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Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering

ISSN: 2165-784X

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 10, Issue 2 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Treatment of Electroplating Industry Wastewater by Electrocoagulation using Moringa oleifera Seeds as a Natural Coagulant

    Deepak Vishal, Shobha Ram, Ashish Kumar Sisodia

    DOI: -

    The quality and accessibility of drinking water is chief importance to human health. The main objective of this work was to use Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural coagulant in electrocoagulation process for the treatment of electroplating industry wastewater. It has been found that Moringa oleifera is the best bio coagulant which can replace aluminum sulphate (alum). The efficiency of Moringa oleifera seed cake in removing heavy metals ions such as chromium, copper, zinc, cobalt and lead from the wastewater sample by means of jar test followed by electrocoagulation process was very much reliable. The removal of heavy metal ions observed for Moringa oleifera seeds treated water were 79% for lead, 50% for copper and zinc, and more than 90% for chromium and cobalt, at an optimal dosage of 200 mg/L. Around 90-96% of turbidity has been reduced from the wastewater by Moringa oleifera seed cake, though it has a no glaring effect on the pH which is also an advantage. The Moringa oleifera seed treated water has been taken for the further treatment by electrocoagulation process. Concluding that, the rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of seed cake. During electrocoagulation process the heavy metals like cobalt and lead was completely removed from the water sample and other heavy metal ions such as chromium, copper and zinc concentration in water sample has met the level of water standards of WHO (World Health Organization).

    Research Article Pages: 107 - 114

    Water Availability Analysis of Multiple Source Groundwater Supply Systems in Water Stressed Urban Centers: Case of Lodwar municipality,Kenya

    CharlesO.Maxwell, SimeonDulo, DanielO.Olago and PattsM.A.Odira

    DOI: 10.37421/mccr.2020.10.339

    Ensuring water security to urban population in fragile environments through interlinked systems of groundwater abstraction, storage and distribution of sufficient quantity is challenging especially to urban utilities situated in arid and semi arid regions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate water delivery challenges for water utilities in fragile environment in Kenya. A systematic analysis of availability from each supply sub-components from source to consumer was carried out through water audit and network analysis by employing water flow measurement equipments and through pump performance analysis and by employing continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle to sections of the network. Results showed that water availability within a utility in such environments is contributed by seasonal variations between wet and dry affecting quantity at source, optimal design of supply infrastructure in this case better matching of solar power with the pump, using standard pipes and on optimal operational strategies employed to reduce losses within the network. Based on these findings, we conclude that with clear understanding of each subcomponent’s contributions to entire water supply system and optimizing their design and operations, more people will be made water secure in all seasons in the fragile environments.      

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    The Reticular Atomic Filter in the Vacuum: The Adaptability of the Electronic Cloud of Atoms that Make Up a Solid with Two Applications-Hydrogen and Pure Water

    Giovanna D’Alonzo

    DOI: 10.37421/mccr.2020.10.340

    In the vacuum, some solids could be used as gas filters not only through the empty spaces of the crystal lattice but also through the electronic clouds of the atoms that make up the solid. With the use of particular equipment in the vacuum we could obtain a new energy, look for the energy sufficient for the adaptability of the electronic cloud and obtain a suitable temperature for the adaptability of the electronic cloud. In the case suppose that the electronic clouds of the atoms constituting the solid are valued by the ions, this energy is subtracted from ion ionization energy in the total energy of the molecules distribution and, through some mathematical passages, we deduce a temperature sufficient for the passageway of the electronic cloud suitable for some solids. An ion and/or an atom to be filtered should have a smaller diameter than the atomic radius of the atom that constitutes the filter, for the transition through the electronic clouds. The gases could cross the solid or in the empty spaces of the crystal lattice or in the electronic clouds of the atoms that make up the solid due to the difference between the force fields. In this way, during the passage the atoms and/or the ions composing the gas do not incorporate the nuclei of the atoms constituting the solid and avoid potential highs including the Yukawa potential. Possible future applications could improve the quality of life, in particular it would be possible to reduce atmospheric pollution by making molecular hydrogen.

 
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