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Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics

ISSN: 2155-6180

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Review of Heart Rate Variability

    Nirzar Kulkarni

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple optical measurement technique used for blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. PPG signal and its derivative contain important health-related data which is used for the detection and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. High blood pressure is a cause for various physiological changes and leads to the cause of death throughout the world. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is also an important factor for diagnosing cardiac disorders and to analysis the physiological conditions of human body. The growth of signal processing techniques, has opened the door for the development of cuff less and continuous monitoring of heart rate variability and blood pressure from the PPG signal. This article describes some of the current developments and challenges of PPG-based heart rate variability and blood pressure monitoring technologies.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Healthcare Research Applications in Meta-Analysis: A Review

      Dhirajkumar Mane*, Satish V. Kakade and Jayant Pawar

      DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2155-6180.2022.13.106

      Every new day come up with different challenges in healthcare sector in developing country like us. So this review article tells us the role of meta-analysis in current healthcare share and current health problems dealing with ‘evidence based medicine practices’. This article is the combination of healthcare practices and meta-analysis in the field of medicine. Consideration of current trends and scenario demonstrates a consistently increase in use of meta-analysis especially in randomized controlled trials and interventional studies. Meta-analyses look for new information in existing data. Comparing the results of meta-analyses with subsequent findings from large-scale, well-conducted, randomized controlled trials (so-called RCT’s) is one way to assess the validity of this new knowledge. Such comparisons have yielded mixed findings thus far, with good agreement in the majority of cases but notable inconsistencies in others. One such exercise, for example, resulted in the publication of a paper titled "Lessons from a "successful, safe, simple intervention" that wasn't" misleading meta-analysis (use of metformin after diabetes mellitus). The inadequacies in meta-analyses that have been later challenged by data from RCT’s can often be discovered with the benefit of hindsight. So this article directly or indirectly helps to researchers to adopt new knowledge in Meta-analysis especially for current healthcare practice. We can’t separate them as healthcare and meta-analysis both are the two sides of a same coin.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Prevalence and factors of Diarrhea among under-five children in Ethiopia

      Yenew Alemu Mihret

      Background: The World Health Organization defines diarrhea as the passage of three or loose, or watery stools within a day or unusual frequency of diarrhea episodes. The goal of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with diarrhea among children of age under-five in Ethiopia.

      Methods: Association between outcome and independent variables was done using Pearson’s chi-square test. To control for possible confounding, binary logistic regression was applied and analyzed using Stata version 14. This was asystematic literature review. A systemic search of articles was done on PubMed, TRIP, EPPI COVID Living Map, Web of Science, and medRxiv databases until 2020 using the keywords “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “coronavirus”, “hydroxychloroquine”, and “mortality”. Relevant articles were chosen for further evaluation based on a review of their titles and abstracts. In vivo and in vitro studies were included assessing the safety and effectiveness of Azithromycin and 4-aminoquinline for treatment of COVID-19 pregnant mothers.

      Results: Based on this study, the prevalence of diarrhea was 15.5% of children under the age of five. The expected value of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children from Amhara, Oromia, and Southern nations, nationalities, and people’s region was 0.47, 0.77 and 0.72 times lower than the occurrence of diarrhea among the ages of under-five children in Tigray, respectively, controlling for the other variables in the model. When we look at the source of drinking water, the odds of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children were 0.78 times lower than children taking protected water as compared to unprotected water. In addition, the odds of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children from a child's lives with others were 5.95 times higher than the prevalence of diarrhea for a child who lives with the respondents.

      Conclusion: Region, child living with whom and source of water are the significant factor of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children.

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Socioeconomic Inequalities and Factors Contributing to Under-Five Mortality in Uttar Pradesh: A Decomposition Analysis

        Neha Mishra* and Sheela Mishra

        DOI: 10.37421/2155-6180.2022.13.141

        Background: Childhood mortality in India has declined substantially in during last three decades (1992-2021) from 119 to 42 per 1000 live births. However, this decline does not necessarily imply reduction in the inequalities which remains both in accesses to quality care and health outcomes among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh (India).

        Objective: To estimate and quantify the prevailing socio-economic inequalities contributing to Under-five mortality in Uttar Pradesh along with the temporal trends over 2005–2021.

        Methods: The last three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were used to estimate and quantify the socioeconomic inequalities and factors contributing in the under-five mortalities by using concentration indexes (CI), concentration curves (CCs) and decomposition analysis.

        Results: It was observed that during the period 2019-21 and 2015-16, high concentration of socio-economic inequalities for U5MR among women of age 35 years or more, had primary education, and belonged to Scheduled caste/tribe and Hindus. While during the period 2005-06, high concentration of inequalities was found among women of age 25-34 years, belonged to SC/ST and OBC caste groups, and among Hindus. Overall, mother’s education and place of residence mostly explained the U5MR inequality in all three time periods. Conclusion: The findings suggest that more efforts are needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh to narrow the income related U5MR inequalities. An effective way to reduce inequality is not only to reduce the gap of income but also focus should be made on increasing the level of education of mothers as educational attainment is critical in imparting the feelings of self-worth and confidence which are critical in bringing the changes in health-related behaviour.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Determination of Disease Pattern of Scheduled Castes Population Using Model Based Clustering

          Anirban Goswami*, Faiyaz Ahmad, Mumtaz Ahmad, Md Ishtiyaque Alam, Shabana Khatoon, Rajesh and Md Manzar Alam

          In this study to identify the disease patterns using statistical methods on data of schedule castes of Patna, Vaishali and Nalanda districts of Bihar. Using model based clustering technique; the study is designed to determine the patterns and hidden relationships in dataset. Clustering is a valuable exploratory tool for data analysis that extracts information from a data set and transforms it into an intelligible structure for further applications. The objective of this study to provide profiling of patients, determine dominant disease and dominant month segment. In this regard, clustering is used to profile patients according to their month attended in OPD. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) used to find out the optimum numbers of clusters in a dataset. Using this, a number of clusters are formed on the basis of type of disease acquired by patients, demographic socioeconomic and other characteristics beside that the patients are divided into several clusters based on the diseases they have.

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Citations: 2450

Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics received 2450 citations as per Google Scholar report

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