Business and Economics Journal

ISSN: 2151-6219

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Monetary Policy, Climate Change and Financial Stability

    Sutiah Na

    The Climate change increases the risks to financial stability across economies, by exposing economic activity, assets and capital flows to exogenous shocks. This paper argues for �??Circular Monetary Economics�?�, an approach to monetary policy that seeks to green and prudentially insulate the design and implementation of liquidity and credit facilities. Central banks repo market operations and liquidity infusions occasion a structural liquidity mismatch in financial markets, but could be sued to incentivise the transition towards a greener economy. By aligning credit growth and standards with central bank liquidity, commercial banks will be incentivised to green and insulate their portfolios against extreme climate events. Circular monetary economics will lessen the probability of cross-asset contamination within financial institutions and contagion within the broader financial system, whilst simultaneously improving the transmissions from changes in the policy rate as well as macro-prudential regimes in the event of a climate or credit-driven financial shock.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Impact Umurenge Sacco to Financial Inclusion in Rwanda

    Jean Bosco Harelimana

    This study examines the impact of Umurenge SACCOs to financial inclusion in Rwanda. Secondary data which are time series were analyses with objectives to find out whether U-SACCO have impact to financial inclusion with baseline to 3 dimensions of Quality, accessibility and usage are dimensions of financial inclusion. This study used descriptive analysis and both excel and STATA used in computing data. The finding of this study demonstrated the positive impact of U-SACCOs to financial inclusion. However, government should put more attention on quality of financial service in SACCOs by automating of all SACCOs.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    The Relationship between Financial Integration and Stock Market Efficiency: Evidence from the Pre-And PostGlobal Financial Crisis

    Bensethom Emna*

    The aim of this paper is to study the potential effect of the financial integration and market microstructure in informational efficiency, in the context of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. Our sample comprises ten developed and African emerging markets over the period from 2003 to 2012. Using the same methodology adopted, our findings show several interesting facts. First, the markets that are more integrated with the US market are also more efficient. Moreover, this significant and positive association is established in both subgroups of developed and African stock markets. Second, the relationship between informational efficiency and financial integration loses its explanatory power over the global financial crisis period and during which African emerging markets seem to be more volatile than their developed counterparts. Overall, our results confirm that the potential benefits of financial integration process are important in the African region, which might attract foreign investors hoping not only to maximize the expected return of their portfolio but also to minimize the associated risk.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    A Systematic Review of Knowledge Spillovers from Renewable Energy Technologies (Rets) in Cameroon

    Henri Kouam

    Increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon have significant adverse environmental and socio-economic implications, more so for developing with little climate-centric infrastructure. This paper investigates the salience of renewable energy in addressing climate risks and forming the basis of an innovation-centric growth model. It analyses the prevalence of knowledge spillovers in Cameroon using patents as a proxy for innovation and drawing from a broad-based international literature spanning. The study finds a propensity for knowledge spillovers, which occur from renewable energy to innovation due to learning-by-doing. Additionally, spatial distributions of knowledge clusters are found to result from tacit circulation of technological information within and across industries. The paper finds the need for policymakers to prioritize climate-centric infrastructure to lessen environmental externalities and redress socio-economic and regional imbalances. Meanwhile, second-round effects will incite cross-industry applications from Renewable energy technologies (Rets) and achieve broader development and socio-economic objectives ranging from poverty reduction, innovation and sustainable economic growth.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Assessment the Structural Adjustment Policies in Sudan via (VECM) Model through the period 1989-2019

    Almahdi Musa Attahir Musa1*, Omer Abdelrahman Mohammed Mansour2

    The paper aimed to assessment the structural adjustment policies in Sudan. The paper problem was formulated in following main question: What were the most important objectives of structural adjustment policies and programs? The paper was based on the following main assumption: Structural adjustment policies and programs in Sudan have not achieved the desired goals. The paper used the descriptive and analytical approaches. The study reached that GDP, Per Capita (PC) and External Debt (ED) had inverse impact on Economic Growth (EG), while inflation rate and Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) they had a direct impact on (GR). The paper recommended that the necessity of evaluating the structural adjustment policies to know the reasons for their failure, and then adopting
    alternative policies that.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Structural Breaks in the Consumption of Tobacco in Kenya.

    Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge

    The linear relationship between time series variables is normally assumed to be stationary or simply the mean and variances do not change over time and the covariance of a variable and its lagged values are constant over time. In real situations there are some major events that can influence the fluctuations of such time series variables. Structural changes can identify whether the linear relationship between independent and dependent variable changes over some time t. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the major structural breaks in tobacco consumption in Kenya for the period 1980 to 2016. The data used was extracted from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and Government statistical abstracts. The independent variables are the prices of tobacco both before and after tax and per capita income. The Zivot-Andrews test was applied to test one structural break, but Clement-Montane and Reyes test was used to identify the multiple structural changes. The results obtained were presented in a table form and figure for visual identification. Zivot Andrews showed that there were major and significant structural breaks in tobacco consumption in the year 2007(t-statistic value is -6.366), prices before tax in the year 1999(t-statistic value is -4.882) and per capita income had a break year 2006 (t-statistic value is -2.627). Clement Montane and Reyes results indicated that the variables under study had significant break years (p-values were less than 5 per cent significance level). Based on the results obtained, the consumption of tobacco had two major break structural breaks in the year, 1994 and 2003, similarly the income per capita break years were 1999 and 2009, also, the prices before and after-tax break years were in 1996 and 2003, and in 1995 and 2009 respectively. This structural change is an important observation in analysis as it improves the efficiency of the estimates and assist researchers and governments to identify policies that can help reduce tobacco use, reduce diseases associated with tobacco for a functional healthy nation.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    A Critical Assessment of Poverty Reducing Employment Strategies for Africa

    Wilfred Awung Ndongko and Ismaila Amadu

    This paper critically assessed some employment poverty reducing strategies put in place in Africa. From the assessment, it was realized that the strategies did not adequately contribute to generate decent and well remunerating jobs that could substantially curb poverty. As a result of this limited success of the strategies was partly attributed to limited public investments, inadequate planning and execution of development projects, dreadful mismanagement and poor allocation of resources, etc. Consequently, Africa habours about half of the world’s poor, vulnerable and underprivileged population. Thus, in an effort to reverse the situation, it is recommended that African countries should: provide professional and scientific training and education which is relevant to the needs of their economies; put in place a range of incentives which would attract foreign investments that will transform their primary and agricultural products locally; promote the intensive use of labour in implementing sustainable projects; and increase their investment in Science, Technology and Innovatio.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Poverty Reduction Strategies: Evidence from U-Microfinance Bank

    Iram Rani, Minhoon Khan Laghari, Hira Rani Shaikh and Muhammad Asif Channa

    This Study intends the assessment of micro loan by U microfinance from females of upper Sindh. The core objective was to assess the impact of U-Microfinance on poverty level of female for improving their living standards by providing them micro loans to be used for their small-scale business which could enable them to be empowered politically, socially, economically, and assessing its impacts on the health and education of their families. Therefore, this Study was conducted on assessment of microloan interventions of U Micro finance in the rural areas of upper Sindh. Quantitative approach used to measure the impact of micro loan on the poverty status of the female along with a qualitative study to further confirm the findings. In this study quasi experimental design was used in which two groups of data from the same respondents assuming the data ‘Before-loan and After-Loan Situation’ from the female borrowers of Khairpur, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Larkana and Dadu Districts of Upper Sindh. Poverty Score Card was used as a survey instrument originally developed by World Bank for each region separately. The indicators used in questionnaire were education of self and children, number of family members, rooms in the house, basic household facilities to advanced i.e. washing machine, cooking stove heater, Air Conditioner and television along with indicators of other assets like live Stock, engine driven vehicles and agricultural land.

    Global Bank (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Economic Role in Health Sector

      Adel Pinda*

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      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      How the Market Dividend Payouts External Governance and Mechanisms Control the Family Firms

      Chia-Chen Teng*

      This study examines how three external governance mechanisms interact with the internal family-governance system to influence dividend payout decisions. The findings indicate that family businesses deliver fewer dividends when the market prefers dividends. Contrarily, family firms release more dividends under greater monitoring from institutional investors and debt holders. The study expands various theories and generates policy implications.

      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Oil Price and Brazilian Economic Indicators

      Regina Meyer Branski*

      The oil price variations affect the economy of all countries. In 2006, Brazil discovered important oil reserves in the so-called pre-salt and became an important producer. Consequently, it became more affected by fluctuations in the price of this commodity. The impact of changes in oil price on a country's economy can be assessed by looking at its relationship with the economic indicators. The objective of the study was to identify patterns and relationships between the oil price and the following Brazilian economic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Trade Balance, Inflation, Tax Collection, and Unemployment Rate. After collecting quarterly data for the last 20 years, between 2000 and 2019, it was applied the statistical tests of Cross-Correlation, Granger Causality, and Cointegration. The cross-correlation test showed that increases in the oil price are moderately associated with increases in GDP and Tax Collection. Oil prices and Inflation showed a weak negative correlation, not showing association. The correlation between oil prices and unemployment was negative moderate, indicating that the increases in oil prices are associated with the fall in employment. Finally, the correlation between oil prices and the Trade Balance varied from negative to positive. Evidence of Granger’s causality was found only between the oil price series causing GDP. And it was not found cointegration in any series, which indicates non-existent long-term relationships. The identification of patterns and relationships between oil prices and economic indicators contributes to the adoption of

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

      Foam Glass Market is growing at CAGR 15.5% by 2026

      John Rohan*

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      Research Pages: 1 - 5

      Influence of Customer Experience on Customer Loyalty in Apparel B2C E-commerce

      Wei Yin and Bugao Xu*

      Customer loyalty is one of the keys to establishing a sustainable business in apparel B2C e-commerce, and it is influenced tremendously by customer’s online shopping experience. In this paper, we conducted a survey on customer experience, alternative attractiveness, and customer loyalty, and created a model to analyze the associations among these attributes. Customer experience was measured from five dimensions: website, product, service, brand and emotion. In the analytical model, the dimensions of customer experience were taken as independent variables, customer loyalty as a dependent variable, and alternative attractiveness as a moderating variable. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess the impacts of customer experience and alternative attractiveness on customer loyalty. Based on the survey data of 250 validated questionnaires, it was found that customer loyalty is significantly correlated with all the five dimensions of customer experience and with alternative attractiveness. Among the five dimensions of customer experience, service, emotion, and product experiences have slightly higher correlations than website and brand experiences. Alternative attractiveness has a small negative correlation with on customer loyalty.

      Volume 13, Issue 4 (2022)

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        Behavioural and Health Economics

        Lori Heise*

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.379

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        Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Effects of Human Resources Training on Organizational Performance of United Nations Development Program (Undp) — Rwanda

        Jean Bosco Harelimana* and Marie Claire Diane Kalikesha

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.377

        This study probes into the effects of human resource training on organizational performance of UNDP RWANDA. Training is developed through organized programs that ensure employees are given skills that are essential in the job market. When employees are not well trained, they tend to be unmotivated, investing little or no effort in their jobs, avoiding the workplace as much as possible and produce low quality work. The general objective of the study is to establish the effects of Human Resource training on organizational performance of UNDP/Rwanda. After the HRTP conducted at UNDP-Rwanda, the results shows that 48 respondents equal to 81.4%, employees earned between 90-100 marks during the performance evaluation, then 11 respondents equal to 18.6% obtained between 80-90%. It means that the performance of UNDP-Rwanda employees is greater than before due to the Human resource training program strategy conducted by the institution. Therefore, when the staff is performed the institution’s goals are also achieved. The findings show that 57.6% of respondents said that after the HRT at UNDP-Rwanda the Quality Improvement of service delivery is highly attained and 28.8% of respondents said that customers are satisfied then the accreditation process were be aware, this responded by 13.6% of respondents. Therefore, the 64% of respondents said that after the HRT at UNDP-Rwanda the qualityof- service delivery has been increased this is a better indicator show that the HRT strategy achieves its objectives such as quality improvement, customers care satisfaction and accreditation process awareness. It is recommended that managers have to continue attracting employees and retain them basing on equitably selection of employees to attend the training, because it is most important for organizational performance and goals achievement. The existence of HRTP for Rwandan Public institutions leads to the performance and achievement of Institution’s goals. Therefore, UNDP-Rwanda as it has an indicator that shows the capacity of skilled staff helped the institution to become competitive and productive.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Feedback & its Relevance in Communication

        Vivitsa Upasti*

        DOI: 10.37421/21516219.2022.13.378

        The Shannon-Weaver’s Model of Communication fences communication out to the transmission of message from sender to the receiver. It is a linear process with subsequent to’s and fro’s. It also talks about various external factors that affect the transmission of messages – noise, fields of experience and response. The response makes it an iterative model where sender can alter communication based on the feedback. Certain scenarios may exist where communication is facilitated by way of various directives to achieve certain outputs. Here, the role of feedback is dominant. Ideally, the barriers of noise ought to be overcome and the message should make its way into the receiver’s field of experience, avoiding ambiguity.

        To facilitate this, how an individual reacts to a certain set of messages ought to be anticipated. The most direct way to do this is to gauge feedback. This paper attempts to assimilate, and delve into the intricacies of the role perceptions play, and examine how a feedback can be put through the membrane of relevance to ensure successful communication. This is done keeping in mind the ambiguity it can avoid; especially in the sphere of workplace communication, where the meeting of minds is often the backbone of potential productivity.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Effects of Central Bank of Rwanda Regulations on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Rwanda

        Jean Bosco Harelimana* and Rose Marie Alice Uwibambe

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.376

        The study was about the effects of central bank of Rwanda regulations on the financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda, a case study of Bank of Kigali (BK) PLC. The data was collected from audited financial statement of the bank under study, 13 head of departments in Bank of Kigali as were as central bank of Rwanda regulations. The techniques used in data collection include documentary and interview, to analyse the findings descriptive statistical and inferential statistics were used. The findings shows that that the majority of respondents with 61.5% mentioned that Capital adequacy regulation help BK to protect shareholders equity against risks, 38.5% of the total interviewee confirmed that Capital adequacy helps BK to allocate existing resources effectively. The results demonstrated that 38.9% of the total interviewed confirmed that BNR’s Credit risk management requirement help Bank of Kigali PLC to reduce NPLs. They furthermore said that to avoid much negative effect of credit risk Bank of Kigali always prepare provision of these NPLS at 100%. On the issues of the effects of liquidity Management regulations on the financial performance of Bank of Kigali PLC results demonstrate that 38.8% of respondents said that central bank’s liquidity management requirement help BK to always meet it short term obligations. Results also shows that 15.4% of the total respondents confirmed that central bank’s Liquidity management requirement help BK to keep up its Brand. The analysis shows that there is a significance relationship between the central bank of Rwanda regulations and the financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda.

        Volume 13, Issue 5 (2022)

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