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Urinary Tract Infection during Pregnancy among Antenatal Mother
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Journal of Advanced Practices in Nursing

ISSN: 2573-0347

Open Access

Research - (2021) Volume 6, Issue 7

Urinary Tract Infection during Pregnancy among Antenatal Mother

AR Bharathi
1Department of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, India

Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. Increased incidence of UTI during pregnancy is due to the morphological and the physiological changes that take place in the genitourinary tract during pregnancy. Urinary tract infections are bacterial infection with a global annual incidence of approximately 150 million cases reported. In about 40% of women and 12% of men experience at least one symptomatic urinary tract infection during their life time and as many as 40% of affected in women show recurrent urinary tract infection. The prevalence of urinary tract infection in pregnancy women in India is reported to range from 31% to 24% reported. Studies have shown that urinary tract infection in pregnancy may result in maternal and foetal morbidity. The pregnant woman should be educated, about the physiological changes during pregnancy which may be one of the risk factors for development of urinary tract infection and also its prevention. Regular antenatal care should be taken to minimize the complications of pregnancy, and to ensure a healthy maternal and foetal outcome. To assess the knowledge regarding urinary tract infection during pregnancy and also finds the association of knowledge among antenatal mothers with selected demographic variables.

Introduction

Pregnancy, also known as gestation is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a women Urinary tract infection is infection that hold bacteria colonize the area through which urine make of the body during pregnancy the chance of acquiring these infection is increased the baby with grows your uterus expand this put pressure on your bladder and ureters under pressure urinary tract gets blocked and cannot drain urine properly in this situation the bacteria readily grow and thrive causing an infection the infection can run from the urethra up through the bladder and into the kidney and the ureters [1-2].

Urinary tract infection is infection that hold bacteria colonize the area through which urine make of the body during pregnancy the chance of acquiring these infection is increased the baby with grows your uterus expand this put pressure on your bladder and ureters under pressure urinary tract gets blocked and cannot drain urine properly in this situation the bacteria readily grow and thrive causing an infection the infection can run from the urethra up through the bladder and into the kidney and the ureters [3-4].

Urinary tract infections are bacterial infection with a global annual incidence of approximately 150 million cases. Pregnancy is biologically, physiologically, and psychologically stressful, even for healthy women. . Among these urinary tract infection is the most common medical complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 4-7% of pregnant women. Incidence of UTI during pregnancy in India is 8.8%. UTI will usually begin in at the 6thweek and peaks during 22 to 24th week of gestation, 90%of the pregnant women develop ureteric dilation thereby increasing the risk of urinary stasis and vesicoureteric reflux in addition glycosuria aminoaciduria during pregnancy provide an excellent culture medium for bacteria in urinary stasis these changes along with already short urethra and difficulty with hygiene due to distended pregnant belly increase the frequency of urinary tract infection in pregnant women [5-7].

Urinary tract infection is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure in all age group [1-2]. urinary tract infection account about 10% of primary care consultation by pregnant women and it was reported that up to 15% of women will have one episode of urinary tract infection at some time during their life [1] the incidence of urinary tract infection reported among pregnant mother is about 8% [1-2]. anatomically urinary tract infection can be classified into lower urinary tract infection involving the bladder and urethra and upper urinary tract infection involving the kidney and pelvic ureter. The majority of the urinary tract infection occur due to ascending infection [1,2,8-9].

Urinary tract infection symptoms during pregnancy burning feeling when you urinating, cloudy urine, foul smell, fever, pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, painful sex during. pregnancy urinary tract infection treated with antibiotics during pregnancy mainly antimicrobials under the categories of penicillin, amoxicillin, azithromycin, erythromycin they will recommend you taking these drug for a period lasting from 3 to 7 days even if the symptoms disappear you have to take the drug until the prescription is done lest the bacteria become resistant. Prevention of urinary tract infection drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day, always wiping from front to back whenever you go to the bathroom, urinating before and after sexual intercourse, wearing loosefitting pants, wearing cotton underwear [10,11].

Studies have shown that urinary tract infection in pregnancy may result in maternal and foetal morbidity. The pregnant woman should be educated, about the physiological changes during pregnancy which may be one of the risk factors for development of urinary tract infection and also its prevention. Regular antenatal care should be taken to minimize the complications of pregnancy, and to ensure a healthy maternal and foetal outcome. To assess the knowledge regarding urinary tract infection during pregnancy and also finds the association of knowledge among antenatal mothers with selected demographic variables.

Material and Method

The present studies approach adapted to assess the knowledge among primigravida mother related to urinary tract infection during pregnancy it include research approach is chapter describes the methodology followed a study to assess the knowledge among primigravida mother related to urinary tract infection during pregnancy it includes description of research approach techniques , development and description of the tool, validity, reliability, ethical consideration, data collection procedure and data entry and analysis.

Sample Size

Sample size of this study comprised of 40 antenatal mothers who were visiting antenatal clinic in primary health centre, guduvachery and fulfil the inclusion criteria.

Sampling Techniques

The sampling technique used was non probability convenient sampling techniques

Criteria for Sample Collection

Inclusion Criteria

â?? Antenatal mothers between the ages of 20-35 years.

â?? Who are in the first and second trimester of pregnancy?

â?? Antenatal mothers who were visit antenatal Check Up in primary health centre and who were willing to participate.

â?? Antenatal mothers above 20-40 weeks of gestations. Exclusion Criteria â?? Antenatal mothers who are not willing to participate in the study.

â?? Antenatal mothers who are not available at the time of study.

â?? Antenatal mothers who are already diagnosis with urinary tract infection.

â?? Antenatal mothers whose age less than 20.

â?? Antenatal mothers with high risk pregnancy.

Statistical Analysis

Frequency and percentage distribution were used to determine demographic variables and level of knowledge regarding urinary tract infection among antenatal mothers. Chi square test will be used to associate the level of knowledge regarding urinary tract infection among antenatal mothers.

Conclusion

This study was a study the level of UTI among antenatal mothers in primary health center, guduvachery. Extensive literature review and studies was done from primary and secondary sources that formed the basis of problem, development of tool, drawing the conceptual frame work and the methodology, and thus provided evidence based guidance for the study. The researcher adopted the descriptive research design. Non probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 30 samples based on inclusion criteria. The tool consisted of the demographic profile.

Funding

No funding sources.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest

Acknowledgement

The encouragement and support from Bharath University, Chennai is gratefully acknowledged. For provided the laboratory facilities to carry out the research work.

References

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4. Ikähelmo R, Siitonen A, Heiskanen T, and Kärkkäinen U, et al. "Recurrence of urinary tract infection in a primary care setting: Analysis of a I-year followup of 179 women." Clin Infect Dis 22 (1996): 91-99.

5. Stamm WE, McKevitt M, Roberts PL, and White NJ. White. "Natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women." Rev Infect Dis 13 (1991): 77-84.

6. Kunin CM. "Urinary tract infections in females." Clin Infect Dis 18 (1994): 1-10.

7. Gilstrap III, Larry C, and Susan M. Ramin. "Urinary tract infections during pregnancy." Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 28 (2001): 581-591.

8. Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, and Schild L, et al. "Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees." Obstet Gynecol 100 (2002): 94-100.

9. Wing DA, Fassett MJ, and Getahun D. "Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy: An 18-year retrospective analysis." Am J Obstet Gynecol 210 (2014): 219- e1.

10.Sheffield JS and Cunningham FG. ‘’Urinary tract infection in women’’ Obstet Gynecol 106 (2005): 1085-92. 11. Committee Opinion No. 717: ‘’Sulfonamides, Nitrofurantoin, and Risk of Birth Defects’’ Obstet Gynecol 130 (2017): 150-152.

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