Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and health centres are the traditional places where nurses work, but nurses have recently started working in new areas such as government and private schools, and they play a critical role in better health outcomes in the education setting. In order to better understand these roles, this study aimed to investigate the factors affecting job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction, autonomy, and self-efficacy amongst school nurses in Bahrain. This study used a mixed-method approach involving an exploratory sequential design with a survey and subsequent one-on-one interviews. A total of 142 school nurses in Bahrain were surveyed and data were collected using structured psychometric tools to measure job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and autonomy. Demographic characteristics of participants (gender, age, nursing specialty, professional development, appointing authority, and workload/population served) were also collected to allow for further analysis. The data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Twenty-seven school nurses were subsequently recruited for interviews using a purposeful sampling procedure. The data were subjected to thematic analysis using Burnard’s (1991) framework.