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Journal of Forensic Research

ISSN: 2157-7145

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 7 (2021)

    Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

    Assessment of Foot Care Interventions in Combating Diabetic Foot Syndrome: A Quality Improvement Project

    Subodh S Satheesh*, Rakesh KR and Subash Philip

    Diabetes mellitus and its complications have a severe impact on individual and society. Diabetic foot amputation shows the devastating nature of its complications. Early diagnosis and patient education are vital in successful care of diabetic foot ulceration. The objective of this study was to implement a multidisciplinary approach in health care services in the prevention and management of diabetic foot infections. The study evaluated the impact of foot screening practices in combating diabetic foot syndrome. A prospective study was conducted in Community Health Center Nedumonkavu and NCD clinics of Kollam (South India), included 252 DFU patients. The symptoms were screened and identified through WCDH-DFAQ questionnaire, monofilament testing and vibration sensing test. Wilcoxon rank test was used to test the differences in mean scores. The Monofilament testing results indicated had identified 22 (8.73%) patients with absence of sensations. Regarding foot checkup, the mean score was 0.29 in baseline data vs 0.59 in intervention data. The results were significant with improvement in foot screening practices among patients (p<0.001). The study paves the way for a multidisciplinary approach in health care services in the prevention and management of diabetic foot infections. Besides being affordable and least resource purposive, the study opens up relief in social, financial and emotional deprivations due to diabetic foot syndrome.

    Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 5

    Evaluation of the Association of the Renalase rs10887800 Polymorphism with the Risk of Preeclampsia in Brazilian Women

    Jose Juvenal Linhares*, Mara Suellem de Freitas Moura, Emmanuelle Coelho Noronha, Wanneida Christina de Pina Fernandes, Kaio César Simiano Tavares, Andrẵ Saraiva Leão Marcelo Antunes and Samara Casemiro Benevides

    Despite advances in obstetric medicine, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that PE results from a state of sympathetic hyperactivity with circulating catecholamines increased in this condition. A new enzyme, called Renalase, has recently been identified exhibiting activity on the metabolism of catecholamine and blood pressure reduction when administered in vivo. Thus, this study evaluated the possible association between the presence of the Renalase gene (RNLS) (rs10887800) polymorphism and mechanisms that control the pathogenesis of PE. This was a cross-sectional, quantitative, case-control study with 94 pregnant women with PE (cases) and 97 normotensive pregnant women (controls). A standardized form was used to collect demographic and clinical data; oral scraping samples were collected, and DNA extraction and subsequent real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were conducted to evaluate the presence of rs10887800. In terms of genotypic distribution and frequency of alleles, no significant association was observed between the rs10887800 polymorphism and development of PE, or with its severe form. However, the GG genotype was associated with a trend of higher risk of PE (GG vs. AG + AA: OR = 2.16, 0.97-4.86, p = 0.05). Hence, the rs10887800 polymorphism could not be determined as a predisposing factor for PE susceptibility or severity in the studied population.

    Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 3

    The Efficacy of the Combined Ultrasound Therapy with 5% Lidocaine Medicated Patch for the Management of Plantar Fascia Tendinopathy

    G Panoutsopoulos*, A Mitseas, D Panidis, K Tzirogiannis, Maria Polikandrioti, Ariadni M Dede, Danai A Mitsea and V Dedes

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been routinely used to treat tendinopathies, including plantar fascia tendinopathy. The 5% lidocaine patch is designed as a targeted peripheral analgesic to treat postherpetic neuralgia, osteoarthritis, low back pain, myofascial pain syndrome, and diabetic polyneuropathy. The present study aimed to investigate if the addition of 5% lidocaine patches between the therapeutic ultrasound sessions could improve analgesia in people suffering from plantar fascia tendinopathy. Eighty-two patients with plantar fascia tendinopathy received therapeutic ultrasound combined with 5% lidocaine patches between sessions, and fifty-six patients received therapeutic ultrasound alone. The pain intensity and functional and quality of life impairments were evaluated by the self-administered “UoP-PFQ” questionnaire pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at the 4-week follow-up. Pain intensity, functionality and quality of life impairments were significantly reduced in both the combined group with therapeutic ultrasound and 5% lidocaine patches and the ultrasound group. However, the reduction was more pronounced in the combined group in all parameters pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at the 4-week follow-up. Although both ultrasound and combined therapies were effective in patients with plantar fascia tendinopathy, the statistical analysis showed that the addition of 5%lidocaine patches between the ultrasound treatments could cause a further reduction in pain intensity and improve the functionality and quality of life

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Employee Perspectives on Fire Safety at Workplaces in India: An Empirical Study

    Glorita S. Fernandes* and C. F. Mulimani

    Share this article

    Fires in India account for the loss of property and lives as seen in examples of the AMRI Hospital Fire in Kolkata, Kamala mills fires at Mumbai, Carlton Tower fire in Bengaluru, etc. Hence, it is important to prepare strategies for minimizing fire incidents when possible, example workplaces. In this regard, this research study was undertaken to assess the present status of knowledge regarding fire safety practices at the Indian workplace. The assessment will help in initiation of better action strategies towards fire risk management and mitigation. In this study, employee perspectives regarding fire safety and awareness at workplaces were collected and analysed. This paper provides information about workplace fire safety protocols, preparedness of employees to handle emergency and personal coping strategies when faced with workplace fires. The study found that while most employees were aware of personal safety procedures; the awareness regarding usage of fire safety aids was lacking. Ultimately, workplace safety procedures need to be enhanced in certain cases to effectively combat and deal with future fire incidents.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Advancing Nanomaterials for Detection of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents in Forensic Application: A Review

    Amar Pal Singh, R.K Sarin, Utkarsh Jain and Nidhi Chauhan*

    The pesticide poisoning cases are one of the most common referred for examination in Forensic Laboratories. Currently, these laboratories detect pesticides in visceral samples by using conventional techniques namely Thin-layer Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry techniques in antemortem and postmortem crime exhibits. However, these techniques are constrained by various factors including low sensitivity, efficiency, time consumption, high cost and require trained personnel to operate. The rapid development in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials will certainly pave the way for the development of new methods for detection of Organophosphorus pesticides in exhibits referred for forensic examination with the potentials to overcome the limitations of the conventional techniques. The researchers of various disciplines including chemical, biological, physical, medicine, explosive, fingerprinting, environment and biochemistry are exploring the Nanomaterials and Nanotechniques. Various Nanomaterials based sensors and detection techniques have been developed which have been found powerful tools for pesticides detection at very low level in food samples and contaminated water. These Nanotechniques and Nanomaterials may render great help in detection of pesticides in poisoning cases. Therefore, in forensic examination, it is decisive to apply the novel promising Nanomaterials and Nanotechniques for detection of OrganoPhosphorus (OP) pesticides with high sensitivity, selectively and rapidity.

    This review paper provides an insight of using nanomaterials based techniques for detection of OP pesticides

    Volume 12, Issue 9 (2021)

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Review on Rugae Pattern

      Anshika Kaushik*

      The study of palate shape or rugae pattern is known as Rugoscopy. Rugae are anatomical folds that are present on anterior third of palate of upper jaw behind the incisive papillae. These are transverse ridges located on palatal mucosa. These are used in forensic odontology for personal identification. They are unique and remain unchangeable throughout the life of a person from birth. The fat of buccal pad and tongue keep them (rugae pattern) protected from any kind of trauma. They vary in their size, shape, length and pattern from person to person and from left side to right side in same person and hence is used in personal identification

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Proposing Application of 3D Scanning Technology in Crime Scene Documentation

      R Anantkumar Patil*, Samidha S Walvekr and Manjushri S Bagul

      The purpose of an investigative sketch is to provide a correct record that shows the scene as it was found and that can be examined later. It does not require artistic ability but must be accurate enough to show the facts. The sketch is supplementary to the investigator's field notes. Hence to improvise the data being recorded, we are proposing introduction of 3D scanning to the crime scene documentation process. 3D scanning will provide us more precised and detailed results which will help the investigators to reconstruct the crime scene in a very easy and handy way. 3D scanning being digital data it will be very easy to handle and combine it with other technology like virtual reality (VR), Simulation etc… which will increase its importance as a document as well as evidence. It’s also very safe to use it digitally as we can encrypt it using hash function and its own digital profile will also help to prevent tempering. So, in this study we are scanning 3 sample crime scenes in three different conditions by a 3D scanner and make the 3D models of the respective scenes to understand its strengths and weaknesses. So that we can use it for investigation processes and overcome its flaws.

      Mini Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Achsah John*

      Biometric traits are now highly explored by the researchers to establish a system which can be used to identify a person accurately. The finger knuckle prints refers to the inherent patterns of skin that are formed at the joints in the finger back surface. This paper presents the comparative study of the finger knuckle prints, its individuality on the basis of which the prints are different from each other.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Burned Bones as Important Forensic Evidence: A Review

      Bhavna Ahlawat

      Burned bones are significant forensic evidence but the question arises about the analysis of burned bones. By being a fragile
      commodity burned bones can be hard to analysis. Over the year many researchers have given their important inputs towards the examination
      of the burned bones but the standard for all the research remains missing. The paper focuses on providing a bridge between the studies and to
      give significant insights in the analysis and recovery of burned bones and how they are an important in analysing the different parameters of
      forensic anthropology.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Pawar Rushikesh*

      Nasal Index is a very important anthropometric index which depend on the nasal parameters such as Nasal height and Nasal width. It is very useful in distinguishing racial and sexiual differences. It is also useful in finding an unknown person. The shape and size of the nose depends on the environmental factors and climatic conditions.

      Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        The Language of Police Arrest in Philippines

        Harriette Mae Mercullo

        The policy of police arrest in the Philippines requires the reading of the Miranda doctrine to the arrestee as stipulated in the Philippine Constitution. This Miranda doctrine provides an arrestee or any suspect an awareness of his right to remain silent and to get his own lawyer. While some police officers observe such policy, others tend to disregard the significance of reading the Miranda doctrine during the actual arrest. Using the qualitative mdescriptive method and drawing data from interviews, this paper seeks to investigate the language of police arrest and to draw implications on the upholding of the Miranda doctrine in the Philippines. It also seeks to review the policy of police arrest and its alignment with the actual practice. The finding of the research reveals that there is a mismatch between the policy and practice of police arrest in the Philippines. In addition, the improper use of language in the legal domain leads to marginalization of arrestees who are at a great disadvantage before the law. Further, this study suggests the need to explain clearly the content and meaning of the Miranda doctrine by the arresting officer to the arrestee.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Identification of GSR on ShooterÔ??s Hands Using Energy Dispersive Experiments

        Mukesh Sharma

        Background: Gunshot residues are collected after shooting incident or firearms used, using to determine the composition of the GSR reference by various techniques to
        choose methods and techniques most suitable for this type of analysis, such as SEM-EDX, NAA, LBIS and etc.
        Objectives: Our proposed study is to determine the elemental analysis of GSR using EDX – 8000 set-up. All the GSR constituents lead-barium-antimony (Pb-Ba-Sb) are
        verified in the Indian made ammunition.
        Methods: Samples of metallic powder residue were realized after several shoots by different kind of weapons (country made firearms) with local ammunitions. So, this
        study was undertaken to develop chemical ballistic specialty in order to improve forensic investigations and drive benefit to Indian police and forensic experts.
        Results: Our results reveals that the non-destructive - EDX method is quite adequate to analysis the proposed investigation.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Determination of Sex by Applying Discriminant Function Analysis on Linear Measurements of the Mental and Mandibular Foramen using OPG-A Retrospective Study.

        Sukanya Desingurajan

        Disaster may be caused by natural events such as severe flooding, earthquake or volcanic eruptions.it can also be due to human activities such as mishaps involving mass
        transport by Land Sea, air and other causes include war, boundary disputes. Identification of individual victims by devital means is one of the most reliable methods. In case
        of severe disintegration visual recognition of facial features and finger prints are often impossible due to soft tissue destruction. This situation necessitates the use of the hard
        calcified tissue such as human dentition and jaws, pelvis and skull

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Comparison of Fore and Hind Foot of Artiodactyla Species of an Animals for Forensic Importance

        Neha Yadav

        In the present study, samples of pugmark of Artiodactyla animals’ species were collected from different areas. The collection was done through photography method. After the collection of each and every pugmark samples of animal species then it was individually examined for the comparison of fore and hind foot of the specific animal species pugmark. Comparison of fore foot and hind foot was done on the bases of physical analysis such as shape, size, dimension, dew mark, claw mark and specific feature. From the observation, it is interpreted that fore foot and hind foot of same animal species showed different characteristics which were not same. Through pugmark we can not only identify the specific species but also identify weather it is fore foot or hind foot of the specific animal. Pugmark signifies identity.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

        Synthesis and On-Field Testing of a Novel Low-Cost Latent Fingerprint Development Powders

        Gurpreet Singh Suri

        Background: A series of novel and low-cost powders were synthesised for the detection and extraction of the latent fingerprints deposited on various porous and non-porous surfaces. The template materials for these novel products range from silica nanoparticles to iron nanoparticles and activated charcoal. Preliminary lab testing indicated high quality fingerprints that were developed on various porous and non-porous surfaces such as glass slides, polymer plastic bags, aluminium foil, cardboard and paper.
        Results: The silica based nano-fingerprint powders gave extremely fine visual prints as compared to commercial SIRCHIE® powders, with a white
        pattern of the ridges. Activated charcoal based and iron nanoparticles based powders on the other hand yielded fine black fingerprint patterns
        similar to the commercial SIRCHIE® powders. These series of powders were subjected to on-field testing by utilising the state-of-art facility of
        the General Department of Forensic Science and Criminology, Dubai Police. The samples were tested here under both lab conditions and virtual
        crime scenes, alongside the SIRCHIE® commercial powders already in standard use by the Dubai Police. The qualities of print developed were
        assessed based on the AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) report and visual inspection by the senior fingerprint experts of the
        Dubai police.
        Conclusion: The study revealed distinct advantages of the novel synthesised products over the commercial powders. There was higher uniformity
        of the developed print patterns, higher score of AFIS analysis and advanced recovery of damaged fingerprints using the novel powders, which
        makes these novel products highly commercially viable

        Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

          Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

          Fireworks: Requisite for Forensics Evolution from Conventional to Green Crackers in India Ô?? A Perspective

          Sweta Sinha and Kavita Goyal

          Social life in India is enriched with festivals, traditions and cultural events, often, associated with bursting crackers during celebration. Firework exhibition and bursting crackers are a symbol of jubilation. The hazardous effects of fireworks are often obscured by the cloud of smoke and amusement ultimately breeding root cause to severe accidental injuries. Fire accidents occur due to surpassing supervisory measures while handling fireworks [1-3]. The illicit production, sale, illegal trade of crackers is another major direct challenge for criminal judiciary system and regulatory authorities [4-6]. Television, print and social media are crammed with evidences apart from actual incident data where crackers played a major role in crime. The chemistry of conventional fireworks has not much transmuted since archaic times. Common constituents in fireworks are carbon centered fuel, a reducing agent and an amalgamation of metal salts functioning as oxidant and colourants. The lightening of fireworks commences with an exothermic process engendering smoke as a by-product holding gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, as well as suspended particulate matter between PM2.5-PM10. Conventional fireworks also integrate hazardous chemicals like nitrates of strontium, sodium and barium, carbonates of strontium, calcium, barium and copper, sulphates of strontium and calcium, chlorides of calcium and barium, aluminium and magnesium salts, sodium oxalate, copper oxide, iron dust powder and potassium perchlorate, which act as stabilizers, oxidizers and colorants [7]. Both metals and radicals determine the presence of explosive material. All these residues are hazardous in nature

          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

          A Lead to a Speedy Identification of Disaster Victims Ô?? Forensic Anthropology

          Isha Chauhan

          Identification of victims is one of the most significant concerns while investigating the scene of occurrence but due to the delay in time of identification
          it becomes difficult for the authorities to enable identification. The use of modern forensic techniques including the knowledge from disciplines like
          forensic anthropology, toxicology, post blast residue analysts, forensic odontologists so as to speed up the investigation. The paper reviews the role
          of a forensic anthropologist in the Disaster victim identification, on and off site. The use of radiographic techniques in order to know the biological
          profile of the deceased as well to assist relocation in case of a fragmented body. In the current scenario, the forensic involvement of experts though
          has been increased in identifying the victims, but still there needs to be more deployment at ground zero in order to increase proper investigation.
          Disaster victim identification is a multidisciplinary approach and so collaboration from all the disciplines is needed so as to render justice.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

          A Reviewon Homologous Relations in Muscle Forms: Result of Phylogeny between Reptiles and Man

          Oghenefego Michael Adheke

          The biological diversity of vertebrates is uniquely significant to the concept of phylogeny. Phylogeny is a branch of evolutionary biology that
          studies the evolutionary relationships between certain organisms. Reptiles and mammals are said to share the same evolutionary ancestry called
          the amniotic-egged ancestor. This ancestor is divided into two groups; sauropsids (reptiles) and the synapsids (mammals). According to some
          authors, the broadest group of the reptilian family is the sub-class Squamata. Examples of animals within this sub-class include, lizards, crocodiles,
          snakes and amphisbaenians. However, man (Homo sapiens) belonging to the primate class, are the most intelligent and complex of all mammals.

          Opinion Article Pages: 1 - 1

          Criminological Distinguishing Proof of Single Colored Hair Follicular Strand is Now Conceivable

          Sowmya Uttam

          Raman spectroscopy is a logical method dependent on the actual marvel
          of Raman dissipating, which models certain vivacious connections that happen
          when photons crash into issue. SERS is a unique sort of Raman spectroscopy
          that gives a "primary unique finger impression" of a material in any event,
          when not many atoms are available in the objective example. Then again,
          XRF examination includes lighting a material with X-beams and looking at the
          energies of photons re-transmitted when the electrons in the example leave
          the energized states. XRF investigation is particularly valuable to figure out
          which metallic components are available in a material.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Report Uncovers the Most Grown-Ups Passing on Rashly of Normal Causes Didn't Look for Clinical Assistance.

          Sowmya Uttam

          The exploration, distributed as of late in PLOS One, found key components
          identifying with untimely grown-up passings by examining dissection reports
          and medico-legal demise examination records of 1,282 individuals between
          the ages of 25 and 59 who kicked the bucket in Harris County in 2013. As
          indicated by milestone research distributed in 2015, there has been a
          sensational flood in the death pace of moderately aged white Americans since
          1999. Untimely grown-up passings are characterized as passing before the
          normal mortality age.

          Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

            A Review of Suicide Note Analysis Studies in India

            Mukta Rani

            Suicide note also known as death note is message left by someone who commits suicide or who intends to commit suicide. It is the closest and the final word we get to the suicidal mind before death. Due importance should be given at the site of crime for recovery of suicide note as it is an important piece of evidence showing psyche of the patient and plays an important role in understanding reasons of suicide. Due to scarcity of data on the study of suicide note the present article is an effort to evaluate the psychology of victim in suicide notes with respect to mode of writing, to whom it is addressed and victim’s last wish. The present article is just a small effort, studies involving larger number of suicide notes are required to have psychological insight of the person committing suicide, and eventually such data may lead to prevention of suicides.

            Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

            Sexual Abuse: Investigation of Rape, Sodomy and Murder

            Sharon Dinil Kumar and Vishal Saini*

            In the world there is widely increased of the sexual offences, this is the serious problem in every society. It has not only put permanent stains on the victim but as well as her entire family into degrades and shame. The progressive number with the sexual assault being targeted on woman, infants, homosexuals and animals, by the different manner of assault style like Sodomy and the killer is male. Many children, sadly become victims of sex-related homicides perpetrated by the very persons who are supposed to protect them from evil. There are four categories of rapists are power reassurance, power assertive, anger retaliatory, and anger excitation. It is important to bring justice to the society and should fear the consequences the criminals will face. We present a case study which will bring about the importan t facts and figures of how forensic science is helpful to give conclusions to the cases. In some cases the criminal profile has been discussed suggesting psychiatric and psychological analysis of the sexual offender in such heinous crime.

            Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

            Data Assessment and Forensic Medical Examination of Ô??Sexual Integrity CrimesÔ?Ł

            Saptarshi Pal

            A forensic medical examination when committing depraved acts is carried out only in cases where there are any changes on the body of the victims, according to which it is possible to establish the fact of such actions. An examination may also be carried out in respect of material evidence. At the same time, the jurisdiction of a forensic medical expert includes the detection of traces and changes on the body of victims, as well as the mechanisms of their formation. The fact of depraved actions is established by the court and the investigating authorities

            Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

            Rape and Strangulation of Kid with Creeper Plant

            Sabyasachi Nath

            The rape crime-clock is very alarming compared to other crime against women in India. It is seen that different age groups including kids are the victim of such menace. In one case, a 6½-year kid used to visit the neighbouring house to play with her girl friend of same age. One day, the uncle (father of her friend) lured her and took her to a nearby bushy area close to the house. The kid was raped there and strangulated with a flexible wild creeper (rope like plant material) and abandoned naked on the spot. In the mean-time, parents of the victim girl enquired the place where she often used to visit and play. Since several hours passed without any result, an FIR was lodged in the local police station. Subsequently in the late evening, the detection of a dead body (kid) was reported and identified to be the same missing kid. As per secret input, it was ascertained that the deceased (kid) was last seen with the accused moving towards the bushy area in mid hour of the day. The undisturbed crime spot was examined by the police and forensic team to collect physical evidence and establish the crime and criminal. The autopsy findings and criminal psychology along with other details have been discussed in this paper

            Volume 12, Issue 11 (2021)

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

              Determination of Sex by Applying Discriminant Function Analysis on the Linear Measurements of the Mental and Mandibular Foramen using OPG-A Retrospective Study

              Sukanya Desingurajan

              Disaster may be caused by natural events such as severe flooding, earthquake or volcanic eruptions.it can also be due to human activities such as mishaps involving mass transport by Land Sea, air and other causes include war, boundary disputes. Identification of individual victims by devital means is one of the most reliable methods. In case of severe disintegration visual recognition of facial features and finger prints are often impossible due to soft tissue destruction. This situation necessitates the use of the hard calcified tissue such as human dentition and jaws, pelvis and skull.

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

              Data Assessment and Forensic Medical Examination of ´┐Ż??Sexual Integrity Crimes´┐Ż?´┐Ż

              Saptarshi Pal

              A forensic medical examination when committing depraved acts is carried out only in cases where there are any changes on the body of the victims, according to which it is possible to establish the fact of such actions. An examination may also be carried out in respect of material evidence. At the same time, the jurisdiction of a forensic medical expert includes the detection of traces and changes on the body of victims, as well as the mechanisms of their formation. The fact of depraved actions is established by the court and the investigating authorities.

              Case Report Pages: 1 - 6

              An Autopsy and Medicolegal Evaluation in a Case of Sudden Maternal Death from Pulmonary Embolism

              Pawan Mittal, Prateek Karagwal, Balraj Sharma, Meenu Gilotra, Amrita Kulhria, and Abhishek Saini, Saurabh Juneja

              Pregnancy and the postpartum period carry high risk of thromboembolic phenomenon which increases manifold postpartaly. Multiple predisposing risk factors, usually acting in combination, add up to this risk. All three of the Virchow’s triad conditions predisposing to vascular thrombosis, i.e, endothelial injury, venous stasis and hypercoagulability, are present in pregnancy. The deaths caused by pulmonary embolism may become the subject of medicolegal investigation due a sudden and unexpected fatal outcome. A thorough dissection, documentation and ancillary investigations pertaining to pulmonary emboli are important components of evaluating such fatalities. The investigation requires a dependable protocol that should include a proper evaluation of the timing of the embolus along with the residual and other thrombi, whenever discovered. Because of the pathophysiology and propagation of thrombus over a range of time period, one may see a broad histological range of thrombosis and organization. The present case pertains to the sudden death of a young female in the postpartum period who suffered a massive pulmonary embolism about 6 weeks after delivery. An extensive dissection of the lower limbs showed multiple deep venous thrombi in the calf and femoral regions while moderate to large coiled emboli were found in the pulmonary arterial vasculature. An additional histological dating of the thrombi as well as pulmonary embolus was performed that helped in elucidating the time range of their development.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

              Forensic Gait Analysis: The Correlation between Gait Characteristics and Stature of Male and Female for Criminal Profiling

              Hritik Kumar, Shanu Kumar

              Forensic gait pattern analysis is the scientific and systematic evaluation of different gait characteristics involved in gait pattern left at scene of occurrence during crime by criminal, victim, or any other person and it is used as a parameter because of their individualistic nature to eliminate suspect list as it contribute in personal identification of any suspect related to the crime scene, meanwhile helps investigating officer to make a criminal profile. Gait pattern is the way of walking or a manner of movement of lower limbs during locomotion of any person and it constitutes some feature during development of walking pattern like step length, step width, step angle, foot angle, etc. Which is somehow individualistic? And gait pattern is countered as a evidence in number of crime scene robbery, hit and run, homicides, kidnapping, etc. The present study expecting probable correlation between four gait characteristics which is step length, step width, step angle and foot angle of person and stature in both male and female separately. And will be developed as a forensic tool which provide us relevant information like stature, gender of the person and help to generate criminal profile.

              Volume 12, Issue 4 (2021)

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                ENPP1 and GHR Genes in Determination of Face Morphology Potential Importance in Forensic Science ENPP1 and GHR Genes and Facial Recognition

                Kaan Yilancioglu

                Human facial morphology is diverse between individuals and communities, and is affected by gene polymorphisms. We investigated the effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of ENPP1 and GHR genes on facial features. 20 volunteers over the age of 18 without birth defects, facial trauma, reconstructive and plastic surgery, facial and dental implant treatment, orthognathic/maxillofacial surgery story and facial paralysis or neurological problems resulting any facial abnormalities were selected for the study. Two SNP genotypes and a total of 40 samples were studied. 15 anatomic regions were identified on the face and 27 physical measurements were made between these 15 regions. ENPP1 (rs7754561) and biometric measurements between the points were found associated significantly. We believe that the data obtained from this study might be one of the study for the development of the powerful identification methods from DNA in forensic sciences. The information obtained from DNA analysis might be used for drawing 2D or 3D robot images. If the genes affecting the facial morphology and the variants of these genes are well understood, it would be possible to reach the person whose DNA could not be identified in databases.

                Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                Forensic AnthropologyÔ?? A Lead to a Speedy Identification of Disaster Victims

                Isha Chauhan

                Identification of victims is one of the most significant concerns while investigating the scene of occurrence but due to the delay in time of identification it becomes difficult for the authorities to enable identification. The use of modern forensic techniques including the knowledge from disciplines like forensic anthropology, toxicology, post blast residue analysts, forensic odontologists so as to speed up the investigation. The paper reviews the role of a forensic anthropologist in the Disaster victim identification, on and off site. The use of radiographic techniques in order to know the biological profile of the deceased as well to assist relocation in case of a fragmented body. In the current scenario, the forensic involvement of experts though has been increased in identifying the victims, but still there needs to be more deployment at ground zero in order to increase proper investigation.
                Disaster victim identification is a multidisciplinary approach and so collaboration from all the disciplines is needed so as to render justice.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                Synthesis Testing and On-Field of Novel Low-Cost Latent Fingerprint Development Powders

                Gurpreet Singh Suri

                Background: A series of novel and low-cost powders were synthesised for the detection and extraction of the latent fingerprints deposited on various porous and non-porous surfaces. The template materials for these novel products range from silica nanoparticles to iron nanoparticles and activated charcoal. Preliminary lab testing indicated high quality fingerprints that were developed on various porous and non-porous surfaces such as glass slides, polymer plastic bags, aluminium foil, cardboard and paper.
                Results: The silica based nano-fingerprint powders gave extremely fine visual prints as compared to commercial SIRCHIE® powders, with a white pattern of the ridges. Activated charcoal based and iron nanoparticles based powders on the other hand yielded fine black fingerprint patterns similar to the commercial SIRCHIE® powders. These series of powders were subjected to on-field testing by utilising the state-of-art facility of the General Department of Forensic Science and Criminology, Dubai Police. The samples were tested here under both lab conditions and virtual crime scenes, alongside the SIRCHIE® commercial powders already in standard use by the Dubai Police. The qualities of print developed were assessed based on the AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) report and visual inspection by the senior fingerprint experts of the Dubai police.
                Conclusion: The study revealed distinct advantages of the novel synthesised products over the commercial powders. There was higher uniformity of the developed print patterns, higher score of AFIS analysis and advanced recovery of damaged fingerprints using the novel powders, which makes these novel products highly commercially viable.

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

                A Path of Sympathetic to Forensic Science from the Sight of Forensic Anthropology

                Pranav Y Dave

                Over the past few decades the field of forensic science has experienced a remarkable development and sustainability enhance the public profile. Due to increasing the different techniques to do the crime, there must be some unique and diverse methods to investigate it. The prominence of forensic science has concluded from scientific and technological advancement, increase in reliance of law enforcement and judicial system. Some of the crimes are smartly occurred, that in investigation there are no clues and evidence would be found to excess the further investigation. Anthropology is a unique and old way to easily notice the clues at crime scene. With the help of forensic anthropology, anthropologist can distinguish the possible stories behind the crime. Even in psychological way, the method can also sense the psychology of the criminal. This review paper aims to identify how best to organize and deliver forensic science education. It also explains the relation the important part of the anthropology in forensic science and how forensic anthropology can be useful at crime scenes. This paper also endeavours that how forensic anthropology can easily detect the clue physically and psychologically to investigate the crime scenes with the help of some hypothesis cases.

                Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

                Problem of Imputability in Case of Post Splenctomy Stroke Following Through Traffic Accident

                Marwa Boussaid

                The occurrence of perioperative stroke related to noncardiac, nonaortic surgery is frequently less expected than cardiovascular related one.\ Splenectomy could be one of these situations. The advent of post-splenectomy stroke following trauma involving third party, whether accidental or intentional, can arise several questions and be particulary challenging from legal point of view. Aim of this manuscript is to report a case of post splenectomy stroke following a traffic accident and to discuss both imputabilities of the stroke to the splenectomy and the stroke to the traffic accident. A 40-year-old male, without past medical history, was a victim of a traffic accident. Body-scan showed a Haemoperitoneum of medium abundance, a ruptured spleen and a fracture of the right humerus. An emergent splenectomy was performed. The postoperative examination revealed a Glasgow scale of 9 with anosocoria, hypotension and tachycardia. He was reanimated. A computed tomography (CT) scan, performed 6 hours after surgery, showed brain ischemia in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) suggestive of thrombembolism with deviation of the median line and sub-falcoral engagement. Few hours later, he was declared deceased.

                Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

                  Exploring the Potential of Ridge Density as Measure of Sex Identification

                  Vilas Anil Chavan

                  Identification of individual based on fingerprints is well established and widely used for both security and forensic purposes. In a forensic scenario, when a fingerprint is found at a scene of crime, it is sought to compare with the fingerprints from a set of suspects. Sex Identification may be considered as first level of identification. In this study, potential of ridge density has been explored for sex identification within wide age groups. A database of fingerprints collected from 190(95 Male and 95 Female) people of various age groups ranging from 1-70 year from Marathwada population has been prepared. Analysis of the fingerprints shows ridge density as an efficient sex marker except for the kids less than 10 years of age. The present study was aimed to explore the potential of ridge density in sex identification. The variability due to well defined area for the calculation of ridge density was also explored. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in ridge density due to selected region. As far as variability due to age is concerned, it has been found that there is stability in ridge density once the age crosses 10 years. As far as identification of sex is concerned, there is a difference of 1-2 ridges when ridge density of male vs. female is calculated, which may be due to average over a small databas.

                  Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

                  Homologous Relations in Muscle Forms as Result of Phylogeny between Reptiles and Man: A Review

                  Oghenefego Michael Adheke

                  The biological diversity of vertebrates is uniquely significant to the concept of phylogeny. Phylogeny is a branch of evolutionary biology that studies the evolutionary relationships between certain organisms. Reptiles and mammals are said to share the same evolutionary ancestry called the amniotic-egged ancestor. This ancestor is divided into two groups; sauropsids (reptiles) and the synapsids (mammals). According to some authors, the broadest group of the reptilian family is the sub-class Squamata. Examples of animals within this sub-class include, lizards, crocodiles, snakes and amphisbaenians. However, man (Homo sapiens) belonging to the primate class, are the most intelligent and complex of all mammals.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                  Multilingual Determinants as Forensic tool in Identifying Persons of Interest in Criminal Justice System in the Philippines

                  Benjamin Mendillo Jr

                  Primarily, this paper shall present the efficacy of forensic linguistic tools in establishing the identity of the person of interest by the unique multicultural determinants in the commission of the crime. Secondly, this will also highlight the practical description and analysis of forensic linguistics, more particularly on linguistic dialectology, which refers to the study of dialects in a methodological manner based on anthropological information. It shall elaborate on authentic case crime transcripts in assessing the tone, diction, and other linguistic features unique in a multicultural setting more particularly in assessing threat in establishing leads in identifying persons of interest by law enforcements. Lastly, the synthesis of the unique multicultural construct that the court may consider to be a determining evidence of a crime. In the Philippine context, the term Person of interest is commonly used by law enforcement to identify someone involved in a criminal investigation that has not been arrested or formally accused of a crime. It is used as equivalent for suspect. In a wider perspective, forensic linguistics covers these persons of interest by establishing proven facts as required by law in presenting compelling evidence.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                  Comparison of Fore and Hind Foot of Artiodactyla Species of Animals for an Forensic Importance

                  Neha Yadav

                  In the present study, samples of pugmark of Artiodactyla animals’ species were collected from different areas. The collection was done through photography method. After the collection of each and every pugmark samples of animal species then it was individually examined for the comparison of fore and hind foot of the specific animal species pugmark. Comparison of fore foot and hind foot was done on the bases of physical analysis such as shape, size, dimension, dew mark, claw mark and specific feature. From the observation, it is interpreted that fore foot and hind foot of same animal species showed different characteristics which were not same. Through pugmark we can not only identify the specific species but also identify weather it is fore foot or hind foot of the specific animal. Pugmark signifies identity.

                  Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

                  Problem of Imputability in Case of a Post Splenctomy Stroke Following a Traffic Accident

                  Marwa Boussaid

                  The occurrence of perioperative stroke related to noncardiac, nonaortic surgery is frequently less expected than cardiovascular related one. Splenectomy could be one of these situations. The advent of post-splenectomy stroke following trauma involving third party, whether accidental or intentional, can arise several questions and be particulary challenging from legal point of view. Aim of this manuscript is to report a case of post splenectomy stroke following a traffic accident and to discuss both imputabilities of the stroke to the splenectomy and the stroke to the traffic accident. A 40-year-old male, without past medical history, was a victim of a traffic accident. Body-scan showed a Haemoperitoneum of medium abundance, a ruptured spleen and a fracture of the right humerus. An emergent splenectomy was performed. The postoperative examination revealed a Glasgow scale of 9 with anosocoria, hypotension and tachycardia. He was reanimated. A computed tomography (CT) scan, performed 6 hours after surgery, showed brain ischemia in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) suggestive of thrombembolism with deviation of the median line and sub-falcoral engagement. Few hours later, he was declared deceased.

                  Volume 12, Issue 8 (2021)

                    Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

                    Multiple Oral Ulcerative Lesions Bullous Pemphigoid: A Case Report

                    Babita Prasad* and Renuka Ammanagi

                    Ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity are versatile. Autoimmune disorders like pemphigus present themselves with multiple different variants of ulcerative lesions. The diagnosis of such lesion at an early stage is very important to treat the disease condition faster and wiser. It affects the quality of life of patients. This paper pemphigoid case is discussed which was confined to the oral cavity. The final diagnosis was made using histopathology. Later the patient was given steroids and immunosuppressants for the management of the disease. Conclusion-Oral medicine experts or dentists play an important role in diagnosing autoimmune disorders. An early diagnosis and treatment can help the patient recovering soon and it also further improves the patient's quality of life.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

                    Catching Liars in Psychological Evaluations of Criminal Defendants: Comparing Direct vs. Indirect Assessment of Truthfulness

                    Shawn Adair Johnston*, Gabriel Johnston, Alexis Candelier and Dana Powers-Green

                    This research examines the two-fold question of why people are so poor at detecting deception and why the indirect assessment of veracity may be more accurate than direct assessment. Four statements made by criminal defendants, two true and two deceptive, were rated by participants on a nine item test of veracity. Eight of the items were derived from Criterion-Based Content Analysis and Reality Monitoring, two techniques of verbal content analysis that exhibit good reliability. Scores on these eight items represented the indirect measure of truthfulness while a ninth item, the direct measure, asked participants to rate the overall truthfulness of each statement. Results indicated that the indirect assessment of truthfulness accurately classified a higher percentage of the statements made by the criminal defendants than the direct assessment while also accounting for more of the variance in the rating. The superior accuracy of indirect assessment, however, resulted from its greater ability to accurately identify truthful rather than deceptive statements. Further, the results suggest that direct assessment overwhelmingly relies on a single variable of realism while largely failing to use the seven other items, while indirect assessment utilizes all eight items approximately equally. The results also suggest that a one-step cognitive process is used in determining that a statement is true but that a two-step process is used in determining a statement is deceptive. These results support the idea that people are poor at detecting deception because identifying a statement as deceptive literally requires more cognitive effort than assuming veracity. Indirect assessment is more reliable since it permits the use of multiple sources of information rather than relying on a single attribute.

                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                    Personal Identification Using Radiological Technology and Advanced Digital Imaging: Expectations and Challenges

                    Junji Morishita*, Noriaki Ikeda, Yasuyuki Ueda, Yongsu Yoon and Akiko Tsuji

                    Novel techniques for personal identification are being researched using the latest available imaging devices. These studies may assist with disaster victim identification in future mass disasters. Studies have already been conducted on the use of advanced imaging for positive identification in forensic pathology using radiographic image recognition and other identification or authentication techniques. These techniques are based on information extracted from biological fingerprints through digital radiography and other advanced imaging techniques such as CT and MRI. Although, image matching and identification in advanced digital images is still in the initial stages of development, it has shown promising results in preventing medical accidents and for identifying specific patients. These techniques may be effective for positive identification in the fields of forensic pathology, forensic odontology, and forensic anthropology.

                    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

                    Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

                    Charles S Zwerling*

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                    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

                    Comparative Role of Serology and DNA Profiling in Forensics

                    Puri C Avinash*

                    Background: Forensic serology and DNA profiling are extremely important branches of forensic science. Forensic serology has been a major area of forensic science biology for many decades. Forensic serology is traditionally been concerned with the identification and individualization of biological evidence. The use of DNA technology in forensic science evidence examination is the most beneficial and an important part as compared to the forensic serology division.

                    Main body of the abstract: The biology branch of the forensic science laboratory performs serological and DNA analysis of physiological fluids for identification and individualization. Forensic techniques for DNA profiling which being developing around 1985 have replaced the classical or traditional genetic system previously used such that forensic serology. DNA typing can help to bring home the guilt, acquit the innocent those wrongly convicted.

                    Conclusion: In this article we’ll review two techniques of forensic science which are the basis of forensic serology and DNA typing as important forensic evidence. Apart from all available techniques DNA profiling for evidence easily give the result. Forensic DNA profiling is used to bring major benefits to society by helping to convict serious criminals.

                    Volume 12, Issue 10 (2021)

                      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 4

                      An Assessment of Ambidextrous Handwriting Characters: A Future Prospect for Forensic Document Examiners

                      Ravindra Sharma*, Pankaj Mohan, Devender Kumar, Yasar Mirza and Ichha Yadav

                      Handwriting Analysis is a tedious and methodical process that relies on extensive knowledge and skill of individuals in letter formation having unique characteristics. In the present study, handwritings were collected from the 30 students of age group 10-16 years containing about 1800 characters of lower-case alphabets that were well acquainted with ambidextrous writings for An Assessment of Ambidextrous handwriting characters: A Future Prospect for Forensic Document Examiners. The study was carried out at Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Bhopal. Ambidextrous handwritings i.e. left-handed writings and right-handed writings were identified on the basis of handwriting characteristics of size & shape of characters and hypothesis considered that there is significant similarities in both left-hand and right hand writings (LH/RH) within the range of natural variation of the Ambidextrous writer, it means that there were no fundamental divergences amongst the writings written with both left and right hand of Ambidextrous writer.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                      An Insight into Disguised Handwriting: A Review Study

                      Achsah Merrin John* and Ashwini Rao SV

                      This review gives an overview of different features of disguised writing based on the individual characteristics of a writer. The study on disguised handwriting has been the most prominent facet in questioned document examination. Disguised handwriting has been and is still a predominant criminal activity encountered in forensic investigation. It is very critical for document examiners to elucidate the handwriting and interpret the source. Various studies and research have been conducted concerning class characteristics and individual characteristics in handwriting analysis. The main contribution of this work lies in encapsulating the methodology used, common features, the success rate of the population in disguising the handwriting, and also, the challenges faced by the document examiners in determining the authorship. The recent technological advancements discovered which can be used to perform the analysis of handwriting are also embraced.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

                      Priyanshi M Raval*

                      Psychoactive drugs are the drugs which affect a person's emotions, behavior and perception. Everyone knowingly, unknowingly use these drugs in day to day life. So actually what are these drugs, types of drugs need to be known. In History psychoactive drugs are used from at least 10,000 years, ago. Mainly these drugs are classified in 4 types: stimulants; depressants; narcotics; hallucinogens. How these effect on our brain is most important. These drugs are used in various sectors like for medicinal use and some just for fun. If the drug is removed what happens to patient (withdrawal symptoms) is necessary to know. There is an act which deals with these type of drug it is Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) which comes into force on 26th May 2016. There is forensic significance also which helps in justice in criminal and civil justice system.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                      Field Detection of Seven Fentanyl Analogues Using a Portable Ion Mobility Spectrometer: A New Application for Police Officers and Medical Examiners

                      John Zheng Wang

                      Objective: Although fentanyl is a prescribed drug in many countries, its analogues are not available by prescription. These potent synthetic opioids have become a new threat to public safety with their growing epidemic abuse and addiction worldwide. Therefore, a device for rapid, in-field, and in situ detection and identification of fentanyl analogues is much needed for police officers, crime scene technicians, lab medical examiners as well as public-health workers. Methods: While a direct wipe collection method for the screening of targeted fentanyl analogues by a portable device has not been reported, a portable Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) was employed to assess the detection of seven fentanyl analogues in a national forensic laboratory in North America. Under a quasi-experimental design, a purposive sampling with a black box method enabled the project to be more similar to a field detection. Results: Seven fentanyl analogous samples were provided by the national forensic lab from its street collections that are mostly commonly encountered. In less than 10 seconds, the LED screen displays the name, concentration, and strength of each targeted analogue. The portable Ion Mobility Spectrometer device was able to successfully detect six out of the seven fentanyl analogues by a simple wipe (10~50 nanograms). Conclusions: With a data search algorithm in the device library, the results of these tests suggest that this novel portable IMS is able to address the challenges from their variety and speeds in illicit market, providing a new direction to safely detect and identify illicit fentanyl analogues for police officers in the field and medical examiners in the lab.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

                      Shivani Satish Ramapure*

                      Handwriting is one of the unique characteristic to represent what is in our minds, to communicate with others. Handwriting shows the true personality including behavior, emotional outlay, self-esteem, anger, imagination, honesty, fears, defenses and many other personality traits, as well as the person’s profession also. According to Profession and work patterns may vary day by day also we study the impact of handwriting in age. The Adult persons and Aged person handwriting is different it vary time to time. It is commonly known as Graphology. Graphology is the scientific method for recognizing, assessing and to understand writer’s personality through the shapes and word patterns, characteristics of the handwriting. Personality can be identified through various handwriting features such as zone, baseline, slant, size, spacing, margin, pressure, diacritics formation, speed, connecting strokes, I dot formation etc. Handwriting analysis has wide application in the various fields such psychology, medical diagnosis, recruitment of staff, career counseling, writer identification, forensics studies, Criminal investigation in some cases like forgery property theft etc. This paper provides an outline of handwriting analysis, features of handwriting, its related personality traits, also we study the few papers related to changes of handwriting in age wise, overview of the handwriting analysis system (HAS) and a literature survey of the existing papers on handwriting analysis. In this review we studied some research articles for further identification, analysis methods for study.

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