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Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques

ISSN: 2155-9821

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    The Effectiveness of the COVID-19 Vaccine by Analyzing the Death Rate/Mortality Corona Virus 19 and Confirmed the Corona Virus 19 in World during December 2020 Until September 2021

    Dodi Irwan Siregar*

    Viruses are important pathogens of high animals and the major cause of mortality, and they also are drivers of global geochemical cycles; yet, biological sciences considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different species, genera, phyla and even from one ecosystem to another. During the last decade, the increased awareness of the complexity of the immune system and its determinants, including at the host genetic level, indicated that using system biology approaches to assess how various processes and networks interact in response to immunization could prove more illustrative than trying to isolate and characterize a few components of vaccine responses. These immune-related concerns have largely spread into the population, and questions related to the immunological safety of vaccines that is, their capacity for triggering 2 non-antigen specific responses possibly leading to allergy, autoimmunity, or even premature death are being raised. Certain “off-targets effects” of vaccines have also been recognized and call for studies to quantify their impact and identify the mechanisms at play. This study uses multiple linear regression analysis to predict and predict changes in the value of certain variables when other variables change. Correlation is one of the statistical analysis techniques used to find the relationship of how strong the relationship between two or more variables that are quantitative. By using the Linearity Test (Lillie force test) where f count >f table is 787,62 >3,24Then, Ho is rejected. This means that multiple linear regression analysis can be used to predict The Corona virus 19 vaccine in world by analyzing Variable The death rate and Confirmed the corona virus 19 data. Obtained the multiple linear regression equation is Y=0.609211-3, 15845257X1 + 3,58359X2, the correlation value of the variables above is 0.98389 the value is superior correlation scale ranging from 0.76 to 0.99. Is where t1 count t table is 3,62523>2,009. Ho is rejected, it means that there is a large significant influence partially between the Corona virus 19 vaccine against confirmed the corona virus 19 variable in World on Desember 2020 until September 2021.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 15

    The State of the Art of PH Sensors for Fish Products Safety and Quality Controls

    Dagne Tarle Tarse* and Shimelis Admasu Emire

    DOI: 10.37421/2155-9821.2023.13.565

    Conventional glass electrodes and cutting-edge iridium oxide pH sensors were used to monitor fish product safety and quality controls. Because pH is used in so many chemical processes, practically all aqua samples have their pH checked at some point. So, amperometric or potentiometric devices are used in the most common pH sensor systems. Because of its excellent selectivity for hydrogen ions in a solution, durability, and ease of use, the most common potentiometric technique uses a glass electrode. Thus, tilapia fish samples were taken in the Gambella region's Baro River and promptly transferred to Addis Ababa, where they were held in the refrigerator until they were frozen. Mechanical unit operations were carried out at Wolkite university in food process engineering laboratories, Ethiopia. The liberated fish samples were dried in an oven before they were tested for pH at the JIJE Laboglass laboratory in Addis Ababa. Following the calibration of a standard solution with pH values of 4, 7, and 9.22, a solution made from a fish sample was calibrated, and the result was recorded on the pH meter. As a result, the pH values of the fish samples were 7.04 and 6.8 for direct and frozen samples, respectively. Hence, samples were reported as being at neutral levels. Due to the action of the quick-frozen method, or instantaneous freezing operation, the gapping problem after fish harvesting was negligible. Finally, it was determined that before conducting any nutritional parameters in the fish processing sector for the final finished containment, convenience, communicability, and protection of fish products, temperature, chemical activities, enzymatic activities, and microbiological deterioration must be managed. This is because fisheries require the most common processes used in the industry in the past, present, and future, so more scientific advancements should be made. In conclusion, prior to any processing unit operation, advanced pH measurement of fish safety and quality should be the primary application. As a result, it was the most effective approach for preventing fish and fish products from spoiling. In order to optimize the method, more research is needed to better understand the impact of proximal fish composition, post-harvest history, ambient conditions, microbial load, and the type and nature of bacteria. Therefore, pH testing is vital for fish safety and quality control of the finished products.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Determination of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extracts of Capparis tomentosa (Gumero)

    Habtamu Gedion Aynalem* and Melaku Belay Kitaw

    Capparis tomentosa is one the varieties of Capparis species commonly used traditional medicinal plants for various ailments like headache, pneumonia and malaria. The study was conducted to determine TPC, TFC and anti-oxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Capparis tomentosa. The results indicated that all extracts have reducing power of DPPH radical. Methanol and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Capparis  tomentosa have the highest total reducing power (90.38% and 82.193% respectively at concentration of 125 ppm for DPPH assay) and petroleum ether showed the lowest reducing power (0.392% at the lowest concentration 25 ppm) and for FRAP assay the same is true as DPPH assay;  methanol extract has the highest reducing power (85.574%) next to the standard ascorbic acid (89.866%) at a concentration of 200 ppm and the lowest was petroleum ether extract (76.533%) at the same concentration. When the concentration of the standard and the extract decrease its anti-oxidant activities also decrease. Qualitative phytochemical screening proves the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and tannins. Quantitative analysis of the extract for total phenolic and total flavonoid content revealed that the total phenolic content ranged from 53.93 to 195.97 mg/g of dry weight of extracts which expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The total TFC ranged from 58.4 mg/g (petroleum ether extract) to 175.104 mg/g (methanol extract) of dry weight of which was expressed as catechin equivalents.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Novel Galactose- Binding Lectin from Chlorella sorokiniana (MW769776)

    Savitha J*, Roopashri N Arekal, Ashwini Kumar, Gunashree BS and Divyashree MS

    A freshwater green microalgal strain was isolated, and presence of lectin was identified by its strong Hemagglutination Activity (HA). The molecular characterization of algal strain was found to be the Chlorella sorokiniana (MW769776). The Chlorella Sorokiniana Lectin (CSL) was purified by single-step affinity chromatography method using guar-gum as a resin. The precipitate showed single active peak with titer value of 1024 HU, specific activity of 539 mg/mL, and with purification factor. The purified lectin revealed single band on denaturing electrophoresis with. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) analysis of tryptic digested purified lectin suggested that it was a monomeric protein. A multiple sequence alignment study revealed that the peptide sequences of CSL exhibited similarity with the H-type lectin domain from Micractinium conductrix. The structure of CSL was studied by FTIR and homology modeling methods, indicating that its secondary structure contained α-helix, β-sheet, and unordered structure, whereas the 3D structure exhibited the similarity with proteins from light-harvesting reaction center complex of photosystem I. The main significance of this study includes the characteristics of CSL are consistent with its identification as a hemagglutinin, a kind of novel lectin, which suggests its candidature for various biological purposes.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Hypoglycemic Effect of the Ethyl-Acetate and Butanol Fractions of Mallotus oppostifollous in Mice

    Ifeanyi Peter Onyeka*, Valentine Onyeka Nwankwo, Omoirri Moses Aziokpono, Charity C Ezea, Chioma Ifeoma Ibe, Nnamdi Markben Adione, Gabriel Okwudili Ogbuozobe, Ebere Ifejirika Ezeonyi and Chioma Vivian Anidi

    A Background: Mallotus oppostifollous is a shrub that has historically been used to cure various ailments including infections, wounds, inflammations, and illnesses linked to oxidative stress in places they occur like South East Nigeria. In the present study the ethyl-acetate and butanol fractions of Mallotus oppostifollous was evaluated for the hypoglycemic and ant hyperglycemic effect using mice. 
    Methods: The dried powdered leaf of M. oppositifolius was extracted by cold maceration using absolute methanol, filtered and dried using rotary evaporator. The dried extract was partitioned into n-hexane, Ethyl Acetate (EAF), Butanol (BF), and Water Fraction (WF) using standard laboratory procedure. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg) and the animals were observed for hyperglycemia. A total of 42 hyperglycemic mice with were randomized into 7 experimental groups of six animals per group as follows; group 1 (untreated control), group 2 (hyperglycemic control), group 3 the positive control (metformin, 500 mg/kg) while groups 4 to 7 were administered 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of EAF and BF respectively.
    Results: The results showed that the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contained glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The findings further showed that mice treated with ethyl-acetate and butanol fractions of Mallotus oppostifollous had significant reduction (P<0.05) in fasting blood glucose levels within 10 hours of acute treatment and further showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in fasting blood glucose levels 14 days long term treatment when compared with the hyperglycemic control.
    Conclusion: We, therefore, conclude that the hypoglycemic potency of the fractions was greater in the ethyl-acetate fraction than the butanol fraction. Also, the histopathological result showed that mice treated with ethyl-acetate fraction had rejuvenated pancreatic β-cells islets and therefore suggested that ethyl-acetate fraction could contain compounds with known antidiabetic activity. Therefore, we recommend that further study should be carried out to isolate and characterize the compounds in the ethyl-acetate fraction responsible for the active hypoglycemic activity.

          Commentry Pages: 1 - 1

          BioFuel and Environment

          Shruji Deo

          Sustainable biofuels must be generated in order to reduce their environmental and economic impacts. The Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) is a global initiative that brings together growers, entrepreneurs, governments, NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs), and scientists who are concerned about the long-term feasibility of biofuel production and distribution. It released a set of tools for comprehending information. The International Energy Agency's Technology Partnership Programme on Bioenergy (IEA Bioenergy TCP) is an international platform for country cooperation aimed at improving cooperation and knowledge sharing among countries with national bioenergy research, production, and deployment programmes. Since biofuels are produced from biomass, they are long-lasting. Oil is a liquid, while water is a solid. The waste can be converted into fuel. Biofuels can be produced locally, which decreases the nation's dependence upon foreign energy. By reducing dependence on foreign fuel sources, countries can protect the integrity of their energy resources and make them safe from outside influences. Because biofuels are produced locally, biofuel manufacturing plants can employ hundreds or thousands of workers, creating new jobs in rural areas. Biofuel production will also increase the demand for suitable biofuel crops, providing economic stimulation to the agriculture industry. Traditional wood use in cook stoves and open fires, according to the IPCC, emits pollutants that can have serious health and environmental consequences.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

          Genetically Improved With a Variety of Introduced Genes, to Impart Pest and Disease Resistance

          Yureka Mosini

          The specialized triumphs of recombinant DNA innovation have offered bunch business applications, yet in addition unprecedented instruments for contemplating the hereditary qualities and organic chemistry that underlie crucial organic cycles in ordinary and sickness states - how qualities are directed, the component of hereditary recombination, the subtleties of macromolecular amalgamation, and the idea of authority over cell development and senescence. The original confirmation of-idea recombinant DNA analyze was the 1973 paper where they blended two plasmid DNAs processed with a limitation catalyst and, after ligation, presented the subsequent recombinant, or illusory. Recombinant DNA innovation emerged from the conversion of advances in microbiology, enzymology, and division and filtration strategies. At the point when the microbes were engendered, the plasmids containing heterologous DNA were moreover spread and delivered intensified measures of this recombinant DNA.

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Citations: 2541

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