Clinical Infectious Diseases: Open Access

ISSN: 2684-4559

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 7, Issue 4 (2023)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

    Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Telfairia occidentalis as an Adjunct in the Treatment of Malaria with Artemether/ Lumefantrine Regimen in Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria

    Ngoran Shantine Berinyuy, Theresia Njuabe Metoh*, Chi Tchampo Fru, Philip FonGah, Achille Chi Djouosseu, Mabel Kaghou Mbifung, Nina Ghislaine Yensii, Ndi Betrand Bongjo and Carl Moses Mbofung

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.216

    Malaria, one of the deadliest diseases in Africa, continues to be a public health problem in Cameroon. Malaria management involves the use of conventional drugs such as Artemether/Lumefantrine (AL), the first drug of choice in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Telfairia occidentalis (pumpkin leaves), a vegetable plant consumed in most parts of the world and with potential antimalarial properties, could serve as an adjunct therapy in malaria management. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of Telfairia occidentalis on the hemoglobin level, parasitaemia clearance rate and the liver enzymes activity in children below 16 years. In an open labeled randomized clinical trial, enrolled participants with P. falciparum malaria and hemoglobin level >5 g/dL were selected to receive either AL+placebo or AL and raw (or boiled) capsulated Telfairia occidentalis (2 × 1 gram) for 3 days and followed up for 7 days. Hemoglobin levels and the activity of liver enzymes were measured and data analysed using graph pad prism version 8.0.1. The overall findings showed that The hemoglobin level and hematocrit increased after AL treatment but a significant increase was seen in the AL+raw pumpkin treated group with mean Hb levels ranging from 10.30 g/dL± 0.57 g/dL on D0 to 12.43 g/dL ± 0.57 g/dL on D7, p ≤ 0.05. Parasite density decreased in both groups but significantly decreased in the group receiving AL+RP with a mean parasite density decrease from 3412.5 P/μl ± 1044 P/μl on D0 to 0.000 P/μL on D7. Liver enzymes activity was seen to significantly decreased in the AL+RP group with mean AST and ALT ranging from 40.53 IU/L ± 3.739 IU/L and 48.71 IU/L ± 5.385 IU/L at baseline to 9.075 IU/L ± 2.131 IU/L and 8.925 IU/L ± 2.105 IU/L on D7 respectively. Conclusively, Telfairia occidentalis has an impact on parasite density, the hemoglobin level and liver enzyme modulatory effects and works in synergy with AL for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    COVID-19 Variants and their Impact on Vaccine Efficacy

    Watanabe Kenji*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.217

    Since the initial outbreak of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has undergone mutations, leading to the emergence of new variants. Some of these variants have raised concerns due to changes in their spike protein, which plays a crucial role in viral entry into human cells. Understanding the impact of these variants on vaccine efficacy is crucial for global vaccination efforts. Several SARS-CoV-2 variants have been classified as "Variants of Concern" by health authorities worldwide. First identified in the United Kingdom, this variant is associated with increased transmissibility. Originating in South Africa, it has mutations that affect vaccine efficacy and antibody neutralization. First detected in Brazil, it shares some mutations with the Beta variant and is associated with increased transmissibility. Initially found in India, it exhibits increased transmissibility and has led to outbreaks in various countries. Identified in South Africa, this variant has a large number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns about vaccine escape and increased transmissibility.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Diagnostic Advances in Identifying Infectious Pathogens

    Ezzati Satter*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.218

    Infectious diseases continue to pose a significant global health challenge. Timely and accurate diagnosis is critical for patient care, the prevention of disease transmission and the development of effective treatment and vaccination strategies. Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress in diagnostic techniques, enabling healthcare professionals to identify infectious pathogens with greater precision and speed. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR have revolutionized molecular diagnostics. These techniques allow for the detection of specific DNA or RNA sequences in pathogens. Real-time PCR provides rapid and quantitative results, making it invaluable for diagnosing a wide range of infectious diseases, including viral, bacterial and fungal infections. Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in an era of genomics-based diagnostics. NGS can sequence entire pathogen genomes quickly and at relatively low cost. This capability not only aids in pathogen identification but also helps track the evolution and spread of infectious agents. Mass spectrometry has gained popularity as a diagnostic tool for identifying pathogens.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Review of Recent Trends

    Anthony Philip*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.219

    Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are infections that have recently appeared within a population or are rapidly increasing in incidence and geographic range. These diseases can originate from various sources, including zoonotic transmission, mutation of existing pathogens and changes in environmental factors. The study of EIDs is crucial for identifying and mitigating potential threats to public health. Many EIDs have zoonotic origins, meaning they jump from animals to humans. The COVID-19 pandemic is a stark example, with the SARS-CoV-2 virus likely originating in bats and possibly passing through an intermediate host before infecting humans. Other notable examples include Ebola, HIV and the H1N1 influenza virus. Deforestation, urbanization and increased human-animal interaction contribute to the risk of zoonotic spillover events. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention in the Modern Era

    Mudge Elizabeth*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.220

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, weakening the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by severe immunosuppression. HIV/AIDS has claimed millions of lives globally, but advances in science and medicine have led to groundbreaking developments in its management. One of the most significant breakthroughs in HIV/AIDS treatment is the development of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). ART consists of a combination of drugs that target different stages of the HIV lifecycle, preventing the virus from replicating and reducing its presence in the body. This treatment has transformed HIV/AIDS from a terminal illness into a manageable, chronic condition.

    Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

    Infection Control in Healthcare Settings: Lessons from the Pandemic

    Sawicki Tomasz*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.221

    Infection control is the practice of preventing and managing the spread of infections within healthcare facilities. It encompasses a range of measures, from hand hygiene and personal protective equipment use to isolation protocols and environmental cleaning. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought infection control to the forefront of healthcare, revealing both strengths and areas for improvement. Hand hygiene has long been recognized as a fundamental component of infection control. The pandemic reinforced the importance of thorough handwashing and the use of hand sanitizers. Healthcare workers and the public alike have become more vigilant about hand hygiene as a result of the pandemic. PPE, including masks, gloves, gowns and face shields, became essential in protecting healthcare workers and patients during the pandemic. Ensuring the proper use and availability of PPE is crucial for infection control, not only during pandemics but in routine healthcare as well. The pandemic highlighted the potential for airborne transmission of infectious diseases. Adequate ventilation, air filtration and the use of airborne precautions are now recognized as critical infection control measures, particularly in settings where aerosol-generating procedures are performed.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Management of Hospital-acquired Infections: Best Practices

    Dudkaitė Gintautas*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.222

    HAIs are infections that patients acquire while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. These infections can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. HAIs are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs and longer hospital stays. Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection prevention in healthcare settings. Healthcare workers should perform hand hygiene with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers before and after patient contact. Proper hand hygiene breaks the chain of infection transmission and reduces the risk of HAIs. Robust infection prevention protocols are critical for reducing HAIs. These protocols include the proper use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), isolation precautions and adherence to aseptic techniques during invasive procedures. Comprehensive infection control measures should be implemented in all healthcare facilities.

    Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

    The Role of Vaccination in Preventing Infectious Diseases

    Senapati Dulal*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.223

    Vaccination, also known as immunization, is the process of introducing a vaccine into the body to stimulate the immune system's production of antibodies. These antibodies provide immunity against specific pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, without causing the disease itself. The history of vaccination is marked by groundbreaking discoveries and has been instrumental in improving public health. Vaccines work by mimicking the presence of a pathogen in the body, typically in a weakened or inactivated form. When a person is vaccinated, their immune system recognizes the foreign substance (antigen) and generates an immune response. This response includes the production of antibodies that can specifically target and neutralize the pathogen. If the person is later exposed to the actual pathogen, their immune system can quickly respond, preventing or reducing the severity of the disease. Vaccination has played a pivotal role in eradicating or nearly eradicating infectious diseases that once posed significant threats to public health. The most notable example is smallpox, which was declared eradicated in 1980 thanks to an aggressive global vaccination campaign. Polio is another disease on the verge of eradication, with just a few remaining endemic countries.

    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

    Vector-borne Diseases: Global Trends and Local Implications

    Larsson Anette*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.224

    Vector-borne diseases have long been a concern for public health. They are caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites and are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected vectors. Climate change, urbanization and global travel have contributed to the changing landscape of these diseases. Vector-borne diseases collectively account for a substantial burden of illness and death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), vector-borne diseases are responsible for over 17% of all infectious diseases and contribute to more than 700,000 deaths annually. Several vector-borne diseases have gained prominence due to their global impact. Transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, malaria affects millions of people each year, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, dengue has become a growing concern in many tropical and subtropical regions. Also transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, Zika gained attention due to its association with birth defects and neurological complications. Spread by ticks, Lyme disease is prevalent in parts of North America, Europe and Asia. Another disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, Chikungunya has caused outbreaks in various regions. These include diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are transmitted by ticks, mites, or fleas.

    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

    Zoonotic Diseases: Emerging Threats and One Health Approaches

    Hernández Felix*

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.225

    Zoonotic diseases are infections that can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa. They include a wide range of pathogens, from bacteria and viruses to parasites and fungi. Zoonoses have been responsible for some of the most devastating pandemics in history, such as the 1918 influenza pandemic and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging zoonotic diseases are those that have recently appeared in human populations or have experienced a significant increase in incidence. Deforestation, urbanization and habitat destruction can bring humans into closer contact with wildlife, increasing the risk of zoonotic spill over. Increased movement of people and goods facilitates the spread of zoonotic pathogens across borders. The misuse of antibiotics in both human and animal healthcare contributes to the development of drug-resistant zoonotic pathogens.

    Volume 7, Issue 5 (2023)

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      Antibiotic Resistance in Clinical Infections: Current Challenges and Strategies

      Baraud Fabiene*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.226

      Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria evolve and become resistant to the drugs designed to kill them. This phenomenon undermines the effectiveness of antibiotics, rendering once-treatable infections difficult or even impossible to control. The development of antibiotic resistance is driven by a complex interplay of factors. The global increase in antibiotic resistance is alarming. Pathogens like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria and carbapenem-resistant have become formidable adversaries in healthcare settings. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis further compounds the problem. One of the primary drivers of antibiotic resistance is the inappropriate use of antibiotics. This includes overprescribing by healthcare providers, patient demand for antibiotics when unnecessary and the widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture. These practices promote the survival of resistant bacteria and the spread of resistance genes. Accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for effective antibiotic use. However, diagnostic tests that can rapidly identify specific pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles are often lacking. The development and implementation of advanced diagnostic tools are essential to guide targeted antibiotic therapy.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

      Antifungal Agents: Innovations in the Battle against Fungal Pathogens

      Silverstein Melvin*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.227

      Fungal infections pose a significant threat to human health, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. From superficial skin infections to lifethreatening systemic diseases, fungi can exploit vulnerabilities in the immune system, causing a range of illnesses. The emergence of drugresistant strains further complicates the treatment landscape, underscoring the urgent need for innovative antifungal agents. In recent years, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have made remarkable strides in developing novel approaches to combat fungal pathogens. Conventional antifungal agents, such as azoles, echinocandins and polyenes, have been mainstays in the treatment of fungal infections for decades. However, rising resistance and side effects associated with these drugs necessitate the exploration of alternative solutions. Fungal infections are particularly challenging due to the similarities between fungal and human cells, making it difficult to design drugs that selectively target the pathogen without harming the host.

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

      Blue-green Troubles: Algal Infections and their Impact on Public Health

      Margarida Dias*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.228

      The tranquil appearance of blue-green algae belies the potential dangers lurking beneath the water's surface. Algal infections, specifically those caused by cyanobacteria, are emerging as a significant public health concern with far-reaching consequences. Blue-green algae, scientifically known as cyanobacteria, are microscopic organisms that can form dense colonies in freshwater bodies, such as lakes, ponds and reservoirs. While some cyanobacteria are harmless, certain species produce toxins that pose serious threats to both aquatic ecosystems and public health. Excessive growth of blue-green algae can lead to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), turning bodies of water into dense, greenish masses. These blooms can adversely affect water quality by depleting oxygen levels and producing toxins harmful to aquatic life. Furthermore, the toxins released by cyanobacteria during a bloom can have severe repercussions on the health of humans and animals alike.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Candida Unveiled: Delving into Common Fungal Culprits, from Cryptococcus to Candida

      Jasmine Mohammed*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.229

      Fungi, microscopic organisms that often escape our notice, play a significant role in various aspects of our lives, both beneficial and detrimental. Among them, Cryptococcus and Candida stand out as common fungal culprits with the potential to cause health complications. Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi that includes several species known for their association with human and animal infections. Among these, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the most clinically significant. These fungi are encapsulated yeasts and they are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil enriched with bird droppings. Cryptococcus infections, though relatively rare, can pose serious health risks, especially to individuals with weakened immune systems.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Severe Pneumonia

      Jelena Novosel*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.230

      Pneumonia is a significant global health concern, contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe pneumonia, in particular, poses a critical challenge to healthcare systems and demands a comprehensive understanding of its clinical characteristics and outcomes. The multicenter study involved collaboration among various medical institutions, emphasizing the need for a diverse and representative sample of patients. Researchers collected data from a large cohort of individuals diagnosed with severe pneumonia, utilizing standardized protocols for data collection and analysis. The study spanned multiple geographic locations, ensuring a broad spectrum of patient demographics and environmental factors were considered.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      Efficacy of Novel Antiviral Therapies in the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

      Christina Stelios*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.231

      Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has posed a significant threat to global public health, causing outbreaks with potentially severe consequences. In the pursuit of effective treatments, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have been exploring novel antiviral therapies that show promise in mitigating the impact of SARS. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as SARS, is a viral respiratory illness that gained international attention in the early 2000s due to its potential for rapid spread and severe health consequences. The disease is caused by the SARS coronavirus, specifically referred to as SARS-CoV. SARS is a viral respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV. The hallmark symptoms include fever, cough and difficulty breathing and in severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, respiratory failure and death. Given its potential for rapid transmission, SARS outbreaks demand swift and effective interventions.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Hand Hygiene Programs in Reducing Healthcare-associated Infections

      Andrew Wells*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.232

      Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) pose a significant threat to patient safety and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. One of the key strategies to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings is the implementation of effective hand hygiene programs. Hand hygiene, which involves the use of soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers, is a simple yet powerful tool in reducing the transmission of pathogens. Healthcare-associated infections, also known as nosocomial infections, are infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving healthcare treatment in a hospital or other healthcare facility. These infections can develop as a result of exposure to infectious agents within the healthcare setting and they pose a significant threat to patient safety. HAIs can lead to prolonged hospital stays, increased healthcare costs and in severe cases; they can contribute to morbidity and mortality.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      From Athlete's Foot to Systemic Mycoses: Exploring the Spectrum of Fungal Infections

      John Sandberg*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.233

      Fungal infections, caused by various species of fungi, can range from mild superficial conditions, such as athlete's foot, to severe systemic mycoses that affect internal organs. Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and while many are harmless, some have the potential to cause infections in humans. This article delves into the spectrum of fungal infections, exploring their diverse manifestations and the challenges they pose to both diagnosis and treatment. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis) is one of the most common superficial fungal infections; athlete's foot primarily affects the feet. It is caused by dermatophytes, which thrive in warm and moist environments like sweaty shoes. Symptoms include itching, redness and flaking of the skin between the toes. Over-the-counter antifungal creams are often effective in treating athlete's foot.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      Marine Mysteries: Investigating Algal Infections in Humans

      Yaomin Wang*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.234

      The vast and mysterious world of the ocean has always fascinated scientists and explorers alike. While we often associate marine environments with beauty and wonder, there are hidden complexities that can pose unexpected threats to human health. One such enigma revolves around algal infections in humans, a marine mystery that researchers are actively investigating. The captivating allure of the ocean conceals a complex web of interactions that extend beyond the realm of marine life. While we often appreciate the beauty of algae in various forms, from vibrant seaweeds to microscopic phytoplankton, there exists a lesser-known facet of these aquatic organisms that poses a unique challenge to human health–algal infections.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

      Optimizing Antibiotic Usage and Mitigating Resistance: Approaches to Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives

      Anthony Fabienne*

      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.235

      Antibiotics have played a crucial role in modern medicine, revolutionizing the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, posing a significant threat to global public health. In response to this growing concern, Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives have been developed to optimize antibiotic usage and minimize the development of resistance. Antibiotics, hailed as medical marvels for their ability to combat bacterial infections, have become a cornerstone of modern healthcare. However, the escalating threat of antibiotic resistance necessitates a closer examination of antibiotic usage. Striking a delicate balance between harnessing the benefits of antibiotics and curbing resistance is essential for preserving their efficacy over time.

      Volume 5, Issue 6 (2021)

        Opinion Pages: 1 - 1

        Viremia: Outcome and Causes

        Caoimhe McKer*

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        Commentry Pages: 1 - 1

        An Overview on Babesiosis

        Alberto Corona*

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        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        About Periodontal Disease

        Aniruddha Ghosh*

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        Letter to Editor Pages: 1 - 1

        A Brief Notes On Viral Gastroenteritis

        Pere Domingo*

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        Volume 5, Issue 5 (2021)

          Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

          A Brief Note on Malaria

          Yuehua Huang*

          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2021.5.153

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          Volume 7, Issue 6 (2023)

            Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

            Polio Eradication: Triumphs and Challenges

            Mariyah Ahmed*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.241

            In the global pursuit of eradicating polio, considerable triumphs have been celebrated, yet formidable challenges persist on the path towards a polio-free world. Over the past few decades, substantial progress has been made in the eradication of polio. Successful vaccination campaigns, coupled with widespread public health initiatives, have led to a significant reduction in polio cases worldwide. Many countries that were once plagued by the disease have now been declared polio-free, showcasing the effectiveness of targeted vaccination efforts. One of the key triumphs in polio eradication has been the formation of global partnerships and collaborations. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, the Rotary Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have worked hand in hand with governments, nongovernmental organizations and local communities to implement comprehensive vaccination programs. These partnerships have played a crucial role in reaching remote and underserved areas, ensuring that every child receives the polio vaccine.

            Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

            MERS-CoV: Decoding the Genetic Makeup of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

            Trevor Ayaz*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.240

            Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a topic of significant concern in recent years due to its potential for causing severe respiratory illness and its capacity for human-to-human transmission. To understand the intricacies of this virus, scientists have delved into the genetic makeup of MERS-CoV, seeking insights into its origins, evolution and ways to combat its spread. MERS-CoV belongs to the Coronaviridae family, the same family that includes other notorious viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARSCoV) and more recently, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The genome of MERS-CoV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule, comprising about 30,000 nucleotides. This genetic material encodes various structural and non-structural proteins essential for the virus’s survival and replication.

            Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

            Innovations in Ebola Treatment: Advances in Science and Technology

            Eugenio Zaky*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.239

            Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has long been a formidable global health concern, prompting extensive research efforts to deepen our understanding of the virus and develop more effective strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The Ebola virus, notorious for its devastating outbreaks, has spurred significant advancements in science and technology to develop more effective treatments. Over the past few years, researchers and healthcare professionals have made substantial progress, leveraging cutting-edge innovations to combat the deadly virus. One of the most significant breakthroughs in Ebola treatment has been the development of vaccines that offer protection against the virus. Vaccines like rVSVZEBOV- GP have shown remarkable efficacy in clinical trials. This replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vector has paved the way for preventive measures, offering hope for communities at risk.

            Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

            Dengue Fever: A Mosquito-borne Threat

            Robert Maxwel*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.238

            Dengue fever stands as a formidable health menace, with its roots deeply embedded in the bites of mosquitoes. This viral illness, transmitted primarily by the Aedes mosquitoes, poses a significant global threat, affecting millions of people each year. Understanding the intricacies of Dengue fever, from its transmission to the impact on public health, is crucial in the ongoing battle against this mosquito-borne adversary. Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral infection, poses a significant global health threat, affecting millions of people annually. The disease is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, where the Aedes mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, serve as the vectors for the dengue virus.

            Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

            The Role of Immune Responses in Host-pathogen Interactions: Implications for Infectious Disease Management

            Ezzati Bonham*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.237

            In the intricate dance between host and pathogen, the immune system emerges as the unsung hero, orchestrating a complex and dynamic defense against invading microbes. Understanding the pivotal role of immune responses in host-pathogen interactions is not only fascinating from a scientific standpoint but is also imperative for the development of effective strategies in infectious disease management. At the heart of the battle against infectious diseases lies the intricate interplay between the host organism and invading pathogens. Pathogens, ranging from bacteria and viruses to fungi and parasites, constantly evolve to breach the host's defenses. In response, the host deploys a sophisticated immune system, comprising a network of cells, tissues and molecules, all working in harmony to recognize and eliminate the invaders.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

            Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Hospitalized at Departmental and Teaching Hospital of Borgou-Alibori: Retrospective Analysis from 2013 to 2022

            Attinsounon Cossi Angelo*, Fiogbé Sedami Eudoxie, Dovonou Comlan Albert, Alassani Adébayo, Saké Khadidjath, Adé Sènan Serge and Adoukonou Thierry

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.236

            Introduction: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are community-acquired infections frequently encountered in hospitals. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of urinary tract infections among hospitalized patients in the internal medicine department of DTH-BA.

            Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that systematically included all patients hospitalized for urinary tract infection from January 1st, 2013 to December 31, 2022. Data on diagnosis, treatment and outcome were collected from patient’s medical records. A team of experts (infectiologist and microbiologist) assessed the quality of antibiotic therapy (justification, relevance of choice, appropriateness). This study was approved by the local biomedical research ethics committee of the University of Parakou. Data were analyzed using SigmaPlot 14.0 software.

            Results: A total of 2876 records were analysed, with 183 cases of urinary tract infection, representing a frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients of 6.36%. The sex ratio was 0.74 and the mean age 40.55 ± 17.53 years. The most common symptoms were fever (134 cases; 73.22%), asthenia (93 cases; 50.82%) and urinary burning (82 cases; 44.81%). The diagnosis was pyelonephritis in 71 (38.80%) patients, acute cystitis in 68 (37.16%) patients and male urinary tract infection in 42 (22.95%) patients. Of 173 (94.54%) Urine Dipsticks (UD) performed, 159 (91.91%) were positive. A Urine Cytobacteriological Examination (UCE) was performed in 37 (20.22%) patients, 32 (86.49%) of them after initiation of antibiotic therapy. A germ was identified in 15 cases (40.54%). Escherichia coli was the most frequent germ (8 cases; 53.33%). In terms of treatment, 182 (99.45%) patients received probabilistic antibiotic therapy, with 133 (73.08%) patients receiving inappropriate management and 14 (93.33%) of the 15 who received an antibiotic susceptibility test being unsuitable. One hundred twenty-four (67.76%) patients were cured, 10 (5.46%) died and 49 (26.78%) were discharged against medical advice.

            Conclusion: This study shows that urinary tract infections are managed with probabilistic and inappropriate antibiotics. This result should prompt the development of a protocol for the management of these infections, to ensure the correct use of antibiotics in this department.

            Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

            Toxoplasmosis and its Connection to Neurological Disorders

            Hani Khouz*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.242

            Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has long been associated with various health concerns. While pregnant women and individuals with compromised immune systems are typically warned about the risks, emerging research has shed light on a less well-known connection – the link between toxoplasmosis and neurological disorders. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the microscopic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has long been recognized as a potential threat to human health. Beyond its more commonly known risks, recent research has unveiled a fascinating yet concerning aspect – its impact on neurological health. The intricate relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and the human brain, shedding light on the complexities of this "brain invader" and its potential consequences on neurological well-being.

            Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

            Understanding Scabies: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

            Zeynep Memik*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.243

            Scabies, a skin infestation caused by the microscopic Sarcoptes scabiei mite, can be an uncomfortable and distressing condition. Scabies is primarily caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite, a tiny arachnid that burrows into the outer layer of the skin. The infestation occurs through direct, prolonged skin-to-skin contact with an infected person. Contrary to common belief, scabies is not solely associated with poor hygiene, as it can affect individuals of any socio-economic background. The hallmark symptom of scabies is relentless itching, often worsening at night. The itching is the body's allergic reaction to the mites, their eggs and their waste. Small, raised red bumps or pimple-like rashes may appear on the skin, especially in areas with thinner skin, such as between the fingers, wrists, elbows and genital region.

            Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

            Unveiling the Enigma: Syphilis Stages Demystified

            Nicholas Stolar*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.244

            Syphilis, a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, has been a persistent and enigmatic health concern throughout history. This ancient malady has evolved from a mysterious and often deadly affliction to a condition that can be effectively treated with modern medicine. Despite advancements in medicine and the availability of effective treatments, syphilis remains a persistent threat. Syphilis has left an indelible mark on human history, with its origins and early spread being subjects of debate among historians. It is widely believed that syphilis was introduced to Europe from the New World after Christopher Columbus's voyages in the late 15th century. The diseases sudden and devastating impact earned it names like the "Great Pox" and the "French Disease." Over the centuries, syphilis became a pervasive and stigmatized ailment that affected individuals from all walks of life.

            Perspective Article Pages: 1 - 2

            Waterborne Menace: Investigating Cryptosporidiosis and its Impact on Public Health

            Larsson Dulal*

            DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.245

            Water, the elixir of life, is essential for human survival. However, lurking in the seemingly clear and pristine waters lies a microscopic threat - Cryptosporidium. This waterborne menace has become a growing concern for public health worldwide, demanding rigorous investigation and attention. Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. This microscopic invader is particularly resilient, capable of surviving in various environments and resistant to standard water treatment methods. It spreads through the fecal-oral route, making contaminated water sources the primary mode of transmission. The consequences of Cryptosporidiosis on public health are far-reaching. The most vulnerable populations, including children, the elderly and individuals with weakened immune systems, are at a higher risk of severe illness. The symptoms range from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps to dehydration, posing a significant threat to overall well-being.

            Volume 6, Issue 2 (2022)

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Infectious Complications of Diabetes at Ndamatou Hospital in Touba including a Population of 195 Cases Collected from January 2017 to December 2020

              Ngom Ndeye Fatou*, Sow Djiby, Dia Mountaga Elimane, Faye Fulgence Abdou, Ba Awa, Ndiaye Abdoul Aziz and Ka Ousseynou

              DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2022.6.166

              Introduction: Diabetes is a public health problem. It exposes to metabolic and chronic complications but also infectious ones. The latter can destabilize diabetes and increase morbidity and mortality. This prompted us to carry out this study, the objective of which is to describe the infectious complications of diabetes in the department of internal medicine and medical specialties of Ndamatou Hospital in Touba Senegal, Diourbel region.

              Patients and methods: This is a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study of diabetic subjects hospitalized with an infection over a four-year period from January 2017 to December 2020.

              Results: During the study period, 439 patients were hospitalized for diabetes. Of these patients, 195 diabetics had an infection, a frequency of 44.42%. The mean age was 52.10 years. The age group 60-69 was the most represented with 26.9%. There were 114 women (58.5%), i.e., a sex ratio (m/f) of 0.71. Most patients came from Touba with 151 cases (77.5%). Type 2 diabetes was predominantly represented with 82.1%. Fiftyfour (54) patients, i.e., 27.7%, had inaugural diabetes. Most patients had diabetes for less than 5 years (73 cases, 37.4%). The average length of hospitalization was 5.66 days with extremes of 1 to 31 days. Ketoacidosis was noted in 126 patients (64.6%), hyperglycemia in 55 patients (28.2%), hyperosmolar imbalance in 3 patients 6 (3.1%) and hypoglycemia in 2 cases (1%). The most frequent infections were cutaneous 45.7% (n=89), followed by urogenital 19.5% (n=49) and respiratory 19.5% (n=38). Abscesses predominated in skin infections 57.3% followed by diabetic feet 30.4%. The average consultation time was 8.26 days with extremes ranging from 1 to 31 days. 28 patients (14.4%) were consulted after 15 days. The case fatality rate was 5.1% (n=10).

              Conclusion: Infectious complications in diabetes are not trivial. Therapeutic education is essential for a more effective and efficient prevention and a reduction of mortality.

              Volume 6, Issue 3 (2022)

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                The Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Associated Risk Factors in Twapia Area of Ndola District

                Mate Matakala*

                DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2022.6.171

                Introduction: Globally, Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases which is mainly attributed to poverty and economic hardship, usually in developing countries. Knowledge of the current situation in our environment is necessary. The study on tuberculosis in Twapia has been carried out but with scant information on its prevalence. However, most of these studies were done prior to the introduction of the GeneXpert machines which is more accurate and sensitive for TB diagnosis as result studies to be done now with the new technology will yield more accurate results. Therefore, a study on the prevalence of TB in Twapia area of Ndola district is essential in order to fill in the gap knowledge, to understand if the TB cases are rising or reducing in number, to add on to the work done already, raise awareness and emphasis and ensure effectiveness in strategies to reduce the TB prevalence.

                Aim: was to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) and associated risk factor in Twapia area of Ndola district, particular patient seen by Twapia clinic.

                Methodology: In this study a retrospective cross section study design was used, data was collected and sampled by complete enumeration of all TB patients’ files that visited Twapia clinic from January 2018 to December 2020. Out of a total of 49,820 patient’s files enrolled, 481 were diagnosed with TB. Data entry involved tabulations and use of SPSS software for analysis. All information collected was confidentially handled in accordance with the ethics. Ethical approval was obtained from Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC) and permission to conduct the study at the health institution was granted by both the Provincial Health Office and District Health Office.

                Results: The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among Twapia residents was, according to these research findings, found to be increase from 2018 to 2020 as 25.2%, 34.5% and 40.3% respectively. It is densely distributed and more common between the ages of 36 to 45 years old. Of those who were treated for TB, it was found the majority were males representing 62.4% of the total cases. Those who had HIV/TB coinfection were 34.3% of the total cases treated for TB and the majority of cases were diagnosed using the GeneXpert.

                Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of TB at Twapia clinic was found to be progressively increasing from 2018 at 25% to 40% in 2020, with the increase in prevalence, there is need to implement screening strategies, sensitize and encourage people to always visit hospital care and also to continue strengthening the DOT program. There is need to improve TB prophylaxis administration for those on ART and early diagnosis..

                Volume 6, Issue 4 (2022)

                  Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                  Treatment of Pulmonary Nebulisable Antimycotics Using Allicin

                  Julius Rosenberg*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2022.6.179

                  Contagious contaminations of the lung are a rising issue overall and the quest for novel restorative specialists is an ongoing test because of arising protection from current antimycotics. The unstable safeguard substance allicin is framed normally by newly harmed garlic plants and shows expansive antimicrobial power. Artificially incorporated allicin was dynamic against chose growths upon direct contact and by means of the gas stage at equivalent fixations to the chemically utilized antimycotic amphotericin B. We explored the concealment of parasitic development by allicin fume and sprayers in vitro in a test rig at wind stream conditions emulating the human lung. The impact of allicin through the gas stage was improved by ethanol. Our outcomes recommend that allicin is a likely possibility for improvement for use in antifungal treatment for lung and upper respiratory lot diseases.

                  Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                  A Relation of Periodontal Disorders and Increased Salivary Secretion

                  Graham Outerbridge*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2022.6.178

                  The course of an ischemic stroke relies upon many variables. The impact of periodontal illnesses and the excitement of salivation on the course and seriousness of stroke stays unsettled. Accordingly, the point of the review was to break down the seriousness of ischemic stroke contingent upon the event of periodontal infections and spit feeling. Techniques: The seriousness of the neurological condition was surveyed utilizing the NIHSS scale on days one, three and seven of stroke. The frequency of periodontal illnesses was arranged involving the Lobby's scale in the principal day of stroke. On days one and seven of stroke, the centralization of IL-1β, MMP-8, OPG and RANKL in the patients' spit was evaluated utilizing the Elisa procedure. Simultaneously, the degree of CRP and the quantity of leukocytes in the fringe blood were tried on days one, three and seven of the stroke, and the rate of upper respiratory and urinary plot diseases was surveyed. Results:100 back to back patients with their very first ischemic stroke were signed up for the review. 56 arbitrarily chosen patients were exposed to the excitement of salivation, the excess patients were not animated. In the investigation of the seriousness of the neurological condition utilizing the NIHS scale on days three and seven of stroke, the level of shortage in patients without periodontal sickness essentially worked on contrasted with patients with periodontal illness, separately (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01). Patients from the animated gathering had more extreme neurological shortage at standard (p = 0.04). On days three and seven of neurological development, the state of patients from the two gatherings improved with a further unmistakable benefit of the unstimulated bunch over the invigorated gathering, individually (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001). In patients from the two gatherings, a measurably critical diminishing in CRP and lymphocyte levels was seen on day seven comparable to the very beginning. Ends: The event of periodontal sickness in a patient with stroke influences the seriousness of stroke. Feeling of the mouth and salivary organs in these patients might emphatically affect the course of stroke, considering the elements of neurological side effects.

                  Volume 6, Issue 5 (2022)

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                    Gene Expression and COVID-19 Immune Cell Signatures Analysis

                    Shigen Han*

                    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2022.6.184

                    The respiratory syndrome that results from the coronavirus disease 2019 is accompanied by a cytokine storm, the release of numerous proinflammatory factors, and other symptoms. The Delta variant, which has been associated with a high mortality risk, has taken over in many nations. Therefore, comprehension of the immune responses linked to COVID-19 lineages may help in the creation of therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The severity of COVID-19 was correlated with innate and adaptive immunological factors and pathways, according to numerous single-cell gene expression studies. Additional research on the features of the host-pathogen response to infection caused by various lineages is needed. Here, we used single-cell transcriptome profiling to identify variant-specific molecular immune factors in venous mononuclear cells from people with various COVID-19 and virus lineage severity. Our research shows that the Delta lineage of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a large population of monocytes with distinct gene expression signatures, which may suggest immune components for targeted therapy.

                    Volume 7, Issue 1 (2023)

                      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                      Clinical Trials and Therapeutic Interventions: Advancing Healthcare through Rigorous Research

                      Robert Paul*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.191

                      Infectious diseases have been a constant threat to human health throughout history. While advancements in medicine and public health have significantly reduced the burden of many infections, there remain challenging infectious diseases that continue to pose significant risks. Clinical trials and therapeutic interventions play a vital role in the development of effective treatments and preventive measures for these complex and formidable diseases. This article explores the importance of clinical trials and the innovative therapeutic interventions being pursued to combat these challenging infectious diseases.

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                      Immunotherapeutic Approaches in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases: Recent Breakthroughs

                      Harada Kevin*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.192

                      Immunotherapy has revolutionized the field of medicine, particularly in the treatment of cancer. However, its potential in combating infectious diseases is now being increasingly recognized. Immunotherapeutic approaches harness the power of the immune system to target and eliminate pathogens, providing a promising alternative or complement to traditional antimicrobial therapies. This article explores various immunotherapeutic approaches that are being developed and utilized in the treatment of infectious diseases.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      Management Strategies for Antibiotic-Resistant Infections: Challenges and Innovations

                      William Som*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.193

                      Antibiotic-resistant infections have become a significant public health concern worldwide. These infections occur when bacteria, fungi, or other pathogens evolve and develop mechanisms to resist the effects of antibiotics, rendering these drugs ineffective in treating the infections they cause. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance are primarily driven by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in healthcare settings, agriculture, and the community.

                      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                      Zika Virus Infection: Recent Outbreaks Unveiling Epidemiology and Clinical Features

                      Van Steven*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.194

                      Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a viral illness that has gained global attention due to its association with severe neurological complications and adverse effects on pregnancy. First identified in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, the virus remained relatively obscure until recent outbreaks sparked concerns worldwide. In this article, we delve into the key aspects of Zika virus infection, including its transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention.

                      Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                      Zoonotic Infections: Understanding Transmission Dynamics and Preventive Measures

                      Danila Edvard*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.195

                      Zoonotic infections, also known as zoonoses, are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These infections can be caused by various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Zoonotic infections can occur through direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated animal products, or exposure to vectors that carry the disease.

                      Volume 7, Issue 2 (2023)

                        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                        Understanding the Burden and Patterns of Viral Respiratory Infections among Pediatric Patients: An Epidemiological Investigation

                        Pascale Renato*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.200

                        Viral respiratory infections pose a significant health burden among pediatric populations worldwide. This comprehensive review aims to explore the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections in children, including the prevalence, seasonality, viral pathogens involved and associated risk factors. By understanding the patterns and impact of these infections, healthcare providers and public health officials can develop effective strategies for prevention, diagnosis and management, ultimately improving the health outcomes of pediatric patients. These viral infections are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. They can also spread by touching surfaces or objects contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

                        Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                        Antifungal Therapy for Invasive Aspergillosis: An Update on Treatment Strategies

                        Chemello Lili*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.196

                        Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is a severe fungal infection caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus. It primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with hematological malignancies, solid organ transplant recipients, or prolonged neutropenia. Antifungal therapy plays a crucial role in the management of invasive aspergillosis, aiming to control the infection, improve patient outcomes and reduce mortality. This article provides an update on the latest treatment strategies for invasive aspergillosis, highlighting recent advancements and emerging therapeutic options. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplant recipients, or individuals with HIV/AIDS. It can also occur in individuals with certain lung conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) or asthma.

                        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                        Assessing the Utility of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis in Resource-Limited Settings

                        Fisher Matthew*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.197

                        Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health challenge, particularly in resource-limited settings where timely and accurate diagnosis is often hindered. This article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the utility of a rapid diagnostic test for TB in such settings. By assessing its performance, impact, and feasibility, this study aims to provide valuable insights into the potential of this diagnostic tool to revolutionize TB management and control in resource-constrained environments. It is a contagious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, spine, and brain. TB is a global health concern and one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.

                        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                        Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis in the ICU

                        Hoft Daniel*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.198

                        Sepsis remains a critical medical condition, placing a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide. It is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection spirals out of control, leading to organ dysfunction. Patients with severe sepsis require Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission to receive prompt and specialized care. Understanding the clinical manifestations and outcomes of sepsis patients in the ICU is essential for optimizing treatment strategies and improving patient outcomes. It is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention. Sepsis can affect people of all ages, including children and older adults. The immune response becomes dysregulated and goes into overdrive. This excessive immune response triggers widespread inflammation throughout the body, which can cause damage to organs and tissues. The inflammation can disrupt normal organ function and, if left untreated, can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and death.

                        Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                        Cytomegalovirus Infection: Understanding the Silent Threat, Recognizing Symptoms and Effective Treatment Approaches

                        Oliveira Falcao*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.199

                        Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common viral infection that affects people worldwide. It is caused by the cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family. CMV infection can occur in individuals of all ages, but it poses the greatest risk to certain populations, such as newborns, individuals with weakened immune systems and pregnant women. In this article, we will explore the key aspects of CMV infection, including its transmission, symptoms, diagnosis and management. It can infect people of all ages, but in healthy individuals with a competent immune system, CMV infections usually cause mild or no symptoms. However, CMV can be a significant concern for certain populations, including pregnant women, newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.

                        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                        Assessing Diagnostic Methods for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Review

                        Papan Cihan*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.201

                        Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to at least two of the most effective first-line anti-TB drugs: isoniazid and rifampicin. It occurs when the bacteria that cause TB develop mutations that make them resistant to these drugs. MDR-TB is a serious global health concern as it is more challenging to treat and control than drug-susceptible TB. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of MDR-TB is crucial for effective patient management, initiation of appropriate treatment, and prevention of further transmission. Over the years, various diagnostic techniques have been developed and implemented to identify MDR-TB strains. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the different diagnostic methods used for detecting MDR-TB, highlighting their strengths, limitations and advancements.

                        Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                        Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Nosocomial Infections: Implications for Clinical Management

                        Hwang Angela*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.202

                        Nosocomial infections, also referred to as Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), are infections that occur as a result of receiving medical care or treatment in a healthcare facility. These infections can manifest during a patient's hospital stay or even after discharge. Nosocomial infections pose a significant burden on both patients and healthcare systems, leading to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Common types of nosocomial infections include Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), surgical site infections, bloodstream infections (sepsis), pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections. They are typically caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other pathogens that are present within the healthcare environment. Pathogens with high virulence or resistance to antimicrobial agents can more easily cause infections in vulnerable patients. These pathogens may include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Clostridium difficile and multidrugresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

                        Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                        Enhancing Patient Safety: Integrating Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Control in Healthcare Settings

                        Giersing Felipe*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.203

                        Antimicrobial stewardship refers to a coordinated set of interventions and strategies aimed at promoting the optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It involves implementing guidelines, policies and practices that ensure the right drug is prescribed at the right dose, for the right duration and to the right patient. The core objectives of antimicrobial stewardship include improving patient outcomes, reducing antimicrobial resistance, preventing adverse events and minimizing healthcare costs. Antimicrobial stewardship programs are typically led by multidisciplinary teams comprising infectious disease specialists, pharmacists, microbiologists and other healthcare professionals.

                        Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                        Evaluating Immunogenicity and Safety of a Groundbreaking COVID-19 Vaccine: Findings from a Phase III Clinical Trial

                        Milazzo Laura*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.204

                        The world has been grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic for over two years, and the development of effective vaccines has been a crucial step towards controlling the spread of the virus. Among the many vaccines developed, a novel COVID-19 vaccine has emerged as a potential gamechanger in the fight against the virus. In this article, we delve into the findings from a Phase III clinical trial that evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of this groundbreaking vaccine. The Phase III clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety profile of the novel COVID-19 vaccine in a large-scale population. The trial enrolled a diverse group of participants across different age groups, demographics and geographical locations to ensure a representative sample.

                        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                        The Transformative Power of Early Diagnosis and Timely Treatment for HIV-Positive Patients

                        Oreni Maria*

                        DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.205

                        HIV/AIDS has been one of the most devastating global health challenges of our time. However, remarkable progress has been made in recent years, particularly in the realm of early diagnosis and timely treatment. The significance of these interventions cannot be overstated, as they have the power to dramatically transform the prognosis of individuals living with HIV. This article delves into the impact of early diagnosis and timely treatment on the prognosis of HIV-positive patients, shedding light on the life-altering benefits that these approaches offer. The transformative power of early diagnosis and timely treatment on the prognosis of HIV-positive patients cannot be underestimated. These interventions hold the potential to extend life expectancy, enhance quality of life and break the cycle of transmission.

                        Volume 7, Issue 3 (2023)

                          Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

                          Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: A Review

                          Sofia Carneiro*, João Paulo Gomes and Rita Macedo

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.206

                          Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly causing disease in humans, ranging from skin lesions to widespread disease. Its ubiquitous character in nature makes its exposure very common. For these reasons, diagnosis of the disease, the correct identification/ characterization of the Nontuberculous mycobacteria responsible for the infection, and consequently the definition of the appropriate treatment regimen, remain the major challenge. Treatment is complex, requiring the prolonged use of multiple drugs, which makes it expensive and often brings side effects for the patient. So far, it has not been possible to establish, with certainty, a relationship between in vitro assays and microbiological response to drug treatment, thus making the treatments empirical. Diagnostic and clinical criteria should be updated to enable a more reliable identification in order to improve our understanding of Nontuberculous mycobacteria epidemiology, particularly for the species that have the most potential to cause disease. As an ultimate unavoidable downstream procedure, the use of whole genome data will strongly contribute to Nontuberculous mycobacteria characterization, not only for more precise strain/species differentiation but also eventually to anticipate antibiotic resistance through the identification of resistance markers. With this review, we hope to give the viewer an overview of the Nontuberculous mycobacteria-related topics that we believe are the most important.

                          Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                          Advancing the Battle against Surgical Wound Infections: Unveiling the Complexities of Biofilm Formation and Pioneering Strategies for Effective Treatment and Prevention

                          Michal Ulrikka*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.207

                          Surgical wound infections pose a significant challenge in healthcare settings, contributing to patient morbidity, prolonged hospital stays and increased healthcare costs. Among the intricate factors that contribute to the persistence and severity of these infections is the formation of biofilms. Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms that attach to surfaces and form a protective matrix, making them highly resistant to conventional antimicrobial therapies. Understanding the complexities of biofilm formation and developing innovative strategies for their prevention and treatment are crucial in advancing the battle against surgical wound infections. The inherent resistance of biofilms makes them notoriously difficult to eliminate, leading to chronic infections and recurrent wound complications. Moreover, biofilms can develop on a variety of medical devices, such as surgical implants, catheters and wound dressings, further complicating the management of surgical wounds.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Antifungal Resistance in Invasive Fungal Diseases: A Growing Threat

                          Max Talita*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.208

                          Antifungal resistance is an increasingly concerning issue that threatens effective treatment of fungal infections. While much attention has been given to antibiotic resistance, the emergence of resistance in fungal pathogens has garnered significant attention in recent years. This article explores the concept of antifungal resistance, its causes, implications and the urgent need for concerted efforts to address this growing challenge. Antifungal resistance refers to the ability of fungi to withstand the effects of antifungal medications, rendering them ineffective in treating fungal infections. Fungi can develop resistance through various mechanisms, including genetic mutations, upregulation of drug efflux pumps, alteration of drug targets and the acquisition of resistance genes. This resilience can occur in different types of fungi, such as Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and other clinically significant species.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgical Procedures: Optimizing Strategies to Prevent Wound Infections

                          Rashid Harunor*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684- 4559.2023.7.209

                          Antimicrobial prophylaxis refers to the administration of antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to prevent infections in individuals at risk of
                          developing them. It is commonly used in various medical settings, including surgical procedures, dental work and certain medical conditions. The
                          primary goal of antimicrobial prophylaxis is to prevent the colonization and growth of bacteria or other microorganisms that can cause infection. In
                          surgical procedures, it aims to minimize the risk of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs), which can lead to complications, prolonged hospital stays and
                          increased healthcare costs. Antimicrobial prophylaxis involves the administration of antibiotics before surgery to prevent the growth of bacteria that
                          may be introduced during the procedure. The goal is to achieve adequate tissue concentrations of the antibiotic at the time of incision and during
                          the early postoperative period, which is when the risk of infection is highest.

                          Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                          Assessing the Longitudinal Impact of Vaccination in Mitigating Influenza Outbreaks: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Vaccine Effectiveness

                          Solomon Jeffrey*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.210

                          Influenza, commonly known as the flu, poses a significant public health challenge worldwide, causing substantial morbidity and mortality each year. Vaccination has long been regarded as a key strategy for preventing influenza and reducing its impact on populations. However, understanding the longitudinal impact of vaccination in mitigating influenza outbreaks requires rigorous evaluation of vaccine effectiveness over time. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of vaccine effectiveness in preventing and controlling influenza outbreaks, shedding light on the critical role of vaccination in public health efforts. However, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in real-world settings over an extended period to assess their long-term impact.

                          Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                          Candidemia: An Increasingly Prevalent Invasive Fungal Infection

                          Manning Laurens*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.211

                          Candidemia refers to a bloodstream infection caused by Candida species, a type of fungus that naturally resides in the human body. Candida is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity and vaginal mucosa, where it usually exists in a harmless, balanced state with other microorganisms. However, under certain circumstances, Candida can multiply and invade the bloodstream, leading to a potentially life-threatening condition known as candidemia. Candidemia has become a significant concern in healthcare settings, particularly among immunocompromised individuals and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence of candidemia has been on the rise in recent years, posing a challenge for healthcare providers in terms of diagnosis and treatment.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                          Invasive Mucormycosis: Unraveling the Pathogenesis and Novel Treatment Approaches

                          Maillard Alexis*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.212

                          Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is a serious and potentially life-threatening fungal infection caused by a group of fungi called mucormycetes. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter and even in the nasal passages of healthy individuals. Mucormycosis primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, including those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer patients, transplant recipients and individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. The infection can occur through different routes, including inhalation of fungal spores, direct inoculation into wounds or surgical sites, or ingestion of contaminated food. Once the spores enter the body, they can invade blood vessels, leading to tissue necrosis and potential dissemination to other organs. Mucormycosis can manifest in various forms, depending on the site of infection, including rhinocerebral (nose and brain), pulmonary (lungs), cutaneous (skin), gastrointestinal and disseminated mucormycosis.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                          Revolutionizing Bloodstream Infection Diagnosis: Innovative Strategies for Enhanced Detection and Diagnosis

                          Trickey Adam*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.213

                          Bloodstream infection is a severe and life-threatening condition characterized by the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, in the bloodstream. It is a global health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in hospital settings. Bloodstream infections can arise from various sources, including infected wounds, surgical sites, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, or through the use of invasive medical devices like central venous catheters. Bloodstream infections can manifest with a wide range of symptoms, which can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the infection.

                          Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                          Wound Care Techniques and Dressings to Reduce Surgical Site Infections: Evidence and Recommendations

                          Davoli Chiara*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.214

                          Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are a significant concern in healthcare settings, contributing to patient morbidity, mortality, increased hospital stay and healthcare costs. Implementing effective wound care techniques and selecting appropriate dressings can play a crucial role in reducing the incidence of SSIs. In this article, we will explore the evidence-based recommendations for wound care techniques and dressings that have shown efficacy in reducing surgical site infections. Patients with certain risk factors are more prone to developing SSIs. These include advanced age, obesity, diabetes, smoking, immunosuppression, malnutrition and the presence of pre-existing infections. Patients may be required to undergo an antiseptic shower or receive preoperative antimicrobial agents to reduce the bacterial load on the skin. Hair removal, if necessary, should be done using clippers rather than shaving, as shaving can cause micro-cuts and increase the risk of infection.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Bacterial and Fungal Superbugs: The Looming Threat to Public Health

                          Fraser Martin*

                          DOI: 10.37421/2684-4559.2023.7.215

                          In recent years, the emergence and spread of bacterial and fungal superbugs have become a growing concern for public health worldwide. Superbugs, a term used to describe strains of bacteria and fungi that have developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and antifungal drugs, pose a significant threat to human health. The nature of bacterial and fungal superbugs, their causes, the challenges they present and the urgent need for a multifaceted approach to address this global crisis. Bacterial superbugs are strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to multiple antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and control. These resilient bacteria have become a significant concern in healthcare settings and communities worldwide. Understanding bacterial superbugs, their causes and the implications they have is crucial in addressing this growing public health threat.

                          Volume 6, Issue 1 (2022)

                          Relevant Topics

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