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Journal of Forensic Research

ISSN: 2157-7145

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

    Fireworks: Requisite for Forensics Evolution from Conventional to Green Crackers in India ‚?? A Perspective

    Sweta Sinha and Kavita Goyal

    Social life in India is enriched with festivals, traditions and cultural events, often, associated with bursting crackers during celebration. Firework exhibition and bursting crackers are a symbol of jubilation. The hazardous effects of fireworks are often obscured by the cloud of smoke and amusement ultimately breeding root cause to severe accidental injuries. Fire accidents occur due to surpassing supervisory measures while handling fireworks [1-3]. The illicit production, sale, illegal trade of crackers is another major direct challenge for criminal judiciary system and regulatory authorities [4-6]. Television, print and social media are crammed with evidences apart from actual incident data where crackers played a major role in crime. The chemistry of conventional fireworks has not much transmuted since archaic times. Common constituents in fireworks are carbon centered fuel, a reducing agent and an amalgamation of metal salts functioning as oxidant and colourants. The lightening of fireworks commences with an exothermic process engendering smoke as a by-product holding gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, as well as suspended particulate matter between PM2.5-PM10. Conventional fireworks also integrate hazardous chemicals like nitrates of strontium, sodium and barium, carbonates of strontium, calcium, barium and copper, sulphates of strontium and calcium, chlorides of calcium and barium, aluminium and magnesium salts, sodium oxalate, copper oxide, iron dust powder and potassium perchlorate, which act as stabilizers, oxidizers and colorants [7]. Both metals and radicals determine the presence of explosive material. All these residues are hazardous in nature

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    A Lead to a Speedy Identification of Disaster Victims ‚?? Forensic Anthropology

    Isha Chauhan

    Identification of victims is one of the most significant concerns while investigating the scene of occurrence but due to the delay in time of identification
    it becomes difficult for the authorities to enable identification. The use of modern forensic techniques including the knowledge from disciplines like
    forensic anthropology, toxicology, post blast residue analysts, forensic odontologists so as to speed up the investigation. The paper reviews the role
    of a forensic anthropologist in the Disaster victim identification, on and off site. The use of radiographic techniques in order to know the biological
    profile of the deceased as well to assist relocation in case of a fragmented body. In the current scenario, the forensic involvement of experts though
    has been increased in identifying the victims, but still there needs to be more deployment at ground zero in order to increase proper investigation.
    Disaster victim identification is a multidisciplinary approach and so collaboration from all the disciplines is needed so as to render justice.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

    A Reviewon Homologous Relations in Muscle Forms: Result of Phylogeny between Reptiles and Man

    Oghenefego Michael Adheke

    The biological diversity of vertebrates is uniquely significant to the concept of phylogeny. Phylogeny is a branch of evolutionary biology that
    studies the evolutionary relationships between certain organisms. Reptiles and mammals are said to share the same evolutionary ancestry called
    the amniotic-egged ancestor. This ancestor is divided into two groups; sauropsids (reptiles) and the synapsids (mammals). According to some
    authors, the broadest group of the reptilian family is the sub-class Squamata. Examples of animals within this sub-class include, lizards, crocodiles,
    snakes and amphisbaenians. However, man (Homo sapiens) belonging to the primate class, are the most intelligent and complex of all mammals.

    Opinion Article Pages: 1 - 1

    Criminological Distinguishing Proof of Single Colored Hair Follicular Strand is Now Conceivable

    Sowmya Uttam

    Raman spectroscopy is a logical method dependent on the actual marvel
    of Raman dissipating, which models certain vivacious connections that happen
    when photons crash into issue. SERS is a unique sort of Raman spectroscopy
    that gives a "primary unique finger impression" of a material in any event,
    when not many atoms are available in the objective example. Then again,
    XRF examination includes lighting a material with X-beams and looking at the
    energies of photons re-transmitted when the electrons in the example leave
    the energized states. XRF investigation is particularly valuable to figure out
    which metallic components are available in a material.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Report Uncovers the Most Grown-Ups Passing on Rashly of Normal Causes Didn't Look for Clinical Assistance.

    Sowmya Uttam

    The exploration, distributed as of late in PLOS One, found key components
    identifying with untimely grown-up passings by examining dissection reports
    and medico-legal demise examination records of 1,282 individuals between
    the ages of 25 and 59 who kicked the bucket in Harris County in 2013. As
    indicated by milestone research distributed in 2015, there has been a
    sensational flood in the death pace of moderately aged white Americans since
    1999. Untimely grown-up passings are characterized as passing before the
    normal mortality age.

    Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

      A Review of Suicide Note Analysis Studies in India

      Mukta Rani

      Suicide note also known as death note is message left by someone who commits suicide or who intends to commit suicide. It is the closest and the final word we get to the suicidal mind before death. Due importance should be given at the site of crime for recovery of suicide note as it is an important piece of evidence showing psyche of the patient and plays an important role in understanding reasons of suicide. Due to scarcity of data on the study of suicide note the present article is an effort to evaluate the psychology of victim in suicide notes with respect to mode of writing, to whom it is addressed and victim’s last wish. The present article is just a small effort, studies involving larger number of suicide notes are required to have psychological insight of the person committing suicide, and eventually such data may lead to prevention of suicides.

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

      Sexual Abuse: Investigation of Rape, Sodomy and Murder

      Sharon Dinil Kumar and Vishal Saini*

      In the world there is widely increased of the sexual offences, this is the serious problem in every society. It has not only put permanent stains on the victim but as well as her entire family into degrades and shame. The progressive number with the sexual assault being targeted on woman, infants, homosexuals and animals, by the different manner of assault style like Sodomy and the killer is male. Many children, sadly become victims of sex-related homicides perpetrated by the very persons who are supposed to protect them from evil. There are four categories of rapists are power reassurance, power assertive, anger retaliatory, and anger excitation. It is important to bring justice to the society and should fear the consequences the criminals will face. We present a case study which will bring about the importan t facts and figures of how forensic science is helpful to give conclusions to the cases. In some cases the criminal profile has been discussed suggesting psychiatric and psychological analysis of the sexual offender in such heinous crime.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Data Assessment and Forensic Medical Examination of ‚??Sexual Integrity Crimes‚?Ě

      Saptarshi Pal

      A forensic medical examination when committing depraved acts is carried out only in cases where there are any changes on the body of the victims, according to which it is possible to establish the fact of such actions. An examination may also be carried out in respect of material evidence. At the same time, the jurisdiction of a forensic medical expert includes the detection of traces and changes on the body of victims, as well as the mechanisms of their formation. The fact of depraved actions is established by the court and the investigating authorities

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

      Rape and Strangulation of Kid with Creeper Plant

      Sabyasachi Nath

      The rape crime-clock is very alarming compared to other crime against women in India. It is seen that different age groups including kids are the victim of such menace. In one case, a 6½-year kid used to visit the neighbouring house to play with her girl friend of same age. One day, the uncle (father of her friend) lured her and took her to a nearby bushy area close to the house. The kid was raped there and strangulated with a flexible wild creeper (rope like plant material) and abandoned naked on the spot. In the mean-time, parents of the victim girl enquired the place where she often used to visit and play. Since several hours passed without any result, an FIR was lodged in the local police station. Subsequently in the late evening, the detection of a dead body (kid) was reported and identified to be the same missing kid. As per secret input, it was ascertained that the deceased (kid) was last seen with the accused moving towards the bushy area in mid hour of the day. The undisturbed crime spot was examined by the police and forensic team to collect physical evidence and establish the crime and criminal. The autopsy findings and criminal psychology along with other details have been discussed in this paper

      Volume 12, Issue 4 (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        ENPP1 and GHR Genes in Determination of Face Morphology Potential Importance in Forensic Science ENPP1 and GHR Genes and Facial Recognition

        Kaan Yilancioglu

        Human facial morphology is diverse between individuals and communities, and is affected by gene polymorphisms. We investigated the effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of ENPP1 and GHR genes on facial features. 20 volunteers over the age of 18 without birth defects, facial trauma, reconstructive and plastic surgery, facial and dental implant treatment, orthognathic/maxillofacial surgery story and facial paralysis or neurological problems resulting any facial abnormalities were selected for the study. Two SNP genotypes and a total of 40 samples were studied. 15 anatomic regions were identified on the face and 27 physical measurements were made between these 15 regions. ENPP1 (rs7754561) and biometric measurements between the points were found associated significantly. We believe that the data obtained from this study might be one of the study for the development of the powerful identification methods from DNA in forensic sciences. The information obtained from DNA analysis might be used for drawing 2D or 3D robot images. If the genes affecting the facial morphology and the variants of these genes are well understood, it would be possible to reach the person whose DNA could not be identified in databases.

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

        Forensic Anthropology‚?? A Lead to a Speedy Identification of Disaster Victims

        Isha Chauhan

        Identification of victims is one of the most significant concerns while investigating the scene of occurrence but due to the delay in time of identification it becomes difficult for the authorities to enable identification. The use of modern forensic techniques including the knowledge from disciplines like forensic anthropology, toxicology, post blast residue analysts, forensic odontologists so as to speed up the investigation. The paper reviews the role of a forensic anthropologist in the Disaster victim identification, on and off site. The use of radiographic techniques in order to know the biological profile of the deceased as well to assist relocation in case of a fragmented body. In the current scenario, the forensic involvement of experts though has been increased in identifying the victims, but still there needs to be more deployment at ground zero in order to increase proper investigation.
        Disaster victim identification is a multidisciplinary approach and so collaboration from all the disciplines is needed so as to render justice.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

        Synthesis Testing and On-Field of Novel Low-Cost Latent Fingerprint Development Powders

        Gurpreet Singh Suri

        Background: A series of novel and low-cost powders were synthesised for the detection and extraction of the latent fingerprints deposited on various porous and non-porous surfaces. The template materials for these novel products range from silica nanoparticles to iron nanoparticles and activated charcoal. Preliminary lab testing indicated high quality fingerprints that were developed on various porous and non-porous surfaces such as glass slides, polymer plastic bags, aluminium foil, cardboard and paper.
        Results: The silica based nano-fingerprint powders gave extremely fine visual prints as compared to commercial SIRCHIE® powders, with a white pattern of the ridges. Activated charcoal based and iron nanoparticles based powders on the other hand yielded fine black fingerprint patterns similar to the commercial SIRCHIE® powders. These series of powders were subjected to on-field testing by utilising the state-of-art facility of the General Department of Forensic Science and Criminology, Dubai Police. The samples were tested here under both lab conditions and virtual crime scenes, alongside the SIRCHIE® commercial powders already in standard use by the Dubai Police. The qualities of print developed were assessed based on the AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) report and visual inspection by the senior fingerprint experts of the Dubai police.
        Conclusion: The study revealed distinct advantages of the novel synthesised products over the commercial powders. There was higher uniformity of the developed print patterns, higher score of AFIS analysis and advanced recovery of damaged fingerprints using the novel powders, which makes these novel products highly commercially viable.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

        A Path of Sympathetic to Forensic Science from the Sight of Forensic Anthropology

        Pranav Y Dave

        Over the past few decades the field of forensic science has experienced a remarkable development and sustainability enhance the public profile. Due to increasing the different techniques to do the crime, there must be some unique and diverse methods to investigate it. The prominence of forensic science has concluded from scientific and technological advancement, increase in reliance of law enforcement and judicial system. Some of the crimes are smartly occurred, that in investigation there are no clues and evidence would be found to excess the further investigation. Anthropology is a unique and old way to easily notice the clues at crime scene. With the help of forensic anthropology, anthropologist can distinguish the possible stories behind the crime. Even in psychological way, the method can also sense the psychology of the criminal. This review paper aims to identify how best to organize and deliver forensic science education. It also explains the relation the important part of the anthropology in forensic science and how forensic anthropology can be useful at crime scenes. This paper also endeavours that how forensic anthropology can easily detect the clue physically and psychologically to investigate the crime scenes with the help of some hypothesis cases.

        Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

        Problem of Imputability in Case of Post Splenctomy Stroke Following Through Traffic Accident

        Marwa Boussaid

        The occurrence of perioperative stroke related to noncardiac, nonaortic surgery is frequently less expected than cardiovascular related one.\ Splenectomy could be one of these situations. The advent of post-splenectomy stroke following trauma involving third party, whether accidental or intentional, can arise several questions and be particulary challenging from legal point of view. Aim of this manuscript is to report a case of post splenectomy stroke following a traffic accident and to discuss both imputabilities of the stroke to the splenectomy and the stroke to the traffic accident. A 40-year-old male, without past medical history, was a victim of a traffic accident. Body-scan showed a Haemoperitoneum of medium abundance, a ruptured spleen and a fracture of the right humerus. An emergent splenectomy was performed. The postoperative examination revealed a Glasgow scale of 9 with anosocoria, hypotension and tachycardia. He was reanimated. A computed tomography (CT) scan, performed 6 hours after surgery, showed brain ischemia in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) suggestive of thrombembolism with deviation of the median line and sub-falcoral engagement. Few hours later, he was declared deceased.

        Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

          Exploring the Potential of Ridge Density as Measure of Sex Identification

          Vilas Anil Chavan

          Identification of individual based on fingerprints is well established and widely used for both security and forensic purposes. In a forensic scenario, when a fingerprint is found at a scene of crime, it is sought to compare with the fingerprints from a set of suspects. Sex Identification may be considered as first level of identification. In this study, potential of ridge density has been explored for sex identification within wide age groups. A database of fingerprints collected from 190(95 Male and 95 Female) people of various age groups ranging from 1-70 year from Marathwada population has been prepared. Analysis of the fingerprints shows ridge density as an efficient sex marker except for the kids less than 10 years of age. The present study was aimed to explore the potential of ridge density in sex identification. The variability due to well defined area for the calculation of ridge density was also explored. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in ridge density due to selected region. As far as variability due to age is concerned, it has been found that there is stability in ridge density once the age crosses 10 years. As far as identification of sex is concerned, there is a difference of 1-2 ridges when ridge density of male vs. female is calculated, which may be due to average over a small databas.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

          Homologous Relations in Muscle Forms as Result of Phylogeny between Reptiles and Man: A Review

          Oghenefego Michael Adheke

          The biological diversity of vertebrates is uniquely significant to the concept of phylogeny. Phylogeny is a branch of evolutionary biology that studies the evolutionary relationships between certain organisms. Reptiles and mammals are said to share the same evolutionary ancestry called the amniotic-egged ancestor. This ancestor is divided into two groups; sauropsids (reptiles) and the synapsids (mammals). According to some authors, the broadest group of the reptilian family is the sub-class Squamata. Examples of animals within this sub-class include, lizards, crocodiles, snakes and amphisbaenians. However, man (Homo sapiens) belonging to the primate class, are the most intelligent and complex of all mammals.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Multilingual Determinants as Forensic tool in Identifying Persons of Interest in Criminal Justice System in the Philippines

          Benjamin Mendillo Jr

          Primarily, this paper shall present the efficacy of forensic linguistic tools in establishing the identity of the person of interest by the unique multicultural determinants in the commission of the crime. Secondly, this will also highlight the practical description and analysis of forensic linguistics, more particularly on linguistic dialectology, which refers to the study of dialects in a methodological manner based on anthropological information. It shall elaborate on authentic case crime transcripts in assessing the tone, diction, and other linguistic features unique in a multicultural setting more particularly in assessing threat in establishing leads in identifying persons of interest by law enforcements. Lastly, the synthesis of the unique multicultural construct that the court may consider to be a determining evidence of a crime. In the Philippine context, the term Person of interest is commonly used by law enforcement to identify someone involved in a criminal investigation that has not been arrested or formally accused of a crime. It is used as equivalent for suspect. In a wider perspective, forensic linguistics covers these persons of interest by establishing proven facts as required by law in presenting compelling evidence.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

          Comparison of Fore and Hind Foot of Artiodactyla Species of Animals for an Forensic Importance

          Neha Yadav

          In the present study, samples of pugmark of Artiodactyla animals’ species were collected from different areas. The collection was done through photography method. After the collection of each and every pugmark samples of animal species then it was individually examined for the comparison of fore and hind foot of the specific animal species pugmark. Comparison of fore foot and hind foot was done on the bases of physical analysis such as shape, size, dimension, dew mark, claw mark and specific feature. From the observation, it is interpreted that fore foot and hind foot of same animal species showed different characteristics which were not same. Through pugmark we can not only identify the specific species but also identify weather it is fore foot or hind foot of the specific animal. Pugmark signifies identity.

          Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

          Problem of Imputability in Case of a Post Splenctomy Stroke Following a Traffic Accident

          Marwa Boussaid

          The occurrence of perioperative stroke related to noncardiac, nonaortic surgery is frequently less expected than cardiovascular related one. Splenectomy could be one of these situations. The advent of post-splenectomy stroke following trauma involving third party, whether accidental or intentional, can arise several questions and be particulary challenging from legal point of view. Aim of this manuscript is to report a case of post splenectomy stroke following a traffic accident and to discuss both imputabilities of the stroke to the splenectomy and the stroke to the traffic accident. A 40-year-old male, without past medical history, was a victim of a traffic accident. Body-scan showed a Haemoperitoneum of medium abundance, a ruptured spleen and a fracture of the right humerus. An emergent splenectomy was performed. The postoperative examination revealed a Glasgow scale of 9 with anosocoria, hypotension and tachycardia. He was reanimated. A computed tomography (CT) scan, performed 6 hours after surgery, showed brain ischemia in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) suggestive of thrombembolism with deviation of the median line and sub-falcoral engagement. Few hours later, he was declared deceased.

          Volume 12, Issue 8 (2021)

            Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

            Multiple Oral Ulcerative Lesions Bullous Pemphigoid: A Case Report

            Babita Prasad* and Renuka Ammanagi

            Ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity are versatile. Autoimmune disorders like pemphigus present themselves with multiple different variants of ulcerative lesions. The diagnosis of such lesion at an early stage is very important to treat the disease condition faster and wiser. It affects the quality of life of patients. This paper pemphigoid case is discussed which was confined to the oral cavity. The final diagnosis was made using histopathology. Later the patient was given steroids and immunosuppressants for the management of the disease. Conclusion-Oral medicine experts or dentists play an important role in diagnosing autoimmune disorders. An early diagnosis and treatment can help the patient recovering soon and it also further improves the patient's quality of life.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

            Catching Liars in Psychological Evaluations of Criminal Defendants: Comparing Direct vs. Indirect Assessment of Truthfulness

            Gabriel Johnston, Alexis Candelier, Dana Powers-Green and Shawn Adair Johnston*

            This research examines the two-fold question of why people are so poor at detecting deception and why the indirect assessment of veracity may be more accurate than direct assessment. Four statements made by criminal defendants, two true and two deceptive, were rated by participants on a nine item test of veracity. Eight of the items were derived from Criterion-Based Content Analysis and Reality Monitoring, two techniques of verbal content analysis that exhibit good reliability. Scores on these eight items represented the indirect measure of truthfulness while a ninth item, the direct measure, asked participants to rate the overall truthfulness of each statement. Results indicated that the indirect assessment of truthfulness accurately classified a higher percentage of the statements made by the criminal defendants than the direct assessment while also accounting for more of the variance in the rating. The superior accuracy of indirect assessment, however, resulted from its greater ability to accurately identify truthful rather than deceptive statements. Further, the results suggest that direct assessment overwhelmingly relies on a single variable of realism while largely failing to use the seven other items, while indirect assessment utilizes all eight items approximately equally. The results also suggest that a one-step cognitive process is used in determining that a statement is true but that a two-step process is used in determining a statement is deceptive. These results support the idea that people are poor at detecting deception because identifying a statement as deceptive literally requires more cognitive effort than assuming veracity. Indirect assessment is more reliable since it permits the use of multiple sources of information rather than relying on a single attribute.

            Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

            Personal Identification Using Radiological Technology and Advanced Digital Imaging: Expectations and Challenges

            Junji Morishita*, Noriaki Ikeda, Yasuyuki Ueda, Yongsu Yoon and Akiko Tsuji

            Novel techniques for personal identification are being researched using the latest available imaging devices. These studies may assist with disaster victim identification in future mass disasters. Studies have already been conducted on the use of advanced imaging for positive identification in forensic pathology using radiographic image recognition and other identification or authentication techniques. These techniques are based on information extracted from biological fingerprints through digital radiography and other advanced imaging techniques such as CT and MRI. Although, image matching and identification in advanced digital images is still in the initial stages of development, it has shown promising results in preventing medical accidents and for identifying specific patients. These techniques may be effective for positive identification in the fields of forensic pathology, forensic odontology, and forensic anthropology.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

            Charles S Zwerling*

            Share this article
            Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

            Comparative Role of Serology and DNA Profiling in Forensics

            Puri C Avinash*

            Background: Forensic serology and DNA profiling are extremely important branches of forensic science. Forensic serology has been a major area of forensic science biology for many decades. Forensic serology is traditionally been concerned with the identification and individualization of biological evidence. The use of DNA technology in forensic science evidence examination is the most beneficial and an important part as compared to the forensic serology division.

            Main body of the abstract: The biology branch of the forensic science laboratory performs serological and DNA analysis of physiological fluids for identification and individualization. Forensic techniques for DNA profiling which being developing around 1985 have replaced the classical or traditional genetic system previously used such that forensic serology. DNA typing can help to bring home the guilt, acquit the innocent those wrongly convicted.

            Conclusion: In this article we’ll review two techniques of forensic science which are the basis of forensic serology and DNA typing as important forensic evidence. Apart from all available techniques DNA profiling for evidence easily give the result. Forensic DNA profiling is used to bring major benefits to society by helping to convict serious criminals.

            Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021)

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              The Language of Police Arrest in Philippines

              Harriette Mae Mercullo

              The policy of police arrest in the Philippines requires the reading of the Miranda doctrine to the arrestee as stipulated in the Philippine Constitution. This Miranda doctrine provides an arrestee or any suspect an awareness of his right to remain silent and to get his own lawyer. While some police officers observe such policy, others tend to disregard the significance of reading the Miranda doctrine during the actual arrest. Using the qualitative mdescriptive method and drawing data from interviews, this paper seeks to investigate the language of police arrest and to draw implications on the upholding of the Miranda doctrine in the Philippines. It also seeks to review the policy of police arrest and its alignment with the actual practice. The finding of the research reveals that there is a mismatch between the policy and practice of police arrest in the Philippines. In addition, the improper use of language in the legal domain leads to marginalization of arrestees who are at a great disadvantage before the law. Further, this study suggests the need to explain clearly the content and meaning of the Miranda doctrine by the arresting officer to the arrestee.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

              Identification of GSR on Shooter‚??s Hands Using Energy Dispersive Experiments

              Mukesh Sharma

              Background: Gunshot residues are collected after shooting incident or firearms used, using to determine the composition of the GSR reference by various techniques to
              choose methods and techniques most suitable for this type of analysis, such as SEM-EDX, NAA, LBIS and etc.
              Objectives: Our proposed study is to determine the elemental analysis of GSR using EDX – 8000 set-up. All the GSR constituents lead-barium-antimony (Pb-Ba-Sb) are
              verified in the Indian made ammunition.
              Methods: Samples of metallic powder residue were realized after several shoots by different kind of weapons (country made firearms) with local ammunitions. So, this
              study was undertaken to develop chemical ballistic specialty in order to improve forensic investigations and drive benefit to Indian police and forensic experts.
              Results: Our results reveals that the non-destructive - EDX method is quite adequate to analysis the proposed investigation.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

              Determination of Sex by Applying Discriminant Function Analysis on Linear Measurements of the Mental and Mandibular Foramen using OPG-A Retrospective Study.

              Sukanya Desingurajan

              Disaster may be caused by natural events such as severe flooding, earthquake or volcanic eruptions.it can also be due to human activities such as mishaps involving mass
              transport by Land Sea, air and other causes include war, boundary disputes. Identification of individual victims by devital means is one of the most reliable methods. In case
              of severe disintegration visual recognition of facial features and finger prints are often impossible due to soft tissue destruction. This situation necessitates the use of the hard
              calcified tissue such as human dentition and jaws, pelvis and skull

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

              Comparison of Fore and Hind Foot of Artiodactyla Species of an Animals for Forensic Importance

              Neha Yadav

              In the present study, samples of pugmark of Artiodactyla animals’ species were collected from different areas. The collection was done through photography method. After the collection of each and every pugmark samples of animal species then it was individually examined for the comparison of fore and hind foot of the specific animal species pugmark. Comparison of fore foot and hind foot was done on the bases of physical analysis such as shape, size, dimension, dew mark, claw mark and specific feature. From the observation, it is interpreted that fore foot and hind foot of same animal species showed different characteristics which were not same. Through pugmark we can not only identify the specific species but also identify weather it is fore foot or hind foot of the specific animal. Pugmark signifies identity.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

              Synthesis and On-Field Testing of a Novel Low-Cost Latent Fingerprint Development Powders

              Gurpreet Singh Suri

              Background: A series of novel and low-cost powders were synthesised for the detection and extraction of the latent fingerprints deposited on various porous and non-porous surfaces. The template materials for these novel products range from silica nanoparticles to iron nanoparticles and activated charcoal. Preliminary lab testing indicated high quality fingerprints that were developed on various porous and non-porous surfaces such as glass slides, polymer plastic bags, aluminium foil, cardboard and paper.
              Results: The silica based nano-fingerprint powders gave extremely fine visual prints as compared to commercial SIRCHIE® powders, with a white
              pattern of the ridges. Activated charcoal based and iron nanoparticles based powders on the other hand yielded fine black fingerprint patterns
              similar to the commercial SIRCHIE® powders. These series of powders were subjected to on-field testing by utilising the state-of-art facility of
              the General Department of Forensic Science and Criminology, Dubai Police. The samples were tested here under both lab conditions and virtual
              crime scenes, alongside the SIRCHIE® commercial powders already in standard use by the Dubai Police. The qualities of print developed were
              assessed based on the AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) report and visual inspection by the senior fingerprint experts of the
              Dubai police.
              Conclusion: The study revealed distinct advantages of the novel synthesised products over the commercial powders. There was higher uniformity
              of the developed print patterns, higher score of AFIS analysis and advanced recovery of damaged fingerprints using the novel powders, which
              makes these novel products highly commercially viable

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