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Business and Economics Journal

ISSN: 2151-6219

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Monetary Policy, Climate Change and Financial Stability

    Sutiah Na

    The Climate change increases the risks to financial stability across economies, by exposing economic activity, assets and capital flows to exogenous shocks. This paper argues for �??Circular Monetary Economics�?�, an approach to monetary policy that seeks to green and prudentially insulate the design and implementation of liquidity and credit facilities. Central banks repo market operations and liquidity infusions occasion a structural liquidity mismatch in financial markets, but could be sued to incentivise the transition towards a greener economy. By aligning credit growth and standards with central bank liquidity, commercial banks will be incentivised to green and insulate their portfolios against extreme climate events. Circular monetary economics will lessen the probability of cross-asset contamination within financial institutions and contagion within the broader financial system, whilst simultaneously improving the transmissions from changes in the policy rate as well as macro-prudential regimes in the event of a climate or credit-driven financial shock.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Impact Umurenge Sacco to Financial Inclusion in Rwanda

    Jean Bosco Harelimana

    This study examines the impact of Umurenge SACCOs to financial inclusion in Rwanda. Secondary data which are time series were analyses with objectives to find out whether U-SACCO have impact to financial inclusion with baseline to 3 dimensions of Quality, accessibility and usage are dimensions of financial inclusion. This study used descriptive analysis and both excel and STATA used in computing data. The finding of this study demonstrated the positive impact of U-SACCOs to financial inclusion. However, government should put more attention on quality of financial service in SACCOs by automating of all SACCOs.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    The Relationship between Financial Integration and Stock Market Efficiency: Evidence from the Pre-And PostGlobal Financial Crisis

    Bensethom Emna*

    The aim of this paper is to study the potential effect of the financial integration and market microstructure in informational efficiency, in the context of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. Our sample comprises ten developed and African emerging markets over the period from 2003 to 2012. Using the same methodology adopted, our findings show several interesting facts. First, the markets that are more integrated with the US market are also more efficient. Moreover, this significant and positive association is established in both subgroups of developed and African stock markets. Second, the relationship between informational efficiency and financial integration loses its explanatory power over the global financial crisis period and during which African emerging markets seem to be more volatile than their developed counterparts. Overall, our results confirm that the potential benefits of financial integration process are important in the African region, which might attract foreign investors hoping not only to maximize the expected return of their portfolio but also to minimize the associated risk.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    A Systematic Review of Knowledge Spillovers from Renewable Energy Technologies (Rets) in Cameroon

    Henri Kouam

    Increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon have significant adverse environmental and socio-economic implications, more so for developing with little climate-centric infrastructure. This paper investigates the salience of renewable energy in addressing climate risks and forming the basis of an innovation-centric growth model. It analyses the prevalence of knowledge spillovers in Cameroon using patents as a proxy for innovation and drawing from a broad-based international literature spanning. The study finds a propensity for knowledge spillovers, which occur from renewable energy to innovation due to learning-by-doing. Additionally, spatial distributions of knowledge clusters are found to result from tacit circulation of technological information within and across industries. The paper finds the need for policymakers to prioritize climate-centric infrastructure to lessen environmental externalities and redress socio-economic and regional imbalances. Meanwhile, second-round effects will incite cross-industry applications from Renewable energy technologies (Rets) and achieve broader development and socio-economic objectives ranging from poverty reduction, innovation and sustainable economic growth.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Assessment the Structural Adjustment Policies in Sudan via (VECM) Model through the period 1989-2019

    Almahdi Musa Attahir Musa1*, Omer Abdelrahman Mohammed Mansour2

    The paper aimed to assessment the structural adjustment policies in Sudan. The paper problem was formulated in following main question: What were the most important objectives of structural adjustment policies and programs? The paper was based on the following main assumption: Structural adjustment policies and programs in Sudan have not achieved the desired goals. The paper used the descriptive and analytical approaches. The study reached that GDP, Per Capita (PC) and External Debt (ED) had inverse impact on Economic Growth (EG), while inflation rate and Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) they had a direct impact on (GR). The paper recommended that the necessity of evaluating the structural adjustment policies to know the reasons for their failure, and then adopting
    alternative policies that.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Structural Breaks in the Consumption of Tobacco in Kenya.

    Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge

    The linear relationship between time series variables is normally assumed to be stationary or simply the mean and variances do not change over time and the covariance of a variable and its lagged values are constant over time. In real situations there are some major events that can influence the fluctuations of such time series variables. Structural changes can identify whether the linear relationship between independent and dependent variable changes over some time t. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the major structural breaks in tobacco consumption in Kenya for the period 1980 to 2016. The data used was extracted from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and Government statistical abstracts. The independent variables are the prices of tobacco both before and after tax and per capita income. The Zivot-Andrews test was applied to test one structural break, but Clement-Montane and Reyes test was used to identify the multiple structural changes. The results obtained were presented in a table form and figure for visual identification. Zivot Andrews showed that there were major and significant structural breaks in tobacco consumption in the year 2007(t-statistic value is -6.366), prices before tax in the year 1999(t-statistic value is -4.882) and per capita income had a break year 2006 (t-statistic value is -2.627). Clement Montane and Reyes results indicated that the variables under study had significant break years (p-values were less than 5 per cent significance level). Based on the results obtained, the consumption of tobacco had two major break structural breaks in the year, 1994 and 2003, similarly the income per capita break years were 1999 and 2009, also, the prices before and after-tax break years were in 1996 and 2003, and in 1995 and 2009 respectively. This structural change is an important observation in analysis as it improves the efficiency of the estimates and assist researchers and governments to identify policies that can help reduce tobacco use, reduce diseases associated with tobacco for a functional healthy nation.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    A Critical Assessment of Poverty Reducing Employment Strategies for Africa

    Wilfred Awung Ndongko and Ismaila Amadu

    This paper critically assessed some employment poverty reducing strategies put in place in Africa. From the assessment, it was realized that the strategies did not adequately contribute to generate decent and well remunerating jobs that could substantially curb poverty. As a result of this limited success of the strategies was partly attributed to limited public investments, inadequate planning and execution of development projects, dreadful mismanagement and poor allocation of resources, etc. Consequently, Africa habours about half of the world’s poor, vulnerable and underprivileged population. Thus, in an effort to reverse the situation, it is recommended that African countries should: provide professional and scientific training and education which is relevant to the needs of their economies; put in place a range of incentives which would attract foreign investments that will transform their primary and agricultural products locally; promote the intensive use of labour in implementing sustainable projects; and increase their investment in Science, Technology and Innovatio.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Poverty Reduction Strategies: Evidence from U-Microfinance Bank

    Iram Rani, Minhoon Khan Laghari, Hira Rani Shaikh and Muhammad Asif Channa

    This Study intends the assessment of micro loan by U microfinance from females of upper Sindh. The core objective was to assess the impact of U-Microfinance on poverty level of female for improving their living standards by providing them micro loans to be used for their small-scale business which could enable them to be empowered politically, socially, economically, and assessing its impacts on the health and education of their families. Therefore, this Study was conducted on assessment of microloan interventions of U Micro finance in the rural areas of upper Sindh. Quantitative approach used to measure the impact of micro loan on the poverty status of the female along with a qualitative study to further confirm the findings. In this study quasi experimental design was used in which two groups of data from the same respondents assuming the data ‘Before-loan and After-Loan Situation’ from the female borrowers of Khairpur, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Larkana and Dadu Districts of Upper Sindh. Poverty Score Card was used as a survey instrument originally developed by World Bank for each region separately. The indicators used in questionnaire were education of self and children, number of family members, rooms in the house, basic household facilities to advanced i.e. washing machine, cooking stove heater, Air Conditioner and television along with indicators of other assets like live Stock, engine driven vehicles and agricultural land.

    Global Bank (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Economic Role in Health Sector

      Adel Pinda*

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      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      How the Market Dividend Payouts External Governance and Mechanisms Control the Family Firms

      Chia-Chen Teng*

      This study examines how three external governance mechanisms interact with the internal family-governance system to influence dividend payout decisions. The findings indicate that family businesses deliver fewer dividends when the market prefers dividends. Contrarily, family firms release more dividends under greater monitoring from institutional investors and debt holders. The study expands various theories and generates policy implications.

      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Oil Price and Brazilian Economic Indicators

      Regina Meyer Branski*

      The oil price variations affect the economy of all countries. In 2006, Brazil discovered important oil reserves in the so-called pre-salt and became an important producer. Consequently, it became more affected by fluctuations in the price of this commodity. The impact of changes in oil price on a country's economy can be assessed by looking at its relationship with the economic indicators. The objective of the study was to identify patterns and relationships between the oil price and the following Brazilian economic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Trade Balance, Inflation, Tax Collection, and Unemployment Rate. After collecting quarterly data for the last 20 years, between 2000 and 2019, it was applied the statistical tests of Cross-Correlation, Granger Causality, and Cointegration. The cross-correlation test showed that increases in the oil price are moderately associated with increases in GDP and Tax Collection. Oil prices and Inflation showed a weak negative correlation, not showing association. The correlation between oil prices and unemployment was negative moderate, indicating that the increases in oil prices are associated with the fall in employment. Finally, the correlation between oil prices and the Trade Balance varied from negative to positive. Evidence of Granger’s causality was found only between the oil price series causing GDP. And it was not found cointegration in any series, which indicates non-existent long-term relationships. The identification of patterns and relationships between oil prices and economic indicators contributes to the adoption of

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

      Foam Glass Market is growing at CAGR 15.5% by 2026

      John Rohan*

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      Research Pages: 1 - 5

      Influence of Customer Experience on Customer Loyalty in Apparel B2C E-commerce

      Wei Yin and Bugao Xu*

      Customer loyalty is one of the keys to establishing a sustainable business in apparel B2C e-commerce, and it is influenced tremendously by customer’s online shopping experience. In this paper, we conducted a survey on customer experience, alternative attractiveness, and customer loyalty, and created a model to analyze the associations among these attributes. Customer experience was measured from five dimensions: website, product, service, brand and emotion. In the analytical model, the dimensions of customer experience were taken as independent variables, customer loyalty as a dependent variable, and alternative attractiveness as a moderating variable. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess the impacts of customer experience and alternative attractiveness on customer loyalty. Based on the survey data of 250 validated questionnaires, it was found that customer loyalty is significantly correlated with all the five dimensions of customer experience and with alternative attractiveness. Among the five dimensions of customer experience, service, emotion, and product experiences have slightly higher correlations than website and brand experiences. Alternative attractiveness has a small negative correlation with on customer loyalty.

      Volume 13, Issue 10 (2022)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

        Dynamics of Customer Engagement

        Eman Abo Elhamd*, Hamed M. Shamma, Mohamed Saleh and Ihab El-Khodary

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.408

        Customer Engagement Value (CEV) is a crucial concept for measuring the comprehensive value of a customer without overvaluation or undervaluation. CEV consists of four main components that comprehensively capture the transactional and non-transactional behavior of a customer within a firm. Traditional models contributed to measuring the value of each CEV’s component separately. Only a few researchers contributed to constructing a comprehensive framework for CEV to combine its components altogether. Meanwhile, these previous models either were theoretical or utilized gamification concepts for describing the relationship between a firm and its customers. The objective of this paper is to design a more realistic and comprehensive framework that captures CEV’s components’ relationships using a non-linear model. The elasticity parameters the determine the effect of each component in this non-linear model are determined using an online survey. These parameters are plugged in a system dynamics model that its relationships are formulated based on that non-linear model. The proposed CEV’s system dynamics model is applied only using imperial data. It proved the significance of both purchasing and non-purchasing components in CEV. It is recommended to be applied to real-life data to confirm its effectiveness.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Testing for Unit Roots and Structural Breaks: Evidence from Banking Sector Reforms in Nigeria

        Okoi Innocent Obeten*, Effiong Charles and Offem lekam

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.405

        This paper examines the structural breaks dates for capital base, interest rates, exchange rates, corporate governance and economic growth in Nigeria using annual banking reform variables data spanning from 1970 through 2015. The theory used in the research was Balance growth theory. The study applied conventional unit root test of Augmented Dicker Fuller (ADF). Time series properties of the data are analyzed using Chow test approach to examine the more likely time of structural breaks in banking reform variables of the Nigerian economy. The study has established that structural breaks exist in all banking reform variables employed in the study. We therefore, conclude that structural change is pervasive in banking sector reform and it can be quite dangerous to ignore. It was recommended that given that structural breaks are associated with regime changes, there is need for the potential use of regime switching models in Nigeria.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        Evolution in the Seasonality in Equity Return: Revisiting the Day-Of-The-Week Effect in the US

        Iyad Snunu*

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.407

        One of the widely discussed issues in the financial literature is the daily seasonality in asset prices. In this study, we shed fresh lights and explore the evolution of weekday seasonality in the US capital market. For this sake, we utilize daily data for the period January 1990 to August 2022. We compare between cross-section portfolios including, for example, size-based profitability-based as well as risk-based portfolios. We find that Monday effect does not exist in both small and large cap firms. Yet, Fridays are associated with positive returns mainly for small size firms. Different subsamples and moving-sample window tests reveal mixed findings. Overall, our results indicate high degree of financial efficiency in information. Scholars and market participants may find our results useful.

        Review Pages: 1 - 3

        The Impact of COVID-19 Paroxysm on Businesses and Markets: A Global Affair

        Aphu Elvis Selase*

        DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.409

        Although COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, its effects are still being seen today. Governments all around the world implemented stringent measures in an effort to limiting cases and slow the virus' rate of spread because of the illnesses' Chinese origins and quick worldwide spread. However, these strategies have shattered the key pillars supporting modern world economies when nationalist concentration and struggle over scarce resources eclipsed global commerce and collaboration. The covid outbreak had major economic effects on every country in the world, and it doesn't seem to appear that any nation will be exempted. This has an adverse effect not only on the economy but also on society as a whole, which has drastically altered how both firms and customers conduct themselves. Interestingly, most governments in the African continent especially see this mire as good news and a necessary evil by putting the blame on the epidemic for their failure in government and subsequently failing the citizens. The status quo has created an atmosphere of terror and insecurity in individuals so much so that, people are now timid to complain or go to the hospital of normal headaches, fever, stomachaches, malaria and even the common cold we all know of. Once you cough in public, you will not only be lucky for people around running away from you but will draw the attention of the police on you in addition. When will?

        Volume 13, Issue 9 (2022)

          Research Pages: 1 - 6

          The Determinants of Bank Profitability: Evidence from Iraq

          Zainalabdeen Abbas Hasan* and Hamid Mohsin Jadah

          DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.396

          This study attempts to ascertain how the profitability of the food and beverage sub-sector firms listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange over the period of 2015–2018 is affected by the company's financial performance, which is calculated from total assets, net capital, and total asset turnover. The technique involves gathering secondary data from the company's ISE financial statements. The study test instrument employed multiple linear regression inference as well as descriptive statistical analysis. The findings revealed that the profitability of enterprises in the food and beverage sub-sector was not significantly impacted by total assets, net working capital, or total assets turnover, or by joint contribution, which likewise had no significant impact on profitability.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          The Role of Financial Institutions on Employment in Mogadishu- Somalia

          Abdirahman Jimale Adan*, Abdiaziz Ahmed Ibrahim, Mohamed Hussein Abdi, Maryan Abdullahi Abdi and Bile Abdi Siyad

          DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.395

          Financial institutions become much more effective, play a vital character in the Somali economy, which led to become a big part of the employment sector. So, in this study, we will Aim to investigate the role of financial institutions on employment in Mogadishu Somalia And the research design was descriptive research design and a questionnaire was used to collect research data from a sample size of 123 respondents from the target population and that date we collected from the respondents shows that in terms of occupation, 46 (37.4%) of our respondents was Financial Institution Clients, while 37 (30.1%) were Financial Institution staff, and, 40 (32.5%) were Financial Institution managers and reason we targeted those was to get valid data from someone who is involved or somehow linked to financial institution And for Data analysis we used the statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) version 23, and most of the respondents agreed that financial institutions have a significant and encouraging role on employment in Mogadishu.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

          Fraud Risk Management

          Jidong Chen*

          DOI: 10.37421/2151-6219.2022.13.400

          Understanding the weak points in your business is the first step in preventing fraud. You can analyse the risks that your business confronts based on its particular complexity, scale, products, and market exposure by doing a thorough risk assessment. Risk assessment examines all potential risks, their likelihood of occurring, and the associated costs. Employees are the first to be assessed. It's important to have a comprehensive awareness of how employees deal with corporate resources on a daily basis. Internal fraud is frequently fuelled by the advantages and opportunities offered by the company. Senior management ought to think about evaluating their system installation and communication strategies. In addition, risk might occur outside, particularly if a firm deals with from there, a framework that is cost-effective is built using a risk-tolerance limit. The most money an organisation is willing to lose is known as its risk tolerance limit. This restriction is helpful because it provides a foundation upon which to build your plan and makes risk assessment quantitative. Risks that exceed the limit and are consequently most harmful to the organisation can receive more attention.

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