Pharmacokinetics | Open Access Journals

Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques

ISSN: 2155-9821

Open Access


Pharmacokinetics (from the Greek "pharmakon" drug "and kinetikos" move, set in motion "; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs, pesticides, food additives, cosmetics, etc. It tries to analyze the chemical metabolism and discover the fate of a chemical from the moment when it is administered to the point where it is completely eliminated from the body. Pharmacokinetics is the study of how an organism affects a drug, while pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of how the drug affects l The two together influence the dosage, benefits and side effects, as seen in the PK / PD models.

Pharmacokinetics describes how the body affects a specific xenobiotic / chemical after administration through absorption and distribution mechanisms, as well as metabolic changes of the substance in the body (for example, by metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 or the enzymes glucuronosyltransferase), and the effects and routes of excretion of the drug's metabolites. [2] The pharmacokinetic properties of chemicals are affected by the route of administration and the dose of drug administered. These can affect the absorption rate

Models have been developed to simplify the conceptualization of the many processes that take place in the interaction between an organism and a chemical substance. One of them, the multi-compartment model, is the most used approximation of reality; however, the complexity of adding parameters with this modeling approach means that the single compartment models and especially the two compartment models are the most frequently used. The various compartments into which the model is divided are commonly called the ADME scheme (also called the LADME if release is included as a separate step in absorption):

All these concepts can be represented by mathematical formulas which have a corresponding graphic representation. Using these models helps understand the characteristics of a molecule, as well as how a particular drug will behave given some of its basic characteristics such as its acid dissociation constant (pKa), bioavailability and solubility, absorption capacity and distribution in the body.

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