Journal of General Practice

ISSN: 2329-9126

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Factors Associated towards Mothers Practicing Acceptable Diet of 6-23 Months Old Children in Gimbichu Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    Techane Sisay Tuji and Addisu Dabi Wake

    The infant young child feeding model of World Health Organization (WHO) suggests introducing complementary food for new born babies starting at the sixth month. Breast milk has to be round out by any other foods to fill the nutrient demand of the child. These complementary foods are required to fill the calorie, protein, and micronutrient gap between the total nutritional need of the child and the amount contributed by the breast milk. Sufficient complementary food has to be diversified and prepared from different food groups in a solid or semisolid form and needs to be commenced timely from the sixth month of the child’s age by implementing the quality of foods consumed as the child get older.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

    Factors Associated Towards Mothers Practicing Acceptable Diet of 6?23 Months Old Children in Gimbichu Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Tuji Techane Sisay* and Addisu Dabi Wake

    Background: Accurate complementary feeding plays a great role in preventing childhood under nutrition, infectious disease, and mortalities. The available data suggests that the rates for Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) are low across all regions worldwide. For instance, rates are four in every ten (41.1%), in East Asia and Pacific and lowest in West and Central Africa at 8.6%, East and South Africa at 9.8%, and South Asia at 13.0%. However, Factors Associated towards Mothers Practicing Acceptable Diet of 6–23 Months Old Children living in study area is unknown. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess factors associated towards mothers practicing acceptable diet of 6-23 months old children in Gimbichu Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Materials and methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 782 mothers/caregivers paired with infants and children aged 6 to 23 months with a response rate of 97.1%, from March 12 to April 08, 2019. One-stage cluster sampling technique was employed. A structured pretested tool was used to collect the data. The binary logistic regression analysis was applied for MAD. All variables were transformed to multivariable logistic regression model irrespective of any transforming criteria to control the effects of confounder/s and to identify statistically significant variables. Finally, the variables which had independent correlations with MAD were identified on the basis of Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and a p-value less than 0.05with 95%CI were claimed as statistically significant.

    Results: The proportion of acceptable diet was 30.1% (26.7, 33.1%). Mothers’ secondary and above educational level (AOR= 2.78, 95%CI (1.12, 6.89), mothers attending PNC (AOR=6.45, 95%CI (1.71, 13.33), mothers’ who had good knowledge in infant feeding AOR=8.46, 95%CI; (3.81,11.80), mothers’ involvement on feeding AOR=5.10, 95%CI; (2.47,10.52), mothers whose attending ANC (AOR=3.86, 95% CI (1.99,14.94), wealth index ranked at richest category (AOR=3.24 ,95%CI (1.24,8.45) and husbands’ involvement (AOR=5.75, 95% CI (1.18,12.79) were positively associated with MAD.

    Conclusion: The proportion of MAD practice by infants and children of the study area was low. Mothers’ secondary and above educational level, mothers’ attending PNC, mothers’ who had good knowledge on infant feeding, mothers’ involvement on feeding, mothers whose attending ANC, wealth index and husband’s involvement were factors positively associated with MAD. Assuring mother’s involvement on decision making and promoting husband involvement on infant and child feeding are strongly recommended to mitigate the problem.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Stillbirth and its Association with Early Rupture of Membranes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Telksew Yelma Yezengaw*, Tariku Dingeta Amante, Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta and Biruk Shalmeno Tusa

      Background: Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to quality antenatal and delivery care services. Many previous pocket studies were conducted to assess the magnitude of stillbirth and its association with premature rupture of membrane. However, the level of stillbirth, as well as its relationship with Premature Rupture of Membrane (PROM) varies from study to study. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of stillbirth and its association with the early rupture of membranes in sub-Saharan Africa. Search strategy: Electronic databases such as PubMed Central PMC, Cochrane library, Medline via Virtual Health Library (VHL), HINARI (Health Inter Network Access to Research Initiative) portal, and Google scholar were used for searching for original articles. Selection criteria: All Published and unpublished observational studies (prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies) that deal with stillbirth and their association with early rupture of membranes in sub-Saharan African women were included. Data collection and analysis: The extracted data analyses were done using STATA (version.16.0) software. Texts, figures, and tables were used to describe the included original articles. The heterogeneity of the studies was checked by I-squared statistics. A Random-effects method was applied to estimate the pooled prevalence of stillbirth and the effect size of the early rupture of membranes in sub-Saharan Africa. Subgroup analysis was performed based on region (East, West, Central, and Southern Africa) and year of study (before 2015 and after 2015). A funnel plot and Egger’s regression test was used to see publication bias. Main result: Pooled prevalence of stillbirth in sub-Saharan Africa was 6.4% (95% CI: 5.5-7.3). In sub-group analysis, Southern African regions had a higher stillbirth prevalence and the western African regions had a lower than East and Southern Africa. The prevalence of stillbirth in the region is increased from 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2–6.0) before 2015 to 7.1%(95% CI: 5.8-8.3) after 2015. The pooled odds ratio results from seven studies showed the non-significant effect of early rupture of membrane on stillbirth (pooled OR=1.54, 95% CI: 0.26-2.82). According to the regression test (Egger test), there was no small study effects or publication bias (P=0.108). Conclusions: The pooled prevalence of stillbirth in sub-Saharan Africa was relativity high. The analysis establishes the minimal effects of early rupture of membrane on stillbirth. Therefore, we recommend that strengthening the testing intervention is crucial to reduce the still relatively high stillbirths. Funding: No fund was received for this work.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Diagnostic Strategies are the Specific Tools

        H. Innesu

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        Prognosis is the identity of the character and reason of a sure
        phenomenon. Analysis is used in lots of exclusive disciplines, with
        versions in the use of good judgment, analytics, and revel in, to
        determine "motive and impact". In systems engineering and computer
        science, it's far usually used to determine the reasons of symptoms,
        mitigations, and answers. Analysis is frequently tough, because many
        signs and symptoms and symptoms are nonspecific, and can best be
        undertaken with the aid of registered and licensed health experts. As
        an instance, redness of the skin (erythema), through itself, is an
        indication of many disorders and for this reason does not tell the
        healthcare expert what is incorrect. Accordingly differential analysis,
        wherein several feasible reasons are compared and contrasted, need
        to be achieved. This entails the correlation of numerous pieces of
        records observed by using the popularity and differentiation of
        patterns. Occasionally the procedure is made clean by a sign or
        symptom (or a set of several) this is pathognomonic. The method of
        differential analysis is based totally on locating as many candidate
        illnesses or situations as viable which can in all likelihood purpose
        the symptoms or symptoms, observed via a process of removal or as
        a minimum of rendering the entries greater or much less likely by
        means of similarly medical assessments and other processing,
        aiming to attain the point wherein handiest one candidate disorder or
        condition stays as likely. The final end result may additionally remain
        a list of feasible conditions, ranked so as of possibility or severity.
        One of these lists is frequently generated by means of computeraided
        analysis systems. In a pattern reputation approach the
        company makes use of experience to apprehend a sample of
        scientific characteristics. Its miles specifically primarily based on sure
        symptoms or signs being related to certain diseases or situations,
        now not necessarily related to the extra cognitive processing
        concerned in a differential analysis. This will be the number one
        method utilized in cases where illnesses are "apparent", or the
        issuer's revel in may additionally allow her or him to understand the
        circumstance quick. Theoretically, a certain pattern of symptoms or
        signs and symptoms can be at once associated with a sure therapy,
        even without an exact decision concerning what's the actual disease,
        but this type of compromise contains a full-size hazard of missing a
        analysis which simply has a distinctive therapy so it can be
        restrained to instances wherein no diagnosis may be made. Over
        diagnosis is the diagnosis of "ailment" so one can by no means
        purpose signs and symptoms or loss of life at some stage in a
        affected person's lifetime. It’s far a problem as it turns people into
        patients unnecessarily and due to the fact it could cause monetary
        waste (overutilization) and remedies which could reason harm. Over
        diagnosis takes place whilst a disorder is diagnosed effectively, but
        the analysis is inappropriate. A correct prognosis can be beside the
        point because treatment for the sickness is not to be had, now not
        needed, or now not desired. Clinical diagnosis or the actual
        procedure of creating a analysis is a cognitive manner. A clinician
        uses several assets of information and puts the portions of the puzzle
        together to make a diagnostic impression. The preliminary diagnostic
        affect can be a broad time period describing a category of sicknesses
        in place of a selected ailment or circumstance. After the initial
        diagnostic influence, the clinician obtains comply with up
        assessments and processes to get extra facts to assist or reject the
        authentic prognosis and could try to narrow it all the way down to an
        extra unique stage. Diagnostic strategies are the specific tools that
        the clinicians use to slender the diagnostic opportunities.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Anesthesiologists are Predicted to Have Knowledge of Human Physiology

        Bingxi Zhao

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        Anesthesiology is the medical uniqueness involved with the overall
        perioperative care of patients earlier than, throughout and after
        surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine,
        important emergency medicinal drug, and pain medicinal drug. A
        medical doctor specialized in anesthesiology is known as an
        anesthesiologist. There are special approaches of referring to the
        sector of anesthesiology and physicians who specialize in it relying
        on the area of the world. As a strong point, the core element of
        anesthesiology is the exercise of anesthesia. This comprises using
        diverse injected and inhaled medications to provide a loss of
        sensation in patients, making it feasible to carry out approaches that
        might in any other case motive intolerable ache or be technically
        unfeasible. Safe anesthesia calls for in-depth understanding of
        diverse invasive and non-invasive organ aid techniques which might
        be used to control sufferers' critical capabilities while under the
        results of anesthetic pills; those include superior airway management,
        invasive and non-invasive hemodynamic video display units, and
        diagnostic strategies like ultrasonography and echocardiography.
        Anesthesiologists are predicted to have professional knowledge of
        human physiology, medical physics, and pharmacology, as well as a
        large general understanding of all regions of medication and surgical
        procedure in every age of patients, with a particular cognizance on
        the ones components which might also effect on a surgery. In latest
        decades, the function of anesthesiologists has broadened to attention
        now not just on administering anesthetics all through the surgical
        operation itself, however additionally ahead so as to pick out highrisk
        patients and optimize their fitness, in the course of the process to
        keep situational awareness of the surgical procedure itself to be able
        to improve protection, in addition to afterwards so as to sell and
        enhance healing. This has been termed "perioperative medicine". In
        the 19th century, the beginnings of preferred anesthesia began with
        the advent of ether in Boston and chloroform inside the UK to bring
        about a state of unawareness and unresponsiveness to the ache of
        surgical insult. With the isolation of cocaine in the mid-nineteenth
        century there started out to be tablets available for neighborhood
        anesthesia. Through the stop of the nineteenth century, the quantity
        of pharmacological alternatives multiplied and that they commenced
        to be implemented both peripherally and neuraxially. Then within the
        20th century neuromuscular blockade allowed the anesthesiologist to
        completely paralyze the affected person pharmacologically and
        breathe for him or her through mechanical air flow. With those new
        tools, the anesthetist may want to intensively manage the affected
        person's body structure bringing about vital care remedy, which, in
        many nations, is in detail related to anesthesiology. Anesthesiologists
        have key roles in primary trauma, resuscitation, airway management,
        and worrying for other patients outside the operating theatre who
        have critical emergencies that pose an instantaneous danger to
        existence, again reflecting transferable competencies from the
        operating room, and allowing continuity of care whilst patients are
        brought for surgical operation or in depth care. This branch of
        anesthesiology is together termed critical emergency remedy, and
        includes provision of pre-medical institution emergency medication
        as a part of air ambulance or emergency scientific offerings, as well
        as safe switch of significantly ill sufferers from one part of a clinic to
        another, or among healthcare facilities. Anesthesiologists typically
        shape part of cardiac arrest groups and speedy reaction teams
        composed of senior clinicians that are without delay summoned while
        a affected person's coronary heart stops beating, or after they
        deteriorate acutely whilst in sanatorium. Exclusive models for
        emergency medicine exist internationally: inside the Anglo-American
        version, the patient is hastily transported by means of non-health
        practitioner vendors to definitive care along with an emergency
        department in a health center. Conversely, the Franco-German
        technique has a health practitioner, often an anesthesiologist, come
        to the patient and offer stabilizing care inside the area. The patient is
        then triaged at once to the appropriate branch of a health facility.

        Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

        Neuroscience is the Medical Study of Apprehensive Machine

        Lei Wang

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        Neuroscience is the medical study of the apprehensive machine.
        It’s far a multidisciplinary technological know-how that combines
        physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology,
        cytology, pc technology and mathematical modeling to apprehend the
        fundamental and emergent residences of neurons, glia and neural
        circuits. The expertise of the biological basis of gaining knowledge of,
        reminiscence, conduct, belief, and attention has been defined by
        using Eric Kandel because the "remaining assignment" of the
        biological sciences. The view that the heart became the supply of
        awareness becomes no longer challenged till the time of the Greek
        physician Hippocrates. He believed that the mind turned into now not
        simplest concerned with sensation—due to the fact that most
        specialized organs (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue) are located in the head
        close to the mind—however becomes also the seat of intelligence.
        Plato additionally speculated that the mind become the seat of the
        rational a part of the soul. Aristotle, but, believed the coronary heart
        become the middle of intelligence and that the mind regulated the
        quantity of warmth from the coronary heart. This view became
        normally normal until the Roman health practitioner Galen, a follower
        of Hippocrates and doctor to Roman gladiators, determined that his
        sufferers misplaced their mental faculties after they had sustained
        harm to their brains. In parallel with these studies, paintings with
        brain-damaged sufferers by Paul Broca cautioned that positive
        regions of the mind had been answerable for certain functions. On
        the time, Broca's findings had been visible as a affirmation of Franz
        Joseph Gall's idea that language turned into localized and that sure
        mental functions have been localized in unique areas of the cerebral
        cortex. The localization of function hypothesis became supported via
        observations of epileptic patients performed by way of John Hugh
        lings Jackson, who effectively inferred the organization of the motor
        cortex by looking the progression of seizures via the frame. Carl
        Wernicke further advanced the concept of the specialization of
        particular brain systems in language comprehension and production.
        present day studies through neuroimaging techniques, still makes
        use of the Bradman cerebral cytoarchitectonic map (relating to study
        of cell structure) anatomical definitions from this period in continuing
        to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated inside the
        execution of unique obligations. The medical take a look at of the
        anxious machine extended considerably for the duration of the
        second one half of the 20 th century, basically due to advances in
        molecular biology, electrophysiology, and computational
        neuroscience. This has allowed neuroscientists to have a look at the
        anxious gadget in all its factors: how it's far structured, the way it
        works, how it develops, the way it malfunctions, and how it could be
        modified. Neuroscience is also allied with the social and behavioral
        sciences, as well as with nascent interdisciplinary fields. Examples of
        such alliances encompass neuroeconomics, choice theory, social
        neuroscience, and neuromarketing to address complex questions
        about interactions of the brain with its environment. A observe into
        purchaser responses for instance uses EEG to research neural
        correlates related to narrative transportation into testimonies
        approximately strength performance. As an example, it has emerged
        as viable to apprehend, in a good deal detail, the complicated
        strategies occurring within a single neuron. Neurons are cells
        specialized for conversation. They’re capable of talk with neurons and
        other mobile kinds through specialized junctions called synapses, at
        which electrical or electrochemical indicators can be transmitted from
        one mobile to some other. Many neurons extrude an extended skinny
        filament of axoplasm known as an axon, which may expand to distant
        parts of the body and are able to swiftly wearing electric alerts,
        influencing the activity of other neurons, muscle tissues, or glands at
        their termination points. An anxious device emerges from the
        assemblage of neurons which might be connected to each other.

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