Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

ISSN: 2376-0214

Open Access

Volume 1, Issue 2 (2014)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

Variation in Taxonomic Diversity of the Fish Assemblage Associated with Soft Bottoms in San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Juaristi Videgaray Diego, Barjau Gonzalez Emelio, Vadillo Romero Eleonora and Piñera Romo Abril K

DOI: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000118

The San Ignacio Lagoon is one of the largest in the northwest area of Baja California Sur; it is characterized by high levels of commercial fish catch; however the number of investigations related to taxonomic diversity is low. The variation in taxonomic diversity was determined for the assemblage of fish associated with soft bottoms, at 11 locations in a period from spring of 1998 to winter of 1999. Variation in diversity of the soft bottom fish were evaluated considering the taxonomic distance between species, using the indices of alpha, average alpha, beta and gamma diversity, also the indices of taxonomic distinctness (Δ*) and average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+). Bottom trawls were performed using an experimental net to an average depth of 5 m, between 9:00 to 17:00 h 1361 organisms were observed, belonging to 44 species on 35 genera. According to the average alpha, beta and gamma diversity indices, the season with higher value on average alpha diversity was summer, with 6.68 species followed by spring with 5.73 species. In beta´s case the highest value was observed during spring (21.27%) followed by summer (20.18%). Taking gamma in account, the highest values were observed during spring and summer, both seasons with 27 species each. The lowest values observed according to the average alpha beta and gamma indices, was observed during winter season (5.27, 20.18% and 20 species, respectively). In the spatial analysis, the average taxonomic distinctness index (Δ+) show a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05), while taxonomic distinctness index (Δ*) showed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05). In the temporal analysis both indices showed no difference (p ≥ 0.05).

Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

Fermentative Itaconic Acid Production

Amina Ahmed El-Imam and Chenyu Du

DOI: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000119

Itaconic acid is an organic acid that is used as a platform chemical for the production of various value added chemicals such as poly-itaconic acid, resins biofuel components, ionomer cements etc. Itaconic acid and its derivatives have wide applications in the textile, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The depletion of fossil fuels and the need for sustainable development require that fermentative itaconic acid production replace petroleumbased methods of itaconic acid production. Various microorganisms have been employed in itaconic acid fermentations, with the most prolific producer being Aspergillus terreus. Over 80 g/L itaconic acid has been produced in fermentations using glucose. However, there is an increasing interest in the utilization of lignocellulosic materials for itaconic acid production due to the concern of food security. This review summarizes the latest progress in fermentative itaconic acid production with emphasis on the different species and strains of microorganisms used, substrate types and fermentation conditions. The current industrial applications of itaconic acid and its potential use as a drop-in or novel substitute monomer to replace petroleum-based chemicals were also extensively explored. Recent trends in itaconic acid research summarized in this review paper indicate that itaconic acid can be produced cost effectively from sustainable raw materials and have the potential to replace petro-based chemicals in various applications.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

Survey of Leishmania Infantum Chagasi in Wild and Domestic Animals in Urban Area and Atlantic Rainforest Fragment in Northeast, Brazil

Andréa P. da Costa, Juliana I. G. da S. Ferreira, Gislene F. da S. R. Fournier, Marcos G. Lopes, Diego Ramirez, Igor da C. L. Acosta, Julia T. R. de Lima, Marcelo B. Labruna, Solange M. Gennari and Arlei Marcili

DOI: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000120

Objective: Survey of Leishmania infantum chagasi in domestic and wild mammals in urban area and a Biological Reserve in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Methods: Domestic and wild mammals were captured in Brazilian northeast Atlantic Rainforest, Rio Grande do Norte state. Serological and parasitological studies were conducted; Leishmania isolates were positioned in phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences.

Results: Blood samples were collected from 138 wild and domestic mammals, comprising 66 dogs, 52 cats and 20 marsupials. Antibodies were found in 27 dogs (40.91%), two cats (3.85%) and one Didelphis albiventris (5%). The cultures of popliteal lymph node aspirates were positive in nine dogs (13.64%) and from seven (10.61%) the parasite was isolated and cryopreserved. All isolates were positioned in phylogeny based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH in the same branch with L. infantum chagasi.

Conclusions: The proximity of the forest fragment with humans and their domestic animals provide interference in the health of wild animals. Measures to control the population of feral cats and environmental conservation should be implemented due the importance of visceral leishmaniasis.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 15

Bioprocessing of Agricultural Residuals for the Optimum Production of Extracellular Xylanase by Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid State Fermentation (SsF)

Hooi Ling Ho and Stephanie Ak Sali

DOI: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000121

Objective: Xylanase production by Aspergillus species has become valuable and attractive due to its vast applications in pulp and paper, food and beverage, detergent and textiles industries. Xylanase is one of the hemicellulolytic enzymes that capable of hydrolysis of ß-1,4 xylans present in the lignocellulosic materials. Therefore, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 was used to investigate the maximum production of xylanase using various agricultural residuals in solid state fermentation (SsF).

Methods: SsF is the fermentation process of culturing microorganisms using humid solid substrates without emerging in culture broth. SsF has always been an attractive substitute of liquid culture for xylanase production due to its higher productivity per reactor volume, lower capital investment and lesser energy demand. Hence, various parameters of medium formulation were investigated to obtain the maximum activity of xylanase by A. brasiliensis in SsF. Additionally, to reduce the costs of production, agricultural residuals were used instead of xylan. In this study, the optimisation of carbon source using agricultural residuals combined with nitrogen source was elucidated for the maximum xylanase production by A. brasiliensis in SsF.

Results: From our results, 10 g wheat bran as the optimum agricultural residual was able to produce xylanase activity of 6.7091 U/mL at 48 h of SsF. Subsequently, 6.7115 U/mL of xylanase was obtained using wheat bran as the optimised carbon source at the substrate to moisture content ratio of 1:1. Interestingly, when 2% yeast extract was added, further study reviewed the maximum xylanase activity increased to 28.75%.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the optimum medium formulation for the maximum production of xylanase by A. brasiliensis was achieved using 10 g wheat bran as the optimised carbon source at the substrate to moisture ratio of 1:1 combined with 2% yeast extract as the optimum nitrogen source cultured at optimum temperature of 30°C at 150 rpm up to 48 h of SsF.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

Efficacy of Plant Extracts Against Subterranean Termites i.e., Microtermes obesi and Odontotermes lokanandi (Blattodea: Termitidae)

Abdul Sattar, Muhammad Naeem and Ehsan-ul -Haq

DOI: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000122

Leaf and seed crude extracts  at three concentrations (high, medium and low) of Euphorbia helioscopia L., Cannabis sativa L., and Calotropis procera (Ait.) were tested against workers and soldiers (4-5th instar) of Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes lokanandi Chatarjee and Thakur (Blattodea: Termitidae). Results revealed that all extracts showed moderate toxic effect. 100% mortalities were found in M. obesi and O. lokanandi on day 11 and 7 respectively. Our results showed that Mortalities in both species were concentration depended. Maximum mortalities were observed in high concentration, followed by medium and low. Our results also indicated that M. obesi was more resistant than O. lokanandi.

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