances in Computational Modeling for Musculoskeletal Systems: Unveiling the Mechanics and Functionality of the Human Body

                  Khalil Naila*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.267

                  The human body is an intricate system of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, working together to enable movement and support various physiological functions. Understanding the mechanics and functionality of the musculoskeletal system is crucial for advancements in fields such as biomechanics, sports science, rehabilitation engineering and medical device design. In recent years, computational modeling has emerged as a powerful tool for unraveling the complexities of the human body, enabling researchers to simulate and analyze the behavior of musculoskeletal systems with unprecedented accuracy and detail. This article explores the remarkable advances in computational modeling techniques that have revolutionized our understanding of musculoskeletal mechanics and functionality.

                  Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                  Decoding the Blueprint of Life: Unraveling Molecular and Genetic Signatures in Developmental Pathways

                  Oberto Jacque*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.268

                  The development of an organism from a single cell to a complex, multicellular organism is a remarkable process governed by a precise set of molecular and genetic instructions. Understanding the intricacies of these developmental pathways has long been a fascination for scientists seeking to unravel the mysteries of life itself. Recent advancements in molecular and genetic analysis techniques have provided unprecedented insights into the complex mechanisms that orchestrate development. This article explores the cutting-edge research and discoveries in decoding the blueprint of life, highlighting the significance of molecular and genetic analyses in unraveling developmental pathways. Molecular analyses play a crucial role in deciphering the intricate processes underlying developmental pathways. Techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics enable researchers to study the dynamic changes in gene expression, protein interactions and metabolic pathways throughout development. By examining the molecular signatures at different stages, researchers can identify key genes, regulatory networks and signaling pathways involved in orchestrating cellular differentiation, tissue patterning and organ formation. This comprehensive understanding provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms governing developmental processes.

                  Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                  Developmental Biology of the Human Brain

                  Ventura Carlo*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.269

                  The human brain, an intricate and remarkable organ, serves as the command center for our thoughts, emotions and actions. Understanding the developmental biology behind this complex structure is a fundamental pursuit of neuroscience. Delving into the intricacies of brain development not only unravels the mysteries of our cognitive abilities but also holds the key to comprehending neurodevelopmental disorders and potential avenues for intervention. We embark on a journey to explore the fascinating biology of the human brain, highlighting the key stages and mechanisms that shape its formation. The development of the human brain is influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variations and mutations can disrupt the precise orchestration of developmental processes, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities and epilepsy. Moreover, environmental factors such as prenatal exposure to toxins, maternal stress and early-life experiences can shape brain development and influence cognitive and emotional outcomes.

                  Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                  Exploring the Adaptive Journey: The Dynamic Evolution of Vertebrate Jaw Morphology

                  Ranjous Yahran*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.270

                  The evolution of vertebrates has been marked by remarkable adaptations, among which the development of the jaw stands out as a defining feature. The jaw has played a crucial role in the success and diversification of vertebrate species, enabling them to explore various ecological niches and exploit diverse food sources. This article delves into the fascinating journey of the vertebrate jaw, unraveling its dynamic evolutionary morphology and the adaptive significance it holds for different species. The vertebrate jaw is an intricate and dynamic structure that has played a pivotal role in the success and diversification of vertebrate species. It serves as a crucial tool for feeding, defense and communication, allowing vertebrates to adapt to various ecological niches and exploit diverse food sources. This article delves into the morphology of the vertebrate jaw, exploring its structure, function and evolutionary significance across different groups of vertebrates.

                  Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                  Exploring the Intricacies of the Human Respiratory System: A Comprehensive Examination of Structure and Function

                  Fraser John*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.271

                  The human respiratory system is a remarkable network of organs and tissues that enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, crucial for sustaining life. It is a complex system with intricate structural features and precisely coordinated functions. Understanding the detailed anatomy and physiological processes of the respiratory system is essential for diagnosing and treating respiratory disorders. A comprehensive exploration of the structure and function of the human respiratory system, shedding light on its remarkable intricacies. Comprising various anatomical structures and physiological mechanisms, this system ensures the intake of oxygen and the expulsion of carbon dioxide, crucial for sustaining life. A detailed exploration of the structural components and functional processes that contribute to the remarkable efficiency of the human respiratory system.

                  Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                  The Fascinating Functional Anatomy of the Human Hand

                  Aliberti Stefano*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.275

                  The human hand is an intricate and remarkable tool, enabling us to interact with the world in ways that no other species can match. Its complex structure, comprising bones, muscles, tendons and nerves, allows for a remarkable range of movements and dexterity. In this article, we will explore the functional anatomy of the human hand and appreciate the incredible biomechanics that underlie our ability to perform a wide variety of tasks. The skeletal framework of the hand consists of 27 individual bones divided into three main sections: the carpals (wrist bones), metacarpals (palm bones) and phalanges (finger bones). The wrist contains eight carpal bones, which form a flexible bridge between the forearm and the hand. These bones include the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate.

                  Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                  Exploring Vertebrate Limb Morphology: A Comparative Analysis

                  Mirouse Adrien*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.272

                  The remarkable diversity of life on Earth is evident in the wide array of limb morphologies found among vertebrates. Limbs serve as essential tools for locomotion, feeding and other critical functions across different species. Understanding the variations in limb structure and their evolutionary significance is a fascinating field of study. The intricate world of vertebrate limb morphology, exploring the similarities, differences and evolutionary adaptations that have shaped these remarkable appendages. The study of limb morphology in vertebrates has long fascinated biologists, paleontologists and anatomists alike. Limbs play a crucial role in locomotion, capturing prey, defense and a variety of other specialized functions across different species. By examining the similarities and differences in limb structure and function, scientists gain valuable insights into the evolutionary history and adaptive radiation of vertebrates.

                  Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                  Imaging Techniques for the Study of Morphology and Anatomy: Unveiling the Hidden Secrets

                  Broderick Gordon*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.273

                  The study of morphology and anatomy has long fascinated scientists and researchers, as it provides crucial insights into the structure and function of living organisms. Understanding the intricate details of an organism's morphology and anatomy is fundamental for various disciplines, including biology, medicine, paleontology and many others. Over the years, technological advancements have revolutionized the field of imaging, offering a range of powerful techniques to explore the hidden secrets of morphology and anatomy. In this article, we will delve into some of the most widely used imaging techniques that have transformed our understanding of living organisms. To unravel the intricate details of morphology, scientists and researchers rely on various imaging techniques that enable them to visualize and analyze the structures of living organisms. In this article, we will explore some of the key imaging techniques used in the study of morphology, shedding light on the hidden structures that shape the living world.

                  Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                  Unveiling the Intricacies: Comparative Anatomy of Mammalian Hearts

                  Marcia Scott*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.276

                  The heart, a vital organ that tirelessly pumps life-sustaining blood throughout the body, exhibits remarkable variations across the vast array of mammalian species. Understanding the comparative anatomy of mammalian hearts offers valuable insights into the diverse adaptations and physiological capabilities of these remarkable creatures. We embark on a journey to unveil the intricacies of mammalian hearts, exploring their structural variations, functional adaptations and evolutionary significance. The mammalian heart, a marvel of biological engineering, serves as the central pump that sustains the circulation of blood throughout the body. The mammalian heart is typically situated within the thoracic cavity, positioned between the lungs in a region known as the mediastinum. Its orientation varies slightly across species but generally lies with its apex directed downward and to the left.

                  Volume 7, Issue 4 (2023)

                    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                    Beyond Skin Deep: An In-depth Exploration of the Integumentary System Anatomy

                    Cheah Pike*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.277

                    The human body is a marvel of complexity, with each system playing a vital role in maintaining health and functionality. One such system, often taken for granted, is the integumentary system, which is the body's largest organ system. The integumentary system is responsible for protecting our bodies from the external environment, regulating temperature and providing sensory information. In this article, we will embark on an in-depth exploration of the anatomy of the integumentary system, delving beyond the surface to uncover its remarkable structures and functions. The integumentary system is one of the most fascinating and vital systems in the human body. It is an intricate network of organs, tissues and cells that collectively form the body's largest organ system - the skin. Beyond its superficial appearance, the integumentary system plays a myriad of essential roles that are crucial to our overall health and well-being.

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                    Bones and Beyond: A Journey into the Skeletal System Anatomical Landscape

                    Rusliza Basir*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.278

                    The human body is a remarkable and intricate marvel, composed of various systems working harmoniously to sustain life. One of the most crucial systems that form the framework and support for our bodies is the skeletal system. From the moment of our birth to our last breath, the skeletal system plays a fundamental role in providing structure, protection and mobility, making it an essential aspect of human anatomy. The skeletal system is a complex network of bones, cartilage and ligaments that interconnect to form a sturdy and adaptable framework. The human body contains 206 bones, each with unique shapes and sizes, contributing to its overall functionality. The bones work in concert with muscles, tendons and ligaments to facilitate movement, offering a wide range of motion and flexibility.

                    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                    Embryonic Development of Anatomical Structures: Insights into Human Growth

                    Bălan Oana*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.279

                    The journey from a single fertilized egg to a complex, fully developed human being is a marvel of nature. Embryonic development is a meticulously orchestrated process that involves intricate molecular, cellular and tissue-level events. This remarkable journey not only shapes the future human form but also offers profound insights into the mysteries of human growth. Let's delve into the captivating world of embryonic development and explore how it contributes to the intricate anatomical structures that define us. The story of human growth begins at conception, when a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, forming a zygote. This single cell contains all the genetic information necessary to build a human being. As the zygote divides and multiplies, it forms a blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells. Within this blastocyst lies the inner cell mass, which will give rise to the embryo itself.

                    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                    Exploring the Intricacies of Endocrine Glands: A Journey into Anatomical Marvels

                    Murray Lyndsay*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.280

                    The human body is a wondrous and intricate creation, with each part playing a crucial role in maintaining a delicate balance that keeps us alive and thriving. Among these remarkable components, the endocrine glands stand out as fascinating regulators of various physiological processes. These glands, often referred to as the body's messengers, produce hormones that orchestrate a symphony of activities, from growth and metabolism to reproduction and stress response. Embarking on a journey into the depths of these endocrine marvels reveals a captivating world of interconnected functions and intricate communication. Imagine the body as a grand orchestra, where each instrument represents an endocrine gland and the conductor is the hypothalamus – a small but powerful region in the brain. The hypothalamus releases hormones that signal the pituitary gland, often called the "master gland," to unleash its own cascade of hormonal messengers. These pituitary hormones then travel to various target endocrine glands, prompting them to release their specific hormones into the bloodstream.

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                    Exploring the Intricacies of the Cardiovascular System: An Anatomical Overview

                    Rademakers Rosa*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.281

                    The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a complex network of organs and vessels responsible for transporting blood, oxygen, nutrients and waste products throughout the human body. It plays a vital role in sustaining life and maintaining overall health. This system's remarkable efficiency and intricacy ensure that every cell in the body receives the necessary resources for survival and optimal functioning. The pulmonary circulation is a crucial part of the cardiovascular system responsible for oxygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide. It is a unique circulatory pathway that serves as a detour from the usual systemic circulation, allowing blood to travel from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart again. This journey through the lungs is vital for the body's overall health and ensures a continuous supply of oxygen to the tissues.

                    Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                    From Filter to Fluid Balance: Unraveling the Renal System Anatomical Features

                    Piras Antonio*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.282

                    The human body is a marvel of intricate systems working harmoniously to maintain equilibrium and ensure optimal functioning. Among these systems, the renal system stands as a sentinel of balance, filtering waste, regulating electrolytes and maintaining fluid equilibrium. In this article, we embark on a journey through the anatomical features of the renal system, unraveling its remarkable capabilities in filtering and maintaining fluid balance. Among these, the renal system stands out as an unsung hero, tirelessly filtering waste, regulating electrolytes and meticulously controlling fluid balance. In this comprehensive exploration of the renal system, we will journey through its anatomy, functions and the awe-inspiring mechanisms that underlie its ability to uphold vital physiological stability.

                    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                    Navigating the Wonders of the Digestive Tract: Anatomical Insights into Gut Health

                    Raue Jonathan*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.283

                    The human body is a marvel of complex systems working in harmony. Among the many extraordinary wonders, the digestive tract stands out as a fundamental player in maintaining overall health. This intricate system allows us to break down and absorb nutrients from the food we consume, providing essential energy and sustenance. Understanding the anatomy of the digestive tract and its role in gut health can empower individuals to make informed decisions about their diet, lifestyle and well-being. In this article, we will delve into the anatomical insights of the digestive tract and explore ways to promote optimal gut health. The digestive tract, also known as the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a long tube-like structure that extends from the mouth to the anus. Its primary function is to process food and absorb nutrients, while also expelling waste from the body. The main components of the digestive tract include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum and anus. Each of these segments plays a unique role in the digestive process.

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                    The Fascia: Understanding the Connective Tissue Role in Anatomy and Function

                    Herranz Maria*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.284

                    When we think of the human body, we often focus on the well-known systems like the cardiovascular, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. However, there is a hidden and intricate network that plays a crucial role in maintaining our body's structure and function – the fascia. The fascia is a complex web of connective tissue that envelops, supports and connects various parts of the body. In recent years, research into the fascia has revealed its significant impact on anatomy, movement and overall well-being. The fascia is a three-dimensional matrix of connective tissue that spans from head to toe, encompassing muscles, bones, organs and nerves. It is often described as a continuous web that interweaves throughout the body, providing a structural framework that holds everything in place. While the fascia was historically overlooked or disregarded in medical teachings, its importance is now being recognized more than ever.

                    Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                    The Fine Art of Dissection: Historical Perspectives on Anatomical Studies

                    Gemignani Angelo*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.285

                    The intricate world of human anatomy has been a subject of fascination and inquiry since the dawn of civilization. Exploring the inner workings of the human body has not only advanced medical knowledge but has also contributed to the evolution of artistic expression. The art of dissection, often overshadowed by its scientific implications, has a rich history that intertwines the realms of science and art. This article delves into the historical perspectives of anatomical studies, shedding light on the evolution of dissection as both a scientific endeavor and a source of artistic inspiration. The roots of anatomical studies can be traced back to ancient civilizations. In Egypt, embalming practices necessitated a deep understanding of human anatomy to preserve the body for the afterlife. Similarly, ancient Indian texts like the "Susruta Samhita" contained detailed descriptions of surgical procedures, showcasing a rudimentary comprehension of the human body's internal structures.

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                    Unravelling the Complexity of the Human Brain: A Comprehensive Study of Anatomical Structures and Functions

                    Kaufman Claire*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.286

                    The human brain, with its intricate network of neurons and billions of connections, remains one of the most enigmatic and fascinating organs in the human body. Throughout history, scientists, philosophers and medical professionals have dedicated their efforts to understanding the complexities of this remarkable organ. In recent years, advancements in neuroscience, technology and research methodologies have allowed for unprecedented insights into the anatomical structures and functions of the human brain. Understanding the neuronal architecture is crucial for advancing neuroscience research, developing treatments for neurological disorders and unraveling the mysteries of human cognition and consciousness. As technology and research methodologies continue to progress, we can look forward to even more profound insights into the intricate workings of the human brain.

                    Volume 7, Issue 5 (2023)

                      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                      The Vascular System: Tracing the Pathways of Blood and Lymphatic Circulation

                      Roman Khonsari*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.296

                      The human body is a marvel of complexity, with numerous systems working in harmony to sustain life. Among these, the vascular system plays a pivotal role by facilitating the circulation of blood and lymph throughout the body. These intricate networks of vessels and channels serve as the lifelines of our existence, ensuring the delivery of essential nutrients, oxygen and immune system support while removing waste products. Blood circulation is at the heart of the vascular system and is essential for maintaining the body's functions. The circulatory system consists of three primary components: the heart, blood vessels and blood itself. The heart, a muscular organ located in the chest, acts as a powerful pump. It contracts rhythmically, propelling oxygen-rich blood through arteries to the bodies various tissues and organs. The heart's two primary chambers, the atria and ventricles, work together to ensure blood flows in the correct direction. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Blood vessels are the intricate highways through which blood travels.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      Aging and Anatomical Changes: A Comprehensive Examination of Geriatric Anatomy

                      Sunil Gupta*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.287

                      Aging is an inevitable and universal part of the human experience. As individuals grow older, their bodies undergo a multitude of physiological changes, impacting various organ systems. Understanding these anatomical changes is crucial for healthcare professionals, caregivers and the aging population to provide adequate care and maintain a good quality of life. In this article, we will embark on a comprehensive examination of geriatric anatomy, exploring how aging affects various organ systems and the implications for overall health and well-being. As individuals age, their physiological systems undergo a series of changes, which can impact their health and well-being. These changes require special consideration when providing medical care for geriatric patients. Understanding the physiological considerations in the geriatric patient is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure effective and patient-centered care. In this article, we will explore some of the key physiological changes that occur in older adults and their implications for healthcare.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      An In-depth Look at Human Muscle Anatomy: From Tendons to Tissues

                      Tom Aire*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.288

                      The human body is an intricate masterpiece of biology, with its various systems and structures working together to enable us to live, move and thrive. Among the most fascinating aspects of the human body is its muscular system, which not only powers our movements but also plays a critical role in maintaining our overall health. Our journey begins with tendons, the fibrous structures that serve as the connectors between muscles and bones. Tendons are essential for transmitting the force generated by muscles to the bones, allowing for movement and providing stability. They are made of collagen fibers, which are incredibly strong and flexible. Tendons are designed to withstand high levels of tension and stress, ensuring that our muscles can exert force without compromising the integrity of the musculoskeletal system. As we delve deeper, we arrive at the fundamental units of muscles: muscle fibers. These microscopic powerhouses are the contractile cells responsible for generating force. Muscle fibers are packed with myofibrils, which consist of smaller units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units of muscle tissue, containing actin and myosin filaments that slide past each other during muscle contractions. This intricate sliding action is what ultimately leads to muscle shortening, enabling our movements.

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                      Anatomical Imaging Techniques: Advancements in Visualizing Internal Structures

                      Miriam Vera*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.289

                      The field of medicine has made tremendous strides over the years and one of the most significant areas of progress has been in the development of anatomical imaging techniques. These cutting-edge technologies allow healthcare professionals to peer inside the human body, providing invaluable insights into the structure and function of internal organs, tissues and systems. In this article, we'll explore the advancements in anatomical imaging techniques, from traditional X-rays to state-of-the-art methods like MRI and 3D printing. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are playing an ever-increasing role in anatomical imaging. These technologies can help automate the interpretation of medical images, improving diagnostic accuracy and reducing the time needed for analysis. AI-driven image analysis can also assist in the detection of anomalies and early disease diagnosis.

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                      Anatomical Variations: Uncommon Structures and their Clinical Implications

                      Nicole Thometz*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.290

                      The human body is a marvel of intricate design, but it is by no means uniform. Anatomical variations are the norm rather than the exception and these differences can have profound clinical implications. Understanding these uncommon structures is crucial for healthcare professionals, as they can influence everything from surgery to disease diagnosis. Anatomical variations in the human body are deviations from the typical or "normal" structure of organs, tissues, or other anatomical features. These variations are common and can range from minor differences to significant alterations in anatomy. Understanding these variations is crucial for healthcare professionals, as they can influence patient care, diagnosis and surgical procedures. The kidneys are vital organs responsible for filtering waste and maintaining fluid balance. While most people have a single renal artery and vein supplying blood to each kidney, some individuals have additional, or accessory, renal arteries. These extra blood vessels can significantly impact surgical procedures, such as kidney transplants or procedures to treat renal artery stenosis. Surgeons must be aware of these variations to ensure the best possible outcomes. Most people have their heart located on the left side of the chest. However, in individuals with dextrocardia, the heart is situated on the right side. While this condition is often asymptomatic, it can complicate diagnostics. For instance, an Electrocardiogram (ECG) performed on a patient with dextrocardia might produce atypical results, leading to potential misdiagnosis.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      Cross-species Anatomy: Uncovering Commonalities and Distinctions

                      Catherine Martín*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.291

                      Anatomy, the study of the structure and organization of living organisms, has long been a cornerstone of biological science. Traditionally, it has been examined within the confines of a single species, allowing scientists to understand the intricacies of a particular organism. However, there's an emerging field that takes a broader perspective, delving into the fascinating world of comparative anatomy, which focuses on exploring the similarities and differences across various species. In this article, we'll embark on a journey into the captivating realm of cross-species anatomy, where we'll uncover the commonalities and distinctions that exist in the anatomy of different creatures. Comparative anatomy is all about discerning patterns, connections and evolutionary relationships between species through the examination of their anatomical structures. By contrasting the anatomical features of various animals, scientists can gain insights into the evolutionary history and adaptations of different species.

                      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                      Exploring the Complex and Varied Anatomy of Gender

                      Claudio Barbeito*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.292

                      The concept of gender is a multifaceted and intricate aspect of human identity, encompassing much more than the binary distinctions of male and female. Beyond the surface-level physical characteristics that often define gender, there exists a rich and diverse spectrum of anatomical attributes that shape our understanding of the human body. Gender identity transcends the traditional male-female binary. Individuals experience a wide range of gender identities, including but not limited to cisgender (identifying with the sex assigned at birth), transgender (identifying differently from the assigned sex), non-binary (not exclusively male or female) and genderqueer (an identity outside the gender binary). These identities often lead to unique anatomical characteristics and experiences.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      From Micro to Macro: Anatomical Hierarchies in Organismal Structure

                      Lawrence Witmer*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.293

                      The human body, like all living organisms, is a marvel of intricate design and complexity. From the tiniest cellular structures to the grandeur of entire organ systems, our bodies consist of multiple levels of organization, each contributing to the function and integrity of the whole. In this article, we will embark on a journey through the various anatomical hierarchies that compose organismal structure, from the microscale to the macroscale. Understanding these hierarchies is not only fascinating but crucial for comprehending the principles of life itself. At the base of the anatomical hierarchy, we find cells – the fundamental units of life. These tiny powerhouses are the building blocks of all living organisms, encompassing various specialized types that work together to maintain life functions. From the minute structures within cells, such as mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, to the cell's membrane and organelles, these structures harmoniously cooperate to keep the organism alive. It's here that the foundation of life is established, with DNA as the blueprint for all cellular activities.

                      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                      Intricate Anatomy of the Respiratory System: An In-depth Architectural Exploration

                      Jason Bourke*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.294

                      The human body is a marvel of intricate design and perhaps one of the most awe-inspiring systems within it is the respiratory system. This complex network of organs and tissues is responsible for a fundamental life process: breathing. While breathing may seem like a simple act, the anatomy underlying this essential function is incredibly intricate. In this article, we will embark on an in-depth architectural exploration of the respiratory system, uncovering the remarkable design that allows us to inhale, exhale and exchange life-giving oxygen with the outside world. The respiratory system, one of the most essential systems in the human body, is a complex network of organs and structures designed for the fundamental task of breathing. While the act of breathing may seem straightforward, the intricate anatomy of the respiratory system reveals a remarkable design, which allows us to inhale, exhale and facilitate the exchange of life-sustaining oxygen.

                      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                      Intricate Pathways: Anatomical Study of the Nervous System and Neural Connections

                      Philip Anderson*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4265.2023.7.295

                      The human nervous system is a marvel of complexity, an intricate web of pathways and connections that enables us to think, move and feel. Understanding the anatomy of the nervous system and the neural connections within it is essential for grasping the fundamental basis of human cognition and behavior. In this article, we delve into the fascinating world of the nervous system, exploring its structure, functions and the intricate pathways that enable it to function seamlessly. The nervous system is a highly organized and integrated network of cells, tissues and organs that enables communication and coordination within the human body. It is divided into two primary components: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

                      Special issue on Anatomy and Morphology (2021)

                        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                        Morphology of Juniperus Cone and its Implications on Cone Evolution

                        Xin Wang* and Xiuping Xu

                        Background:The basic cone unit in Pinaceaeis called Bract-Scale-Seed Complex (BSSC), in which the scale is supposed to be equivalent to an axillary shoot bearing ovules in Cordaitales. This correlation established by Florin provides a rational foundation on which an interpretation for the origin of cones in at least most Coniferalesis built, and may be called Florin model for convenience. Cupressaceaeis a family in Coniferales, in which the ovule-scale and its subtending bract are thought fully fused and hard to distinguish by external morphology.

                        Results: Different from Pinaceaeand other typical conifers, Juniperus(Cupressaceae)appears not following Florin’s model closely. For example, the cone of Juniperusoxycedrushas only three rather than more BSSCs in a whorl, and its fleshy fructification appears more like a berry rather than a typical coniferalean cone. In this paper morphology and anatomy of Juniperusoxycedrusfructifications are documented using Micro CT. New observation demonstrates clearly that three seeds alternate the three surrounding bracts in Juniperusoxycedrus.

                        Conclusion:Such spatial arrangement is quite different from that in typical BSSCs, in which the ovules should be aligned with their subtending bract. Together with other unexpected features in other cupressaceous cones, Juniperusmay help to expand the avenue through which we can interpret the origin and homology of cones in Cupressaceaeand other conifers or gymnosperms in general.

                        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                        CT Classification of Vacuum Phenomenon Morphology and its Utility in Predicting Lumbar Vertebral Instability

                        Noah Kelm*, Jennifer Hella, John B Westfall, Eric T Ballard and Macksood A Aftab

                        Background: Lumbar vacuum phenomenon (VP) within the intervertebral disc has been classified based on CT imaging. We compared same-patient sagittal CT images and dynamic flexion-extension x-rays to determine if there is a difference in the amount of vertebral instability present between three VP morphologies on CT.

                        Methods: Anterior subluxation measurements on x-ray were compared with same-segment VP on CT images from the same patient when both findings were present. VP were classified as spot, island, or linear. It was determined if there was a difference in the amount of anterior subluxation between the three morphologies. Secondary analysis looked at whether there was a difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups if patients had undergone a prior lumbar fusion surgery or not.

                        Results: There was no difference in anterior subluxation between the three groups on dynamic flexionextension x-rays. There was also no difference between the three groups on flexion-extension x-rays when patients were separated based on if they had received or not received a previous lumbar fusion surgery.

                        Conclusion: IVD VP morphology is not a useful indicator in determining vertebral instability preoperatively according to CT scan. Further fine-tuning of an IVD VP CT classification is needed to help radiologists and spine surgeons know when IVD VP presence is important.

                        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

                        Structure and Anatomy of Hand

                        Sarah Marlene*

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                        Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                        Anatomy of the Human Liver, Role of the Segmentary Portal Branch V

                        Durand Lopez Cesar Augusto* and Juana Raquel Durand Fernandez

                        This Review is about the liver anatomy research around the world. Novelty findings in embryologic, tomographic images and dissection lead to a new concept: the liver has seven portal segments, and the segment V play an important role. The liver is a highly vascular organ. However, literature features only schematic descriptions of the intrahepatic anatomy based on theories that currently confuse radiologists and surgeons.

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