Journal of General Practice

ISSN: 2329-9126

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 2 (2021)

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Clinical Pharmacy: Editorial Note

    Indu Kohar

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    Health Care Systems: Editorial Note

    Satoru Haresaku

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    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Nursing and Health Care: Editorial Note

    Andrew Palmer

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    Psychology and Neuroscience: Editorial Note

    Andrew Palmer

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    Integrative Education for Neurobiology

    Christian Montag

    Christian Montag

    Volume 9, Issue 3 (2021)

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2


      Alois Lametschwandtner* ,X Faisal Ali

      The cardiovascular system is the first system to develop and to function. It supplies tissues and organs with oxygen, nutrients, hormones, immune competent cells and others and deliberates them from waste products and metabolic heat. Many attempts were made to gain insights into its three-dimensional structure by injecting air, liquids, waxes or hardening substances.

      Review Pages: 1 - 5

      Sialadenitis: Overview and Clinical Management

      Eren Tan* and Bing Mei Teh

      Background: Sialadenitis (inflammation of the salivary glands) is commonly caused by salivary calculi or infection, although less common causes such as neoplasia or systemic inflammatory conditions are important to consider and rule out.

      Objectives: This article provides an overview of the clinical presentation, workup and management of sialadenitis in the primary care setting, including common differential diagnoses and recommendations on when to refer for specialist care.

      Discussion: The three major salivary glands are the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. Management of acute sialadenitis involves antibiotics, massage, hydration, sialogogues and removing medications causing salivary stasis. Salivary calculi may require removal via transoral or endoscopic techniques, or gland excision. It is important to consider other causes including viral infections, juvenile recurrent parotitis, or neoplasia. Patients with chronic sialadenitis or where the diagnosis is unclear should be referred to an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialist.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

      Obesity and Anxiety in COVID-19 Disease: Possibilities of Prevention with Hygienic-Dietary Interventions

      Sivaropoulos Nektarios*, Kalogridakis Georgios, Aligizakis Eutyxios, and Gryllaki Nicoletta

      Purpose: Obesity, stress, poor adherence to dietary rules and lack of exercise during the necessary distancing measures to limit the spread
      adversely affect the course of COVID-19 disease, according to available medical literature. The purpose of our study is to detect how the above
      factors increase the severity of the disease and to suggest options for addressing this critical problem.
      Methods: We conducted a bibliography review of 50 articles, from studies related to obesity, stress, nutrition and COVID-19 Disease in
      the Databases (PubMed, Embassy, MEDLINE and Cochrane) and we selected, finally, 17 articles that matched and harmonized with our
      research question.
      Results: During lockdowns, Obesity and less disposition to perform physical exercise, increases vulnerability of COVID-19 patients, as
      produces and exacerbates anxiety, depression, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress, psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideations. The above
      findings are due in part to social determinants of human health status. The Mediterranean diet seems to outperform the Western diet but
      there is a need for more research. The recommendations that result from studies and benefit the patient with COVID-19 disease consist in the
      application of a hypo caloric diet that improves metabolic health and respiratory function with adequate intake of micronutrients and fiber,
      vitamins. Also necessary is the intake of trace elements such as Copper, Zinc which limits the reproduction of the virus and Omega-3 lipids.
      Moderate aerobic exercise is recommended, which decreases inflammatory cytokines and enhances the immunity response. Treating
      stress with relaxation techniques, behavioral psychotherapy and medication when needed is crucial.
      Conclusions: Drastic measures are needed to regulate the weight of citizens, with hygienic and dietary measures, by
      strengthening the idea of exercise and systematic aerobic activity, which will be extremely beneficial for the prevention of COVID-19
      and will benefit even more the most vulnerable groups-citizens with increased vulnerability due to multi-disease. Finally, it is necessary to
      preserve the mental health of citizens and to develop psychosocial interventions that will strengthen the mental and social health of the most
      vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Research Pages: 1 - 3

      Analysis of Quality of Clinical Letters Written in Psychiatry Community Clinic

      Jahan Zeb Khan*, Annette Kavanagh, Tayyaba Ishtiaq

      Aims: Clinical letters are vital for Clear and effective communication. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of clinical letters against audit
      standards in a community psychiatry clinic.
      Methods: In the first cycle of the audit we assessed quality of letters All letters (n=30) written by the author for patients who attended
      community mental health clinic between last two weeks of September 2015. The 2nd cycle of the audit we assessed letters (n=29) written
      in last two weeks of November 2015. The audit standards were developed as per recommendations of 21st European Congress of Psychiatry
      and relevant literature research.
      Results: The standard of clinical letters in the first cycle of audit varied significantly. The information related to bio data details (name, D.O.B.
      address, diagnosis and pharmacological treatment) was accurately stated 100% (30/30) in the letters. The All Day Living activities (ADLs) and
      standard length of letter were found in 66.7% (20/30) and 73.3% (22/30) of letters respectively. The quality of letters improved in the 2nd cycle
      of the audit as per audit standards.

      Review Pages: 1 - 5

      Evaluation and Management of Overactive Bladder: Current UK Practice

      Saddaf Hina*, Paraskeve Granitsiotis, Veenu Taygi, Ammar Alhasso

      Over Active Bladder (OAB) is a common problem affecting millions of men and women worldwide. It has far-reaching consequences
      on individual quality of life. No single treatment has been proven to be most effective, although many management options exist. Often a
      combination of options is required to successfully tackle OAB symptoms. In this review, we provide an overview of OAB, including risk
      factors for OAB; keys to diagnosis and therapeutic options including conservative and medical treatment, as well as management of refractory
      OAB; when to consider referral to a specialist; and resources for clinicians and patients. The aim of this review is to inform clinicians
      regarding OAB management in order to improve patient counseling and care in primary care setting.

      Volume 9, Issue 4 (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Chronic Illness: Non-Curable Health Illness

        Piotr Mikaa

        Chronic illness is a long term, non-curable health illness. Alzheimer disease and dementia. Arthritis. Asthma is few example of chronic illness. There is changing of lives, changing a person in respect to relate others, since there are additional stresses too. Complex causes, many risk factors, long latency periods (time between onset of the illness and feeling its effects), a long illness, functional impairment or disability is some characteristics of chronic illness. New theoretical approaches area unit required to capture the multiple processes that occur among two adaptations to illness. Here, the foremost aspects of the two adaptation/dyadic header models area unit reviewed and their limitations area unit made public. Moreover, a replacement theoretical approach to the dyadic-regulation processes that area unit vital for adaptation to illness is projected.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Transfusiology: Drug Transmission Process

        Xin Liu

        Transfusion drugs (or transfusiology) are that the branch of drugs that encompasses all aspects of the transfusion of blood and blood parts as well as aspects associated with hem vigilance. It includes problems with blood donation, immunohematology and alternative laboratory testing for transfusion-transmitted diseases, management and observation of clinical transfusion practices, patient blood management, therapeutic apheresis, somatic cell collections, cellular medical aid, and natural process. Laboratory management and understanding of state and federal laws associated with blood merchandise also are an oversized a part of the sphere. In most countries, Immunohematology and Transfusion drugs specialists offer knowledgeable opinion on huge transfusions, difficult/incompatible transfusions and rational use of specialized blood product medical aid like irradiated blood leak depleted/washed blood merchandise.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Prescription: Recommendation of Drug

        Jim Reid

        A prescription, typically abbreviated ├ó?? or Rx, could be a formal communication from a doc or different registered health-care skilled to a pill roller, authorizing them to dispense a particular prescription for a particular patient. traditionally, it had been a physician's instruction to an health professional listing the materials to be combined into a treatment—the image (a upper-case letter R, crossed to point abbreviation) comes from the primary word of a medieval prescription, Latin: Respire (Take thou), that gave the list of the materials to be combined.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Physiology: Working Of BodyÔ??s Material

        Mehmet Doganay

        Physiology is that the study of however the material body works. It describes the chemistry and physics behind basic body functions, from however molecules behave in cells to however systems of organs work along. It helps us to perceive what happens during a healthy body in existence and what goes wrong once somebody gets sick. Most of physiology depends on basic analysis studies administered during a laboratory. Some physiologists study single proteins or cells, whereas others may do analysis on however cells move to make tissues, organs, and systems among the body.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Dental Medicine: For Tooth Treatment

        Rodolfo de-Paula Vieira

        There are a unit variety of various medicine your dental practitioner could inflict, reckoning on your condition. Some medications area unit prescribed to fight bound oral diseases, to forestall or treat infections, or to regulate pain and relieve anxiety. Here you may notice an outline of the foremost usually used medicine in care. The dose of the medicine and directions on the way to take them can disagree from patient to patient, reckoning on what the drug is being employed for, patient's age, weight, and different concerns. Even though your dental practitioner can give info to you regarding any medication they will offer to you, certify you totally perceive the explanations for taking a drugs and inform your dental practitioner of any health conditions you have got. Local physiological condition, anesthesia, laughing gas, or blood vessel sedation is often employed in dental procedures to assist management pain and anxiety.

        Volume 9, Issue 5 (2021)

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Health Center: Immune Booster Community

          Geoffrey Mayoka Kituyi

          A healthcare center, clinic, or community clinic is one among a network of clinics staffed by a gaggle of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area. Typical services covered are family medicine and care, but some clinics have expanded greatly and may include general medicine, pediatric, women’s care, birth control, pharmacy, optometry, laboratory testing, and more. In countries with universal healthcare, most of the people use the healthcare centers. In countries without universal healthcare, the clients include the uninsured, underinsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is out there .In the Central and East Europe, bigger health centers are commonly called policlinics.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Specific Immunotherapy against Allergens

          Thomas TH Wan

          Allergen immunotherapy, also referred to as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, may be a medical treatment for environmental allergies, like insect bites, and asthma. Immunotherapy involves exposing people to larger and bigger amounts of allergen in an effort to vary the immune system's response. Meta-analyses have found that injections of allergens under the skin are effective within the treatment in rhinitis in children and in asthma. The advantages may last for years after treatment is stopped. It’s generally safe and effective for rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic sorts of asthma, and stinging insects. The evidence also supports the utilization of sublingual immunotherapy against rhinitis and asthma, but it's less strong. During this form the allergen is given under the tongue and other people often prefer it to injections. Immunotherapy isn't recommended as a stand-alone treatment for asthma. Side effects during sublingual immunotherapy treatment are usually local and mild and may often be eliminated by adjusting the dosage.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Pulmonary Endarterectomy: An Arteries Thrombus

          Warren S Eller

          In thoracic surgery, a Pulmonary Thrombo Endarterectomy (PTE), also mentioned as Pulmonary End Arterectomy (PEA) is an operation that removes organized clotted blood (thrombus) from the pulmonary arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. Surgery is indicated in patients with arterial pulmonalis emboli that are surgically accessible. Thrombi are usually the explanation for recurrent/chronic pulmonary emboli and thus of Chronic Thrombo Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH). PTE is that the only definitive treatment option available for CTEPH. Thanks to the character of the procedure, patients with significant hemodynamic or ventilation complications or impairments could also be unable to undergo PTE.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Concerning Disorder of Opioid

          Irene Litvan

          Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) may be a substance use disorder concerning the utilization of an opioid. Any such disorder causes significant impairment or distress. Signs of the disorder include a robust desire to use opioids, increased tolerance to opioids, difficulty fulfilling obligations, trouble reducing use, and withdrawal symptoms with discontinuation. Opioid withdrawal symptoms may include nausea, muscle aches, diarrhea, trouble sleeping, agitation, and a coffee mood. Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder. Complications may include opioid overdose, suicide, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and problems at college, work, or home. Opioids include substances like heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. Within the us, a majority of heroin users begin by using prescription opioids, which will even be bought illegally. Risk factors for misuse include a history of substance use, substance use among family and friends, mental disease , low socioeconomic status, and race.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Patient Blood Management: An Emerging Process

          Jim Reid

          Patient Blood Management (PBM) may be a multidisciplinary, evidence-based approach to optimizing the care of patients who might need a transfusion. Patient blood management represents a world initiative in best practice for transfusion medicine that's supported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Establishing a patient blood management strategy requires leadership and support from national and regional government policymakers and managers, healthcare professionals, and patients. Patients are an important a part of planning, implementing and evaluating PBM programs. Samples of the way to implement PBM are available from Australia, the UK, and therefore the USA. Perhaps the only most vital reason for implementing patient blood management is got to improve patient outcomes. Published in 2017, a retrospective observational study in four major adult tertiary-care hospitals concluded that implementation of a singular, jurisdiction-wide PBM program was related to improved patient outcomes, reduced blood product utilization, and product-related cost savings. Better outcomes are achieved with the reduction or avoidance of exposure to allogeneic blood.
          Numerous clinical

          Volume 9, Issue 6 (2021)

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

            A Brief of Medical Practitioner Service

            Irene Litvan*

            General medical services (GMS) is that the vary of health care that's provided by General Practitioners (GPs or family doctors) as a part of the National Health Service within the UK. The NHS specifies what GPs, as freelance contractors, square measure expected to try and do and provides funding for this go through arrangements referred to as the final Medical Services Contract. Today, the GMS contract could be a United Kingdom-wide arrangement with minor variations negotiated by every of the four UK health departments. In 2013, hour of practices had a GMS contract as their principle contract. The contract has sub-sections and not all square measure obligatory. The opposite varieties of contract square measure the non-public Medical Services or various supplier Medical Services contracts. They’re designed to encourage practices to supply services over and on top of the quality contract. Various supplier Medical Services contracts, in contrast to the opposite contracts, are often awarded to anyone, not simply GPs; do not specify customary essential services, and square measure time restricted. a replacement contract is issued every year. Discovered by Leonard Noon and John Freeman in 1911, allergen immunotherapy is that the only medicine known to tackle not only the symptoms but also the causes of respiratory allergies. An in depth diagnosis is important to spot the allergens involved.

            Editorials Pages: 1 - 2

            Audit in Clinical Trials for Method Improvisation

            Andrew S. Levey*

            Clinical audit could be a method that has been outlined as a top quality improvement method that seeks to enhance patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against specific criteria and therefore the implementation of amendment. The key part of clinical audit is that performance is review (or audit) to confirm that what you must be doing is being done, and if not it provides a framework to modify enhancements to be created. It had been formally incorporated within the care systems of variety of states, for example in 1993 into the United Kingdom's National Health Service (NHS), and within the NHS there's a clinical audit steerage cluster within the Clinical audit comes below the clinical governance umbrella and forms a part of the system for raising the quality of clinical apply. Following the investigation, the primary medical licensing examination has been introduced, and solely physicians World Health Organization pass the communication will apply medication. In line with Ibnu Al-Ukhuwwa in his book, Ma'alim al-Qurba: fi Ahkam al-Hisba, "If the patient is cured, the medical man is paid. If the patient dies, his oldsters attend the chief doctor, they gift the prescriptions written by the medical man. If the chief doctor judges that the medical man has performed his job absolutely while not negligence, he tells the fogeys that death was natural; if he judges otherwise, he tells them: take the blood cash of your relative from the physician; he killed him by his unhealthy performance and negligence. During this honourable method they were positive that medication is practiced by experienced, well-trained persons."

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

            Activation and Suppression of the Immune System

            Roterman Irena*

            Immunotherapy or biological medical care is that the treatment of sickness by activating or suppressing the system. Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify associate reaction area unit classified as activation immunotherapies, whereas immunotherapies that cut back or suppress area unit classified as suppression immunotherapies. In recent years, when therapy has become of nice interest to researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical firms, notably in its promise to treat numerous styles of cancer. Immunomodulatory medicine presently have unknown effects on the body. Cell-based immunotherapies area unit effective for a few cancers. Immune effector cells like lymphocytes, macrophages, nerve fibre cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work along to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of growth cells. Vaccine-induced immunity to Covid-19 depends totally on associate immunomodulatory lymph cell response. Therapies like white corpuscle colony-stimulating issue (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from microorganism area unit licenced for medical use. Others as well as IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, numerous chemokines, artificial C phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans area unit concerned in clinical and diagnosing studies.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

            Elimination of Toxic Compound from Blood Stream

            Kjell Vegard F. Weyde*

             Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is that the physiological or medicative removal of poisonous substances from a living organism, as well as the bod, that is principally allotted by the liver. In addition, it will seek advice from the amount of withdrawal throughout that Associate in nursing organism returns to physiological condition once long use of Associate in nursing habit-forming substance. In drugs, detoxification will be achieved by remotion of poison bodily function and therefore the use of antidotes furthermore as techniques like qualitative analysis and (in a restricted variety of cases) chelation medical aid. Many alternative drugs practitioners promote varied sorts of detoxification like detoxification diets. Scientists have represented these as a "waste of your time and money". Sense regarding Science, a UK-based public trust, determined that the majority such dietary "detox" claims lack any supporting proof. The liver and excretory organ are naturally capable of hospital ward, as are animate thing (specifically, inner membrane of mitochondria or within the endoplasmic reticulum of cells) proteins like CYP enzyme. In cases of failure, the action of the excretory organs is mimicked by dialysis; excretory organ and liver transplants also are used for kidney and liver failure, severally.

            Editorials Pages: 1 - 2

            Acute Care of Patients in Causality Department

            Benjamin W. Friedman*

            An emergency department (ED), conjointly referred to as AN accident & emergency department (A&E), ER (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, may be a medical treatment facility specializing in medical specialty, the acute care of patients WHO gift while not previous appointment; either by their own suggests that or by that of AN motorcar. The emergency department is sometimes found in an exceedingly hospital or different medical care center. Due to the unplanned nature of patient group action, the department should give initial treatment for a broad spectrum of sicknesses and injuries, a number of which can be grave and need immediate attention. In some countries, emergency departments became necessary entry points for those while not different suggests that of access to medical aid. The emergency departments of most hospitals operate twenty four hours on a daily basis, though staffing levels is also varied in an endeavor to replicate patient volume. Accident services were already provided by compensation plans, railway firms, and municipalities in Europe and also the us by the late mid-nineteenth century, however the primary specialized trauma care center within the world was opened in 1911 within the us at the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, and was developed by sawbones Arnold Griswold throughout the Nineteen Thirties. Griswold conjointly equipped police and hearth vehicles with medical provides and trained officers to provide emergency care whereas on the way to the hospital.

            Volume 9, Issue 7 (2021)

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