Renal transplantation has become the treatment of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is also essential for treatment in early graft survival and long-term graft function, which has made kidney transplantation a more cost-effective alternative to dialysis.
The introduction of cyclosporine in 1983 significantly improved the outcomes of all renal transplants by reducing the risk of rejection. Further innovations, including anti–T cell antibodies (both monoclonal and polyclonal preparations), as well as other maintenance immunosuppressants (eg, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and sirolimus), have made a significant impact on both patient and graft survival. Currently, 1-year patient and graft survival rates exceed 90% in most transplant centers