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Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering

ISSN: 2169-0022

Open Access

Current Issue

6th World Congress on Bio-Polymers and Polymer Chemistry (2021)

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 1

    Gloeocapsa gelatinosa as a source of extracellular polymeric substances: production, structural characterization and antioxidant activity

    Wejdene Gongi, Nereida Cordeiro, Juan Luis Gomez Pinchetti and Hatem Ben Ouada

    Cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances are polymeric materials that own characteristics suitable for industrial and biotechnological applications. The thermophilic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa gelatinosa was cultivated in a cylindrical reactor and the production of biomass and EPSs were investigated during a 15 days period. The results revealed that this strain is amongst the most efficient EPSs producer (0.8 g L-1 in 12 days). EPSs produced were sulphated heteropolysaccharides composed by nine different monosaccharides and two uronic acids. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that EPSs were extremely thermostable and the atomic force microscopy analysis showed that they are formed by pointed structural. Beyond that, EPSs presented high levels for water holding capacity and water holding index. The EPSs display an effective antioxidant activity via directly scavenging free radicals, particularly DDPH when compared to L-ascorbic acid (IC50 of 0.2 and 0.6 g L-1, respectively) and as a metal chelating agent when compared to EDTA (0.6 and 0.8 g L-1, respectively). The results obtained stimulate the industrial exploitation of this thermophilic Gloeocapsa gelatinosa for the production of EPSs with several biotechnological applications in the food, medicine, pharmaceutical and related fields.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 2 - 2

    Wet Spinning of drug-loaded poly (4-hydroxybutyrate) fibers

    Bhavya Singhi

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) or bacterial polyesters, as they are commonly known, is a category of novel polymers because due to their biodegradability. Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is one of the most developed polyhydroxyalkanoate that has several promising absorbable biomaterial applications such as implants, sutures, stents and tissue engineering scaffolds. They also have potential for controlled release drug delivery applications using various therapeutic chemicals and drugs, most of which are thermally sensitive. P4HB is typically melt spun and drawn into fibers at temperatures between 180 – 210 °C, although higher molecular weight P4HB (>800 K) need even higher temperatures for processing because of the high melt viscosity. Such high temperatures of P4HB melt processing prevents the incorporation of drugs in the polymer structure during the spinning stage, as most drugs are susceptible to high temperatures and can breakdown during the process. Hence a post spinning drug incorporation process such as coating or surface absorption is required. The secondary steps have major disadvantages, such as non-uniform absorption, and uneven and unpredictable release profile. This raises the need for a low temperature process for producing P4HB fibers that can address the drawbacks associated with incorporating drugs in a post melt spinning process. Presently, there is no defined procedure to produce P4HB fibers through a solution or wet spinning process. Hence, this work focuses on identifying suitable wet spinning process conditions for poly (4- hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) and developing a scalable method for the continuous extrusion of P4HB fibers. Based on the results of this project, a suitable combination of these parameters will be used to further produce drug loaded P4HB monofilaments and study their fiber properties as well as their drug release profiles.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 3 - 3

    Hybrid materials to valorize phenolic compounds present in plant residues

    Catarina Gomes, Rolando C S Dias and Mario R P F N Costa

    Nowadays, the development of materials from natural resources is a key issue for sustainability. Moreover, making use of natural polymers in industrial processes may contribute to lower cost and environmentally friendlier added-value products. Among bio-renewable polymers, cellulose is the most abundant and has drawn huge attention due to its biodegradability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility, availability and functionality. Weaknesses of cellulose stem partly from its high polarity and hydrophilic nature. Therefore, in order to fully exploit its potential, chemical modifications are often introduced, mostly by grafting. Indeed, the creation of synthetic polymer branches imparting specific features to cellulose (e.g. external stimulation by pH/temperature/ionic strength, amphiphilic features, etc), without destroying its aforementioned useful intrinsic properties, is often considered. The grafting of many synthetic polymers into cellulose has been achieved through different approaches, including diverse radical polymerization techniques. In the present research, we explore “controlled radical polymerization” (CRP) to create sustainable materials with tailored structure, incorporating natural cellulose, to purify/concentrate phenolic compounds present in plant residues (e.g. olive tree and olive oil production residues). Indeed, phenolic compounds are natural molecules that confer a multitude of health benefits, thus attracting the interest of the pharmaceutical and food industries for their commercial use. However, their weight content in raw materials is rather small and they are mixed with unwanted species. Thus, efficient enrichment and purification methods must be used to conceive feasible industrial processes.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 4 - 4

    Fluorine-free super hydrophobic coating with antibiofilm properties based on Pickering emulsion templating

    Mor Maayan, Karthik Ananth Mani and Guy Mechrez

    This study presents antibiofilm coating formulations based on Pickering emulsion templating. The coating contains no bioactive material because its antibiofilm properties stem from passive mechanisms that derive solely from the super hydrophobic nature of the coating. Moreover, unlike most of the super hydrophobic formulations, our system is fluorine-free, thus making the method eminently suitable for food and medical applications. The coating formulation is based on water in toluene or xylene emulsions that are stabilized using commercial hydrophobic silica, with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dissolved in toluene or xylene. The structure of the emulsions and their stability was characterized by confocal microscopy and cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). The most stable emulsions are applied on polypropylene (PP) surfaces and dried in an oven to form PDMS/silica coatings in a process called emulsion templating. The structure of the resulting coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SEM. The surface of the coatings shows a honeycomb-like structure that exhibits a combination of micron-scale and nanoscale roughness, which endows it with its super hydrophobic properties. After tuning, the super hydrophobic properties of the coatings demonstrated highly efficient passive antibiofilm activity. In vitro antibiofilm trials with E. coli indicate that the coatings reduced the biofilm accumulation by 83% in the xylene−water-based surfaces and by 59% in the case of toluene−water-based surfaces.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 5 - 5

    Dielectric performances of biobased materials

    Mohamed Ragoubi, Lecoublet M, Leblanc N and Koubaa A

    The exponential increasing need of materials with good dielectric performance, the growth of biopolymer based composites and the limitation of fossil resources creates the basis for developing new biobased and or biodegradable structures adapted for a large panel of dielectric application. Although work has already been carried out in this field of materials science, many limitations of the polymer matrix still exist to fully benefit from the dielectric performance of these promising new materials. To study more closely the dielectric performance of bio-nanocomposites materials, many researchers focus on developing this kind of materials and work intensively to. In this context, our research project aims to • evaluate the dielectric potential of bio-sourced and/or biodegradable polymers for the preparation of bionanocomposite polymer-particle blends, • Study and improve the multiphysical (mechanical, microstructural) and dielectric properties of biodegradable polymer blends by incorporating different particle rates. Different polymers blends (PLA-PHBV, PLA-Cellulose Acetate, and PHBV- Cellulose Acetate) were prepared by different technology (extrusion and 3d printing) and their physical, rheological and dielectric behavior were studied. The presentation will focus on methods for optimizing the matrix, biobased fillers and nanocomposites to facilitate the integration of these new materials into electronic applications.

    Conference Proceeding Pages: 6 - 6

    Biohybrid nanocomposites based on regenerated bacterial cellulose and Porto Santo biogenic clay: application in drug delivery

    Ricardo Gomes and Marisa Faria and Nereida Cordeiro

    The use of drugs per si may lead to fluctuations where whose drugs in the organism may reach levels lower than the minimum effective concentration or exceed the maximum toxic concentration, resulting in undesirable side effects, or the lack of therapeutic benefits intended for the patient. The specific structure of clay has the ability to interact with drugs and release then, which can provide an efficient drug delivery system. The clay incorporation in the bio polymeric matrixes, like bacterial cellulose offer several advantages for the use in the design of new and efficient pharmacological systems. In these systems, the drug is typically entrapped in the clay and protected by the biopolymer matrix, and both components contribute to a gradual release of the drug. This new family of composite materials frequently exhibits remarkable improvements on the material properties when compared with the matrix polymers alone or conventional micro- and macrocomposites, namely the biocompatibility and biodegradability, which makes them suitable for healthcare applications. These biohybrids nanocomposites have attracted great attention worldwide from both academic and industrial points of view. The goal of this study was the development of a biohybrid nanocomposite made with regenerated bacterial cellulose and clay for the incorporation and delivery of drugs. The clay used was the biogenic clays from Porto Santo Island, Madeira archipelago, known by the medicinal proprieties and are used in dermopharmacy and dermocosmetics. A novel nanocomposite was successfully synthesized, verifying that 40% is the optimum clay concentration to be incorporated in the nanocellulosic matrix. The incorporation of a drug model (sodium sulfacetamide) at different concentrations, show that the optimum drug concentration is 1%. The temporal release of the drug was tested and was verified that the total drug release occurs in the first 10 minutes. The obtained results expand the possible applications of the regenerated bacterial cellulose and the Porto Santo clay to the pharmacologic field.

    Exploring The Recent Advancements in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry (2022)

      Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 1

      Unification of cosmology and physical chemistry- An emerging horizon in physics

      Chinmoy Bhattacharya

      The entire world scientific community is well acquainted with the classical laws of physics, the thermo dynamical laws, the Planck hypothesis, and the relativity theories. Etc... and so on for many years but the main essence of the said theories have not reached to many people, and as a result of that, as on today even, some ‘grey’ areas are still left in the above said theories primarily due to the fact that the physical variables like ‘time’, ‘mass’, ‘acceleration’, ‘gravitation’ etc. had been left-out in their ‘abstract’ forms in the said theories. The principal underlying reason behind the same is the lack of the whereabouts of pictorial or geometrical representations of the above said physical variables. The recently discovered Theory of Quantum Gravity (TQG) has however, revealed the geometrical shapes of most of the principal physical variables of the universe and could become able to explain the many cosmic mysteries of the universe, the geometrical profile of the chemical reactions and the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions, the black body radiation phenomena, the cosmos ‘graviton cycle’, the cold nuclear fusion phenomena, the dimensionality of the universe , the origin of the existences of the seven number of colors of VIBGYOR and apparent grey look of the universe, the dark energy/dark matter and many others. In this article, first of all, it has been established that none of the above said theories remain to be ‘abstract’ when the TQG is imposed on them and also one can, as if visually encounter the said theories in front of their eyes, and can very clearly understand their limitations too. The main essence of the following theories have been evaluated through TQG concepts and labelled with the relevant pictorial representations: a. The ideal gas equation and the 3 laws of thermodynamics. b. The Stefan – Boltzmann law c. The Planck hypothesis of black body radiation d. The cosmological constant of general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and the dark energy model of Friedman. e. The concept of ‘zero-energy’ universe f. The Newton’s Laws of Motions. The present level of understanding of the global physical science about the geo physics of our cosmos is promoted to the next higher level at this proposition

      Conference Proceeding Pages: 2 - 2

      A glimpse to thiol-ene and thiol-yne polymerization mechanisms

      Isa Degirmenci

      Sister polymerization reactions thiol-ene and thiol-yne have been attracting attention due to their unique properties in the polymerization field, such as showing the regular step-growth network nature in the product, low shrinking stress, late gelation point, and click nature. These polymerization techniques have been applied in recent innovative research areas, from dendrimer synthesis to microfluidic devices. Electron-rich monomers are reactive for thiol-ene polymerization, while the effect of thiol structures is limited. In addition to this, the main drawing force for chain transfer reaction is the stability of radical intermediate in thiol-ene polymerization. However, the factors affecting the reaction mechanisms for the thiol-yne polymerization (Figure 1.) have not been extensively elaborated yet. The radical hydrothiolation of alkynes by thiols was examined in the early 1930s, and nowadays, this reaction is defined as a click reaction. The application of this method in polymer synthesis results in a product which a regular step-growth network nature. In this study, similarities and discrepancies between the sister’s polymerization reactions have been figured out utilizing quantum chemical tools. M06-2X DFT functional was used kinetic and thermodynamic analysis as a cost-effective method which was proven by a benchmark study

      Conference Proceeding Pages: 3 - 3

      The role of hydrodynamic interaction in the dynamics of active dimer

      Tanwi Debnath and Pulak Kumar Ghosh

      Janus particle is nano to micro meter sized entity having two distinct faces, only one of which is chemically or physically active. A class of Janus particle is called active or self-propelled Janus which can move extracting energy from environment by creating concentration or thermal gradient at the vicinity of its active surface. As active Janus particle acts as a motor for its self-propelled motion, we model an active Janus particle carrying a cargo (passive particle) to form an active dimer. To use the dimer in different purposes, such as targeted drag (cargo) delivery in medical science, the detailed knowledge about its dynamics in presence of hydrodynamic interaction is necessary. Therefore we study the 3D dynamics of the active dimer suspended in a shear flow. Using numerical simulations, we determine the diffusivity of such dimer in presence of long-range hydrodynamic interactions for different values of its self-propulsion speed and shear flow. We observe that the effect of hydrodynamic interactions is greatly enhanced under the condition that self-propulsion is strong enough to contrast the shear flow. We also numerically investigate the escape kinetics of the active dimer from a meta-stable state. Our simulation results show that the synchronization between barrier crossing events and the rotational relaxation process can enhance the escape rate to a large extent. Moreover, the hydrodynamic interaction conspicuously enhances the escape rate of the Janus-cargo dimer.

      Conference Proceeding Pages: 4 - 4

      Equilibrium drops and their effect on classical and statistical thermodynamics

      Tovbin Yu K

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      Conference Proceeding Pages: 5 - 5

      Lennard-Jones potential and the enthalpy of formation of a binary solution

      Alexander Levinsky

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      Conference Proceeding Pages: 6 - 6

      Relationship between surface tension and density of a liquid and its vapour

      Alexander Levinsky

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      Conference Proceeding Pages: 7 - 7

      An energy and eco/budget friendly (solar powered ) air conditioning/refrigeration system

      Nkan Enobong G B

      Aim: Producing a Revolutionary Air Condition/Refrigeration System that is Energy and Eco/Budget friendly Method: - Place the pedestal/Floor Fan at a convenient position where it can Oscillate air round freely, clip the Copper Pipes (Ice Block making kits), around the Fan surface, attach and clip the transparent rubber Pipes at the edges of the Copper Pipes, connect the transparent Rubber pipes at the edges of the Copper Pipes, connect the transparent Pipes to the Digital Fountain Pump, one of the Pipes should be connected to the output of the Fountain Pump, the Fountain Pump should be dipped into the water in the fish bowl, the fish bowl is filled with Distilled water (or half filled with Distilled water), it is placed inside the empty Aquarium Glass, the second Transparent pipe, that is coming from the Copper pipes (Ice blocking making kits) is Dipped into the water in the fish bowl, that water is containing the Digital Fountain Pump, the Pump sucks water from the bowl, through the inlet/input opening then sends it out through the outlet source, the water moves through the outlet source, circulates round the Copper Pipes (Ice Blocks making kits), after passing through the Transparent rubber Pipe, the moment the Digital Fountain Pump is turned-on, the circulation starts.

      5th World Congress on Bio-Polymers and Polymer Chemistry (2021)

        Conference Proceeding Pages: 5 - 5

        New methods to determine the acid-base and surface properties of polymers: Application to poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylates

        Hamieh, Chawraba K, Lalevee J and Toufaily T

        The determination of the superficial characteristics of solid substrates and more particularly of polymers or polymers adsorbed on oxides is of capital importance to the comprehension and the forecast of their behaviors in many applications. These solid surfaces are generally in contact with gas, liquids or other solids, such as for example association polymer/metallic oxides for the coatings of paintings or industrial packing. Acrylate polymers as poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylate are preferentially used in various fields such as architecture, aeronautics, urban furniture, electronics, etc. In this paper, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution was applied in order to determine the change, as related to temperature, of the properties and the second order transitions of some polymers adsorbed on oxides, and particularly to study the transition phenomena of poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylate adsorbed on silica or alumina. The study of the evolution of RTlnVn, as a function of 1/T for different n-alkanes adsorbed on poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylates, allowed to an accurate determination of their transition temperature (Tg). The dispersive energy and the acid base properties in the Lewis terms of poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylates were determined. The acid base constants KA and KD of various polymers were calculated by testing both the classical and Hamieh models. It was proved an important effect of the length of alkyl group in side chain of poly (α-n-alkyl) methacrylates on the surface properties of such polymers and especially on the acid base constants and the transition phenomena. It was also proved an excellent linear correlation between the specific enthalpy of adsorption, the acid base constants, the carbon atom number in the side chain of poly(a-n-alkyl) methacrylates and the acceptor AN and donor DN numbers of electrons of polar organic molecules.

        Conference Proceeding Pages: 4 - 4

        Microbial exopolymers: A natural renewable biosolution

        Marisa Faria, Manfred Kaufmann, Vítor Vasconcelos and Nereida Cordeiro

        Currently, the environmental pollution is a problem that threatens the sustainability of our planet which has led to increasing scientific research in several areas to obtain sustainable biotechnologies. In this sense, the exploitation of natural-derived and renewable biopolymers as a replacement for petrochemical-derived polymers, confining the use of synthetic polymers, has received visibility and interest for applications in biomedical materials and / or in bioremediation Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from cyanobacteria and bacteria have displayed a promising potential as alternative to synthetic resources. They can be used in numerous applications in the biomedical fields, such as scaffolds or matrices in tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound dressing, and in bioremediation fields for the removal of organic and metallic pollutants. However, the symbiotic association between cyanobacteria and cellulose- producing bacteria to obtain biofunctional materials has not been exploited. In this research work, these association will be study through two approaches: (i) bacterial cellulose will be biosynthesized in the presence of the cyanobacteria to include in situ the algal exopolymers and functional compounds in their network and (ii) obtain microcapsules and bioactive films through the inclusion of exopolymers and/or bioactive compounds in bacterial cellulose by bioencapsulation and 3D printing processes. These biomaterials can be used for future applications and for the design of sustainable biofunctional materials, capable of replacing the current synthetic materials.

        Conference Proceeding Pages: 1 - 1

        Improving energy and thermal performance of greenhouses in hot climatic regions using polymer aerogels

        Abeer Abdullah Al Anazi

        Greenhouses are needed in hot climates to protect plants from excessive heat, which limits productivity, and to reduce the excessive energy and water requirements associated with controlled environment agriculture under such conditions. In arid climatic regions, where ambient air temperature can easily reach 60°C during the summer and where fresh water is scarce, a new approach to greenhouse design should be used to make it more economically feasible. The approach is to use passive, as well as active, energy conservation measures, aimed mainly to reduce the cooling load in an arid climate. Conventional air cooling systems do not only increase the total energy consumption resulting in large carbon footprint, but also raise the peak load demand on power causing excessive strains on the power grid. Heat-driven air cooling systems that use solar energy are now emerging as alternatives to the electricity-driven refrigerated air coolers. These systems are found to be more energy efficient, with lower carbon emissions while also ensuring better indoor air quality and comfort when optimally designed. The concept is to reduce the amount of intense solar radiation as well as save power consumed for air conditioning the greenhouses. This is achieved in this study via coating greenhouses with polymer aerogel. Aerogel is a lightweight solid derived from gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with air and makes aerogel extremely low density with low thermal conductivity. Because of these unique properties, aerogel is considered one of the most efficient insulating materials. At a low temperature, radiation is not a significant problem for transparent material. However, at a high temperature, radiative transport is dominant for thermal conduction and this causes energy and thermal performance of greenhouses to improve significantly when coated with aerogels.

        Conference Proceeding Pages: 2 - 2

        Polysaccharides as environmental friendly additives for modification of the rheological and filtration properties of drilling muds

        Ibtisam Kamal and Aryan Muzhafar

        Drilling muds are one of the most important components of drilling operations. They are suspension of solids in either water or oil, which can be mixed with other substances, called additives. The drilling fluid functions should be optimized to ensure safety and minimum whole problems which are extremely costly in terms of materials and time. There are several additives used to ensue getting the appropriate functions of drilling fluids. The incorporation of the additives confirmed to reduce the loss of fluid into the formation, minimize pipe sticking, minimize losses in pressure, increase rate of penetration, reduce environmental impact and improve safety. Oil and gas drilling industry uses huge amounts of chemicals in drilling fluids as additives. Most of these chemicals are toxic and pose an excessive threat to mankind as well as the environment. On a global level, regulations to minimize utilization of toxic materials as drilling fluid components have been set to eliminating the environmental impact of expensive drilling fluid additives. The current work investigates the feasibility of using a bio-degradable waste (Barely grass) as green drilling fluid additive. The combined effect of barely grass concentration (0.29-1.7g) and bentonite (12.9-27.1g) is evaluated according to an adopted experimental design. The rheological and filtration properties were measured and compared to a reference fluid. The average range of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, yield point, and low-shear-rate yield point for the prepared drilling muds are 7.5-27 cP, 5-13 cP, 5-42 lb/100ft2, and 2-23 lb/100ft 2 respectively. The mathematical models and the variables significance are estimated from response surface analysis. The optimized drilling mud has competitive rheological and filtration characteristics compared to reference fluid. The additive seemed promising alternative to commercial polymer additives owing to its high fibers content mostly polysaccharides.

        Conference Proceeding Pages: 3 - 3

        Use of banana pseudo-stem pulping as a biofilter to remove microplastics from wastewater

        Artur Mendonca, Angela Morais, Tiago Vieira, Marisa Faria, Manfred Kaufmann and Nereida Cordeiro

        Currently, microplastics (MPs) are an issue of concern for marine ecosystems and biota due to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification with other pollutants. It has become urgent to develop sustainable and effective methods to remove them from the contaminated water. Cellulosic banana pulp and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) – produced by microorganisms (cyanobacteria and bacteria) – are recognized as biodegradable, sustainable and low toxic materials, making them promise for applications in a wide range of fields - from biomedicine to bioremediation [1,2]. EPS are currently widely applied in industry as gums, bioflocculants, biosorbents and bioemulsifiers [3]. The present study intended to evaluate the feasibility of using cellulosic banana pulp per si – an agricultural residue – or nanomodified with EPS from cyanobacteria and bacteria for the removal of MPs from contaminated water. Banana pseudo-stem pulping was used as biofilter per si or nanomodified with (i) Cyanocohniella calida culture, (ii) C. calida EPS and (iii) bacterial cellulose pulp, through two processes: incorporation and immersion. A contaminated water solution with polystyrene MPs was used. The removal of MPs via biofilters was assessed by fluorescence microscopy, Neubauer chamber and flow cytometry. It was observed that the MPs were retained in the biofilter network. The efficiency limits of biofilters were also evaluated. Biofilters per si showed high efficiency (98.5%) in removing MPs from contaminated water. The retention capacity of microplastics increases with the increase amount of cellulose fibers. Nanomodified biofilter also exhibited a high removal efficiency (86.8%) when modified with 20% (m/v) C. calida EPS by immersion. The results show that the use of biofilters based on pulp of banana, given its durability and MPs holding capacity, could be an environmentally friendly alternative to commercial filters. This eco-technology proved to be an alternative for water decontamination.

        Volume 11, Issue 1 (2022)

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