Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism

ISSN: 2165-7912

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Women Journalists in Lebanon: The Broken Ladder

    Mireille El Hajj

    Despite making up a majority and being active in the media field, Lebanese women journalists are still excluded from top management positions. This paper studies the factors that hinder Lebanese women journalists from climbing the ladder to top levels. It examines the status of women journalists in leadership positions in the media field, studies the obstacles and the barriers, and explores the glass ceiling they face. It is a blend of qualitative and quantitative approaches, as we looked for consistency among knowledgeable informants, to ensure comprehensive explanations and in-depth understanding of the related issues. The findings of the paper investigate media journalists’ points-ofview in terms of gender diversity and gender discrimination. They shed the light on the main obstacles, women and men journalists interviewees felt about women lack of progress as well as their inability to assume a place in decision making positions. However, this study is not without its limitations; therefore, it recommends further research in order to explicitly explore strategies that promote active participation of women in decision making structures in media in Lebanon. It creates value not only for the media sector but benefits as well the Lebanese society at large.

      Original Research Article Pages: 2 - 5

      Exploratory study on Audience Perception of Information Credibility on Media platforms in Ghana

      Ibrahim Ofosu-Boateng , Philip Acquaye

      Using a focus group discussion, this study sought to understand how media audiences perceive information in the media environment in Ghana. The study found out that the prevalence of fake news on social media platforms serves as a disincentive to consumers of media messages from giving attention to information from some media platforms. Legacy media, radio and television, for many of the participants, presents credible information on its platform with the belief that rigorous scrutiny is done by the media organisation before information is shared with their audiences on air. Though participants in the group discussions are often dismissive of media information they have doubts about, they occasionally, not routinely, verify information from news portals they deem credible. Participants also rely on their intuition to assess the truthfulness or otherwise of a story

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

        Comparative Analysis of the Open and the Caravan Magazine's Coverage of Farmers' Protest Potrick

        Maseera Khan

        On September 17, 2020, three farm laws were passed in Lok Sabha, viz., The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020; The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020; and The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020. The laws received major backlash from the farmers whom they were intended for. The ordinances led to the largest, peaceful sit-in protest in the history of mankind. The issue also attracted global attention (which invited criticism from the mainstream media). The incident was a litmus test of balanced reporting. In this paper, the coverage of the protests shows that the media constructs reality and holds the power to tilt the audience in favour of or against one player of the story. The discussion focuses on two English magazines- The Open and The Caravan, and their reportage on the subject matter. Frame analysis is utilized to streamline the stance of the magazines.

          Research Pages: 1 - 7

          Media and Violence: A Critical Review of Violence Theories

          Andrew Ali Ibbi*

          The rise in the level of violence the world over has been a worrisome development to people all over the world. An understanding of the audience and what content to give to them has become necessary considering the fact that violent media content is on the increase and the audience can accessed such content through many devices thanks to technology and its daily sophistication. This paper takes a holistic look at media violence and a critical look at some selected media violence theories. An understanding of what can be termed as violence is very important before any research can be done in this area. The theories considered in this paper are: Social Learning Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, Excitation Transfer Theory, Cultivation Theory and Desensitization Theory. The paper is an attempt to discuss the different angles that scholars viewed the selected theories in the paper and a look at how the theories fit in our immediate society.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

            The Role of Social Media in Enlightening Nursing Mothers on the Practise of Exclusive Breast Feeding in Ekiti State

            Yetunde Adetunla*

            DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.22.12.450

            The globalization of technology which gave rise to Information Communication Technology (ICT) has changed the information seeking behaviour of human which has shifted attention from broadcast and print media to Social Media. Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) practice over the years has been a global discussion and its significance has been passed across to Nursing Mothers through several sources i.e. Open campaigns, Hospital Seminars, Television, Radio etc. and the efforts have not yielded desirable results. Little attention has been paid to the role of Social media hence the need to examine the role of Social Media in enlightening Nursing Mothers on the practise of Exclusive Breast Feeding in Ekiti State. The study adopted a Survey design with a study population of 952 Nursing Mothers. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for selecting 380 respondents as sample for the study. Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data collected were analysed with statistics. Findings revealed that Nursing Mothers in Ekiti State are enlightened about EBF through several Social Media sources but Facebook and WhatsApp appear to be the most prevalent Social Media source of enlightenment on EBF practice, a large percentage of Nursing Mothers were encouraged to breastfeed their infants through the enlightenment obtained from Social Media, age and employment are the most prevalent demographic factors that influence the enlightenment on EBF and some of the challenges in the use of Social Media is the fact that it consumes time, poor network signal, high cost of data subscription etc. The study concluded that Facebook and WhatsApp are the most effective Social Media source on EBF. Therefore, the study recommended that stakeholders should push their adverts and campaigns on Facebook and WhatsApp more frequently

            Review Pages: 1 - 9

            The Effectiveness of Persuasive Appeals during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case of Jordanian Defense Orders

            Faisal Al Serhan*

            DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.22.12.450

            Jordan was one of the first Middle Eastern countries to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors of this paper examined the Jordanian government's persuasive appeals in defense orders issued between March and August 2020 to contain the pandemic. The authors discussed how the focus group responded to these appeals and concluded that this behavior did not halt or reduce the daily incidence or death rates, resulting in a major crisis of trust between the government and the public. The authors also concluded that some measures were not followed by citizens, as evidenced by their failure to follow preventive measures and the timing of the ban, despite the fact that persuasion was used.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 6


            Mustafa Abdulrahim Alsabri*

            The current study has been designed to study the relationship between social media usage and health awareness practices as well as panic among the Indian youth during COVID-19. A survey was conducted among the University students in Delhi-NCR region to assess the effect of social media on their health behaviour in the wake of the pandemic. An online survey of 250 students was executed employing a 5-point Likert scale based self-administered questionnaire consisting of 23 questions. The data was analysed using smart PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling). The results indicate that behavioural change in a person is key to his protection against the lethal virus. While the social media induced panic does not trigger a positive behaviour change, neither does it lead to protective practices. Moreover, it also shows that the higher the level of awareness about COVID-19, the more likelihood of exhibiting positive health behaviour and adoption methods of protection. It is also revealed that while social media promote behaviour change, protection and public awareness, it may also infuse panic among the users.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

              Is Traditional Media Losing Effect Compared to Influencer Marketing? A Review for the Cosmetic Industry

              Gulcin Ipek Emeksiz*

              DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.22.12.450

              Influencers, who disclose their lifestyles to the masses on social media on topics ranging from giving personal skin care to themselves at their homes to matching different outfits and creating combinations for date nights, to preparing diet and healthy meals for having a fit body shape, try to change the lifestyle habits and the talk topics in the lives of many young people by presenting themselves as opinion leaders, view affecters or digital penetrators. Influencers, who are discovered by many popular brands due to their high number of followers and who has a change to try the first sample products of these cosmetic brands for this reason, advertise the products on their channels with excitement in order to create behavior change in the shopping habits of young generations. However, influencers carry responsibilities while encouraging people to pay larger amounts for expensive cosmetic products thus authenticity is a key for the continuation of their vlogs by getting likes. Brands see influencers as people who have a high potential in selling products by creating new unthought-of content on social media and who have a change to touch the lives of considerable amount of people by interacting with them. This research aims to look at the concept of influencer marketing by also mentioning from how Influencer marketing has achieved to go one step further in the cosmetic industry rather than traditional advertisements nowadays by providing a literature review on the issue.

                Case Report Pages: 1 - 6

                Sources of Development Information among Citizens in a Rural Community: A Case Study

                Alex Eloho Umuerri*

                Globally, communication is widely accepted as a tool for accelerating development in urban and rural settings. In many rural areas the channels and media sources which are available to the resident indigenes for development information are not ascertained because of a number of factors which could range from inaccessibility of these areas, to lack of awareness of media and the unorganized nature of these rural areas. This paper is based on a study which investigated the existing channels of communication and media which citizens are exposed to, and the most beneficial development information to the citizens in a rural community in Nigeria. The study found that the existing interpersonal channel of communication was preferred over the media of radio which was also the next leading source of development information to citizens in the rural community. Therefore, community leaders should ensure that resident indigenes are exposed to development information in the mass media by ensuring that adequate information is given to the citizens.

                Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                Changing Culture and Society through Indian Advertising Appeals: An Qualitative Analysis

                Karanam Swetha

                Advertising is a simple tool for marketing. Every media platform has its advertisement department and being the dominant one among the other departments. This is the reason behind the growth of the advertisement industry in a full-fledged manner over a short period. The role of advertisements is highly inevitable for creating persuasions. This study aims to analyse the transformation of culture and society through these advertising appeals and how it affects the stereotypes. Because India has such a large population and cultural diversity, the advertising business has developed a variety of adverts to ensure that they appeal to a wide range of people and persuade others to buy the merchandise by enticing them. The appeals are made in such a way that it has an impact on people's purchase decisions. For that, every advertising agency goes under various stages including psychological for getting the best results by selling their products. So that every advertisement mend to appeal to the audience. This study tries to bring light on Indian advertising appeals and how it is affected culture and society.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                Social Media and Public Health Awareness among Youth about COVID-19

                Mustafa Abdulrahim Alsabri*

                DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.468

                The current study has been designed to study the relationship between social media usage and health awareness practices as well as panic among the Indian youth during COVID-19. A survey was conducted among the university students in Delhi-NCR region to assess the effect of social media on their health behaviour in the wake of the pandemic. An online survey of 250 students was executed employing a 5-point Likert scale based self-administered questionnaire consisting of 23 questions. The data was analysed using smart PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling). The results indicate that behavioural change in a person is key to his protection against the lethal virus. While the social media induced panic does not trigger a positive behaviour change, neither does it lead to protective practices. Moreover, it also shows that the higher the level of awareness about COVID-19, the more likelihood of exhibiting positive health behaviour and adoption methods of protection. It is also revealed that while social media promote behaviour change, protection and public awareness, it may also infuse panic among the users.

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 19

                Online Education Experiences During Pandemic for School Students of Chhattisgarh

                Sneha Sharma*

                DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.469

                The emergence of e-learning as an alternative learning tool amid the COVID-19 pandemic has various challenges and opportunities. The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused many negative impacts and the adaption of new normal in various aspects. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the usage of e-learning which has been seen as a precautionary as well as an improvised medium in the education process in india. This research aims to explore the experiences encompassing the benefits and challenges faced by students in schools by implementing e-learning as an innovative learning method in the future. Through the mixed-method approach, it can be concluded that e-learning can be accepted as an effective solution in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in the field of education, but it still requires improvements in terms of infrastructure in regards to device availability and internet facilities, and interaction amongst teacherstudent and student-student so that e-learning does not merely move classrooms into digital classrooms, but also provides a wider transformation and hence overall experience that makes it easier for students to learn and gain knowledge. Research provides student perspectives on undergoing e-learning which is expected to be a recommendation tool for schools to establish and provide a good e-learning model and a hence better experience.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

                  Movies That Portray The True Miseries Of Life: The Florida Project, Joker, And Parasite

                  Jubayrul Islam*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.487

                  Today's movie industries provide us with a variety of entertainment options. However, certain films take us into the realm of truth, a reality that we want to avoid but cannot. These are the films that place a transparent mirror in front of us, allowing us to see our genuine selves. Some of these films are discussed in this paper. The florida project, joker, and parasite are the films that I will cover in this paper. These films have received numerous awards, not only for their originality but also for their hidden messages that kept us engrossed in reality for a brief period.

                  The struggles that people face as a result of poverty, mental illness, parental concerns, and social turbulence have all been depicted in these three films.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

                  Investigative Journalism In India In The Digital Age: With Special Reference To Web Portals

                  Arvind Kumar*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.488

                  This research paper is about investigative journalism in India in the digital era, with a focus on online portals. It was tough to comprehend since there is a lack of knowledge about how web portals function in a true democracy. create a protective shield they also demonstrated a lot more investigative journalism in her work, which helped to increase the level of investigative journalism in India.

                  This qualitative research is focused on the depth of underground investigative journalism, and we have transformed it into a nice paper and research paper that focuses on how Indian web portals modify their investigative journalism and give good metals in the online environment.

                  We may tell how much they face challenges in their job since investigative journalism is really difficult in India; however, when investigations are conducted online, investigative journalism becomes very soft and protected, which is excellent for the journalist.

                  In India, many non-profit web portals claiming that they are doing investigative journalism but it’s very tough to select for this study so I have chosen using purposive sampling for these online independent web portals because of their work recognized by the various international media houses and the democratic nations are four independent we portals, I have chosen five online portals for this paper: Cobrapost, the wire, caravan magazine, news laundry, these web portals since they are the ones who have preserved it thus far.

                  As digital technology reshapes the interactions between citizens and the state, demands for accountability have never been greater.

                  They also demonstrated a lot more investigative journalism in her work, which helped to increase the level of investigative journalism in India. Here's a quick rundown of how India's current trend of investigative journalism has provided some rays of brightness in Indian journalism. This paper is going to analyze some selective work done by these four web portals which are using to hold governments accountable in a new digital era.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

                  Hidden Sexual Harassment On Teenage Girls By Relatives: A Study On A Sub-urban City Of Bangladesh

                  Mamunor Rashid* and Tandra Mondol

                  DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.489

                  The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of sexual harassments, which is, happened by confidentially on teenage girls by their relatives. The nature of this study conducts the quantitative and qualitative method in nature. The population of this study is all teenage girls (aged 14-17 years) of two number Raghunathpur union in Dumuria. About 180 questionnaires and 3 expert respondents are helped by the researcher to complete the study perfectly. A greater number of respondents (85%) are harassed by relatives secretly and they hide this information from their parents and the greedy eyes of male or relatives are the main reason of it. The expert participants of in-depth interview explained the mental and physical situation of harassed teenage girls. They share their experience in these problems and they provide some recommendations and advices to remove it from the society.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 22

                  Crime News and Real-World Blues: A Behavioural Study of Media

                  Arshpreet Kaur*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2022.12.490

                  Crime news and shows are a genre of news and non-news platforms, the format is trending these days by gripping the audiences across the world with various unique ways of providing crime-based entertainment. The present study analysis the physical and psychological effects of consumption of crime-based content (in case of audience) and due to coverage of crime beat (in case of journalists). Data was collected from all strata of society in form of online questionnaire, it was not limiting the study to particular age group, gender etc because as the title of the study suggests we are interested in finding out about the real-world blues. This aspect of the study was needed to be researched and analysed so that we could study the possible reactions crime news and shows can have on the society.

                  Some prominent facts came into light through this research like demographics (age and gender) have no significant relation with physical or psychological effects on the crime beat journalists but work profile (years of experience and platform) have or consumption pattern of the audience (time spent on screen and what they watch it) have significant relation with physical or psychological effects on them but whether they watch it someone or alone will not have any relation. Overall, the study tried to analyse the effects of the crime news and shows on the behaviour of the media practitioners and audiences through analytical analysis.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                    The Role of Mobile Based Communication by the Government during COVID-19 on College Students (IIHS, Ghaziabad)

                    Ritika Bora*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2023.13.507

                    COVID-19 poses a threat to global health. It is first ever experience for the countries to undergo a complete lockdown with the dependency for any information completely relying on media and government. During the pandemic the usage of mobile phones among the masses grew drastically and it was considered as an efficient medium by both public and the government. The mobile based communication was done through channels such as WhatsApp, Chat Boards, Caller Tune, Text Messages and Arogya Setu App etc., for spreading COVID related information among the masses. However, even after the continuous exchange of messages by the government, there are people who are still not showing the COVID appropriate behavior. As the third wave is predicated to hit the world again it is important to study the loopholes in the existing communication strategies and to rework on them in order to control the spread of the deadly virus. In this paper the researcher has studied the changes mobile based communication by the government during the COVID 19 has brought among the students studying in IIHS, Ghaziabad. The study shows that mobile is an effective mode of communication among the college students. It has successfully brought attitudinal and behavioral changes among the students and outlines the directions for the development of highly effective and efficient mobile based communication that can be utilized by the government in the near future.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

                      An Investigation of Online CSR Communication by Odisha Based Corporate Organisations

                      Mohapatra Jyoti Prakash* and Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo

                      DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2023.13.517

                      Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a much-discussed subject within Indian business sector, especially after the companies act, 2013. Many corporate organisations are sincerely contributing to the society through focused programmes. But not just doing well is important, communicating the same to wider stakeholders is also equally important. Sharing information about CSR activities and its impact is often found to attract positive response from stakeholders. It can help in building a more positive brand image and establishing better stakeholder relationship, besides others. However, failure in communicating messages about socially responsible activities may not generate such benefits. Digital communication platforms, primarily websites and social media have become indispensable in today’s corporate communication strategy. Corporate organisations are extensively using internet enabled communication channels to reach out to their various stakeholders, internally and externally. They share their messages related to CSR activities and achievements through these online communication platforms. The proposed study intends to understand the how online communication platforms, mainly websites and social media, are being used by select corporate organisations having their registered or corporate office in Odisha. It also aims to identify the similarities or difference in CSR communication by private and public sector corporate organisations on various online platforms. The study will be analysing the CSR Communication by selected Odisha based corporate organisations with the use of content analysis methodology.

                        Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

                        Hunting as a Mirror of a Person in the Discourse of Specialized Magazines: Linguocultural Studies of Media Text

                        Irina Erofeeva* and Vladimir Bocharnikov


                        Recently, research based on its own cultural traditions, one of which is hunting, is becoming important worldwide. We consider the media, including specialized magazines, as mediators of the communicative and cultural memory of a person. The paper presents a linguocultural analysis of the discourse of magazines. Basic instinct, Russian hunting magazine, Safari, hunting and game ranch. Based on the analysis of more than 250 media texts of different genres published from 1972 to 2018, we determined the main frames in the conceptual domain of hunting. Hunting is classified as demanded geographic surroundings, as a social and cultural construct reflecting the person’s needs in direct and indirect contexts. The key image of the concept is the hunter’s personality. This multifaceted image demonstrates awakening of the personal potential by means of hunting, recognition and discovering oneself when dealing with nature.

                        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                        Indo-Pak Newspapers Coverage of the Pulwama Incident



                        In the political and military tensions between India and Pakistan, print media play an important role in stabilizing the issues or portraying the narrative of the state to the world. Both the countries spend more on defense in comparison to other sectors. The main reason for spending billions of USD on the military is the Kashmir issue. Though both countries have a long lasted history of rivalry when it comes to the Kashmir issue after the Pulwama attack, the tensions between the two neighboring countries were the worst in the last thirty years. In such a horrible situation, media from both sides were busy defending their stances. This study aims to the comparison of Pulwama attack coverage in English newspapers from both sides (Daily dawn from Pakistan and the Hindu from India) that how these most circulated newspapers covered the whole conflict, what were their contributions to peace, and how they portrayed the stance of their governments. As the incident started on 14 February 2019 after the bomb blast, therefore we have covered editorials of both newspapers from 14 February to 5 March 2019. Both sides exaggerated the whole issue however; we noticed that Indian media and political leadership used harsh words and false statements.

                          Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                          Unleashing the Potential: A Study of the Effectiveness and Impact of YouTube Educational Content on Student Learning Outcomes

                          Arbaz Khan, Mubashir Saeed, Muhammad Naseem Anwar* and Lareb Kanwal

                          DOI: 10.37421/2165-7912.2023.13.538

                          YouTube has increasingly become entrenched in popular educational culture, presenting advanced prospects for learning through technological advancements. This research investigates why students rely on YouTube to fulfill their academic learning needs and consider it an authentic educational source. Additionally, the study examines the level students prefer YouTube learning over traditional physical learning methods and explores potential disparities in using YouTube’s educational content between male and female students. The research participants consisted of students from Kohat University of Science and Technology. Employing a quantitative research design, the study used surveys to gather data and inferential statistical analysis to test the proposed hypotheses. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software, utilizing a percentagebased approach and independent sample T-test to compare the variables of gender (male and female).

                          The study's findings indicate a positive response from participants regarding using YouTube as an educational learning tool. All students in the study reported utilizing YouTube for educational purposes. Furthermore, the statistical analysis revealed that the mean score for male students was 3.86, with a standard deviation of 0.31. In contrast, female students had a mean score of 3.91 with a standard deviation of 0.24. The calculated t-value was 1.15, with a corresponding p-value of 0.25. As the p-value exceeds the significance level of 0.05, no statistically significant difference was found between male and female students in their usage of educational content on YouTube, leading to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.

                          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                          Influence of Facebook and the User?s Perception of Emoticons during the Student Council Election: A Study of Student Community of Guwahati, Assam

                          Farha Yashmin Rohman

                          Social media is the most indistinctly used term for virtual reality revolutionizing the real world within a single click. It has become a crucial part of this contemporary living and its sophisticated lifestyles through social networking platforms. Among all the social networking sites, Facebook has emerged as the most popular platforms which allow the users to connect with their friends, family and acquaintances globally by sharing their posts in the form of text, images and video. Facebook has greatly affected the way today’s youth spend their leisure time. It has changed the way young people socialize and interact with each other. Specially, student leaders of the college union body use Facebook to connect with his/her fellow student’s community during the election. This study explores the usage of Facebook by the student leaders in influencing the voting behavior of college students in the elections and also analyzes the use of Facebook emoticon reactions by the students on the crucial post shared by the student leaders. The study employs the quantitative method to analyze data from the student community of Guwahati, Assam. The different narratives on the exemplary of student leaders, voting behavior based on the post shared and emoticons representing choices constitute the main finding of the study.

                          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                          Influence and Newsroom Routines: How News Workers Navigate an Evolving Business Model

                          William Schulte

                          The digital paradigm in newsrooms created a culture of resistance in news workers as corporate mandates and structural changes pressured journalists to privilege emerging revenue streams over professional norms. This study looks at the culture of news rooms to explore if routines, directed from management down to rank-and-file news works, have been normalized, embraced, or modified by journalists in a post-digital paradigm atmosphere. The answers lie in how directly these new routines serve the audience.

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