Clinical Infectious Diseases: Open Access

ISSN: 2684-4559

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 4 (2021)

    Review Pages: 1 - 6

    Contribution of Animal Studies to the Understanding of Infectious Diseases

    Daniel M. Musher*, Reuben J. Arasaratnam

    Experiments in animals have played an integral role in furthering basic understanding of the pathophysiology, host immune response, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious
    diseases. However, competing demands of modern-day clinical training and increasingly stringent requirements to perform animal research have reduced the exposure
    of infectious disease physicians to animal studies. For practitioners of infectious diseases and, especially, for contemporary trainees in infectious diseases, it is important
    to appreciate this historical body of work and its impact on current clinical practice. In this article, we provide an overview of some major contributions of animal studies
    to the field of infectious diseases. Areas covered include transmission of infection, elucidation of innate and adaptive host immune responses, testing of antimicrobials,
    pathogenesis and treatment of endocarditis, osteomyelitis, intra-abdominal and urinary tract infection, treatment of infection associated with a foreign body or in the presence
    of neutropenia, and toxin-mediated disease.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease

    Balakumaran Manickam Dakshinamoorthi*

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive bacterial infections
    globally. A notable feature of the meningococcus is its fluid epidemiology.
    There are substantial cyclical fluctuations in meningococcal disease
    incidence and the occurrence of out-breaks and epidemics. Furthermore,
    meningococcal incidence and serogroup distribution are highly regional.
    The purpose of this review is to discuss the current global epidemiology
    of meningococcal disease in major areas of the world, including recent
    changes. As most information derives from disease surveillance, apparent
    differences in epidemiology can only be understood in the context of the
    underlying surveillance systems. A major focus of this review is information
    on regional meningococcal disease incidence and the serogroup distribution
    of meningococcal strains causing invasive disease, key issues for vaccine
    formulation and immunization policy.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    Tetanus Toxoid Immunization

    Marina Nosik*

    Neonatal tetanus was estimated to be responsible for over half a
    million neonatal deaths globally in early 1980s. Estimates suggest that
    these deaths have been reduced, but that still some 130 000 babies died
    around the year 2004 from this very preventable disease. Despite this
    impressive progress, two global elimination target dates have been missed,
    most recently in 2005, to a rate of ‘less than 1 case per 1000 livebirths in
    every district of every country’. Most of the remaining deaths from neonatal
    tetanus occur in a limited number of large countries with low coverage of
    facility births and tetanus toxoid immunization, such as India and Nigeria.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Ebola- Transmission, Signs and Symptoms

    Marina Nosik*

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is an uncommon and lethal illness in
    individuals and nonhuman primates. The infections that cause EVD are
    found basically in sub-Saharan Africa. Individuals can get EVD through
    direct contact with a contaminated creature (bat or nonhuman primate) or a
    debilitated or dead individual tainted with Ebola infection.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    Diphtheria- Symptoms, Causes and Complications

    Balakumaran Manickam Dakshinamoorthi*

    Diphtheria is a serious bacterial disease that typically influences the
    mucous films of your nose and throat. Diphtheria is incredibly uncommon
    in the United States and other created nations, because of inescapable
    immunization against the sickness.
    Diphtheria can be treated with meds. Be that as it may, in cutting edge
    stages, diphtheria can harm your heart, kidneys and sensory system.
    Indeed, even with treatment, diphtheria can be dangerous, particularly in

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