Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics

ISSN: 2155-6180

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Developing and Confirming a Hypothesis Based on a Chronology of Several Clinical Trials: A Bayesian Application to Pirfenidone Mortality Results

    Zhengning Lin, Donald A Berry

    Background: Designing a study for independent confirmation of a treatment effect is sometimes not practical due to required large sample size. Post hoc pooling of studies including those for learning purposes is subject to selection bias and therefore not scientifically solid. We propose a Bayesian approach which calibrates the role of prior information from historical studies for learning and confirming purposes. The method is illustrated in the analysis of mortality data for the pirfenidone NDA. Methods: The pirfenidone NDA includes three placebo-controlled studies to demonstrate efficacy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a rare and ultimately fatal lung disease with no approved treatment in the US at the time of NDA. The results of two earlier conducted studies PIPF-004 and PIPF-006 suggested that pirfenidone might reduce mortality risk. We used a Bayesian analysis to synthesize mortality results from the subsequent confirmative Study PIPF-016 and the combination of Studies PIPF-004 and PIPF-006. Results: Pirfenidone’s treatment effect on mortality rate reduction for Study PIPF-016 is statistically significant with discounts of historical evidence from PIPF-044 and PIPF-006 for both all-cause mortality and treatment-emergent IPF-related mortality. Conclusions: The Bayesian analysis provides a formal method to calibrate the role of information from historical evidence in the overall interpretation of results from both historical and concurrent clinical studies. The increased efficiency of using all available data is especially important in drug development for rare diseases with serious consequences, where limited patient source prohibits large trials, and unmet medical needs demand rapid access to treatment options.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Investigating Male and Older People Susceptibility to Death from (COVID-19) Using Statistical Models

    Rabia Emhamed Al Mamlook, Zakaria Hashi, Tiba Zaki Abdulhameed and Hanin Fawzi Bzizi

    Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the serious infectious diseases that is caused by a specific virus called syndrome coronavirus 2 viruses (SARSCoV-2). The rapid spread of COVID19 raises serious concerns about the globally growing death rate. Currently, cases are doubled in one week around the world. Recorded data shows that COVID-19 does not infect all patients equally. This opportunistic virus can affect people of any age and gender. Information about the reason for high mortality in the age group 60 and older is limited. The gender differences among all deceased are poorly known. To understand more about COVID-19, this study aims to examine the different age groups among the death and focuses on comparing genders between males and females. Method: Statistical analysis including Pearson’s Chi-squared (χ2 ) and binary logistic regression was conducted based on existing data to examine factors relating to death, such as age and gender. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for death. Results: The results show that males were 2.51 more likely to die of coronavirus COVID-19 than females. Moreover, the study found a significant increase in death for patients age 60 and older compared to patients age less than 40. Thus, males of 80+ age were found to be highly associated with death. Conclusions: Older people and male are more susceptible to death from COVID-19,we should pay more attention to the elderly people and male with COVID-19. This imposes providing careful health care for this population.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Pattern of Quitting Methods Used to Promote Tobacco Cessation in Bangladesh and Correlates

    Papia Sultana, Jahangir Alam, Jahanara Akter, Tithi Rani Kundu

    Background: Promotion of smoking cessation has been proposed as one of the primary areas of focus for tobacco control in developing countries as prevalence is high over there. This paper aimed to analyze statistically quitting method followed by the smokers who wanted to quit tobacco use in the past 12 months of the survey. Methods: The paper was based on secondary data of size 9629 collected from people aged 15 years and above by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2010. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression had been performed using STATA-13 to analyze the data. Outcome variable was whether quitting method(s) was (were) followed by the tobacco user (1. Tobacco smoker, and 2. Smokeless tobacco user) who wanted to quit tobacco use in the past 12 months of the survey and independent variables were age, gender, residential status, education, occupation and wealth index. Results: It had been found that 47.38% of smoker respondents tried to quit tobacco smoking and among them 27.13% used any method to quit. It had been also found that among the smokeless tobacco users, 31.89% tried to quit and among them 24.83% used any method to quit. Among the quitting methods, counselling was the most used method. From the logistic regression to methods used to quitting tobacco use, it had been found that age, education and wealth index were significantly associated with the use of methods to quit tobacco smoking; whereas, gender, age and wealth index were statistically significant to the use of methods to quit smokeless tobacco. Conclusions: This study suggests that more active quitting methods should be invented targeting male, younger, lower educated and poorer tobacco users to make the cessation successful in Bangladesh.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

    Prospectively Estimating the Age Initiation of E-Cigarettes among U.S. Youth: Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (Path) Study, 2013-2017

    Adriana Pérez, Meagan Bluestein, Baojiang Chen, Cheryl L. Perry and Melissa B. Harrell

    Context: There is a lack of research that prospectively estimates the age of initiation of electronic cigarette use in U.S. youth. Younger ages of initiation of tobacco product use are associated with greater exposure to nicotine, and recently e-cigarette use has been associated with subsequent cigarette initiation. This study sought to estimate the distribution of the age of first reporting of e-cigarette use outcomes among youth never e-cigarette users overall, by sex and by race/ethnicity, prospectively. Methods: Secondary analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) youth dataset (ages 12-17) across waves 1 (2013-2014), 2 (2014-2015), 3 (2015-2016), and 4 (2016-2017) were conducted. Four outcomes are presented, age of first report of: (i) susceptibility to use, (ii) ever, (iii) past 30-day use, and (iv) “fairly regular” e-cigarette use. Each outcome was prospectively estimated using participant age when they entered the study and the number of weeks between the last report of never use and the first report of each outcome across waves. Weighted survival analyses for interval censoring accounting for the complex survey design were implemented. Results: Among youth non-susceptible to e-cigarettes, 50.2% became susceptible to e-cigarette use by age 18. There were no statistically significant differences in the age of first report of susceptibility to e-cigarette use by sex or by race/ethnicity in this nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Among never users, 41.7%, 23.5% and 10.3% initiated ever, past 30-day and “fairly regular” e-cigarette use by the age of 18, respectively. Less than 10% initiated ever e-cigarette use between the ages of 18 and 21. Boys had a higher risk of first reporting ever, past 30-day and “fairly regular” e-cigarette use at earlier ages than girls. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Other racial/ ethnic groups were less likely than Non-Hispanic Whites to initiate ever e-cigarette use at earlier ages, and there was no difference between Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics. Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Other racial/ethnic youth were less likely to first report past 30-day use and “fairly regular” e-cigarette use at earlier ages than Non-Hispanic White youth. Conclusion: This paper provides information on specific ages of the first report of e-cigarette use behaviors by sex and by race/ethnicity that can be used to tailor culturally e-cigarette interventions on specific windows of opportunity before youth begin using e-cigarettes or escalating their use.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Sample Size Charts of Spearman and Kendall Coefficients

    Justine O. May and Stephen W. Looney

    Bivariate correlation analysis is one of the most commonly used statistical methods. Unfortunately, it is generally the case that little or no attention is given to sample size determination when planning a study in which correlation analysis will be used. For example, our review of clinical research journals indicated that none of the 111 articles published in 2014 that presented correlation results provided a justification for the sample size used in the correlation analysis. There are a number of easily accessible tools that can be used to determine the required sample size for inference based on a Pearson correlation coefficient; however, we were unable to locate any widely available tools that can be used for sample size calculations for a Spearman correlation coefficient or a Kendall coefficient of concordance. In this article, we provide formulas and charts that can be used to determine the required sample size for inference based on either of these coefficients. Additional sample size charts are provided in the Supplementary Materials.

    Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Metagenomic Functional Profile Generated by Short Reads

      Zhide Fange

      Biostatistical demonstrating structures a significant piece of various present-day natural speculations. Hereditary qualities contemplate, since its start, utilized factual ideas to comprehend noticed trial results. Some hereditary qualities researchers even contributed with factual advances with the improvement of strategies and devices. Gregor Mendel began the hereditary qualities considers examining hereditary qualities isolation designs in groups of peas and utilized measurements to clarify the gathered information.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Binary and Multinomial Regression

      Tabatabai MA

      Versatile biometric frameworks mean to auto-update the formats or model to the intra-class variety of the operational data.[The two-crease benefits of these frameworks are taking care of the issue of restricted preparing information and following the worldly varieties of the info information through transformation. As of late, versatile biometrics has gotten a critical consideration from the exploration local area. This exploration course is relied upon to acquire force due to their key declared benefits. In the first place, with a versatile biometric framework, one presently doesn't requirements to gather countless biometric tests during the enlistment interaction.

      Research Pages: 1 - 1

      Dependent on the Frequencies of Recombination

      Chong Wang

      A linkage map (otherwise called a hereditary guide) is a table for an animal varieties or trial populace that shows the situation of its known qualities or hereditary markers comparative with one another as far as recombination recurrence, as opposed to a particular actual distance along every chromosome. Linkage maps were first evolved by Alfred Sturtevant, an understudy of Thomas Hunt Morgan.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 1

      At-abattoir using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

      Shihong Zhu

      Counting printing with fine-pointed pins onto glass slides, photolithography utilizing pre-made covers, photolithography utilizing dynamic miniature mirror gadgets, ink-fly printing, or electrochemistry on microelectrode clusters.In spotted microarrays, the tests are oligonucleotides, cDNA or little parts of PCR items that relate to mRNAs. The tests are blended before statement on the exhibit surface and are then "spotted" onto glass. A typical methodology uses a variety of fine pins or needles constrained by a mechanical arm that is plunged into wells containing DNA tests and afterward saving each test at assigned areas on the exhibit surface. The subsequent "lattice" of tests addresses the nucleic corrosive profiles of the pre-arranged tests and is prepared to get integral cDNA or cRNA "targets" got from test or clinical examples. This method is utilized by research researchers all throughout the planet to deliver "in-house" printed microarrays from their own labs.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Survival Functions under Proportional Hazards Model

      Jianrong Wu

      A statistical hypothesis is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observed data modeled as the realized values taken by a collection of random variables.[1] A set of data is modelled as being realized values of a collection of random variables having a joint probability distribution in some set of possible joint distributions. The hypothesis being tested is exactly that set of possible probability distributions. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference. An alternative hypothesis is proposed for the probability distribution of the data, either explicitly or only informally. The comparison of the two models is deemed statistically significant if, according to a threshold probability—the significance level—the data would be unlikely to occur if the null hypothesis were true. A hypothesis test specifies which outcomes of a study may lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis at a pre-specified level of significance, while using a pre-chosen measure of deviation from that hypothesis (the test statistic, or goodness-of-fit measure).

      Volume 12, Issue 4 (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Treatment Effects in Comparative Effectiveness Research

        Demissie Alemayehu

         Factor investment and Portfolio Construction Techniques a variable distribution may be a vector in multiple unremarkably distributed variables, specified any linear combination of the variables is additionally unremarkably distributed. it's largely helpful in extending the central limit theorem to multiple variables, however conjointly has applications to Bayesian reasoning and therefore machine learning, wherever the variable distribution is employed to approximate the options of some characteristics; as an example, in sleuthing faces in footage. The traditional CVaR optimisation conducts the linear optimisation exploitation historical returns. To make sure the optimized weights are strong to a particular set of ascertained returns, we tend to propose a brand new optimisation technique that we'll decision “robust minimum CVaR optimization” or Rob Min CVaR. We tend to borrow the concepts from strong optimisation (see [MIC 98] and ancient CVaR optimisation above). In summary, we tend to work historical returns to a prespecified variable distribution.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        System for Large Distributed Fingerprint Database

        Seungjin Sul

        One of the foremost wide used definitions for methodology lustiness in drug company is given by ICH: 'The lustiness of associate degree analytical procedure may be a live of its capability to stay unaffected by little, however deliberate variations in methodology parameters and provides a sign of its responsibility throughout traditional usage'. A lustiness check is intended to indicate the responsibility of a way response as totally different parameters area unit varied. it's the primary stage of a lustiness check to choose on that parameters ought to be tested and by what quantity to vary them. The factors fall broadly speaking in one in every of 2 areas: Operational factors, Environmental factors, hydrogen ion concentration in a very mobile section, Mobile section composition, totally different columns, Temperature and rate Robustness is set by exploitation either associate degree experimental style or one issue at a time (OFAT). Within the OFAT approach, just one issue is modified with all the others unchanged, then the result of adjusting that issue will be seen.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Optimal Designs for Parameter Estimation and Model Tests

        J. Fellman

         Along with the automation of our electronic equipment life, security problems become a lot of important and necessary. There square measure queries asked in our existence like “is this the correct person to be allowed to access the system?”, “is this the licensed person to perform such action?”, and “does this person belong to the current country?” there have been 2 strategies for responsive this questions: 1st one supported “what you have” and referred to as (knowledge factors), like ID cards, and therefore the other supported “what you know” and referred to as (ownership factors), but each strategies will be borrowed or traced or purloined, therefore users have to be compelled to carry several IDs and study loads of passwords.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Endometrial Cancer Based on New Asymmetry Models

        Kouji Yamamoto1* and Sadao Tomizawa2

         When genes area unit on separate chromosomes, or terribly way apart on identical chromosomes, they assort severally. That is, once the genes go in gametes, the gene received for one sequence does not have an effect on the gene received for the opposite. during a double heterozygous organism (AaBb), this ends up in the formation of all 444 attainable varieties of gametes with equal, or 25%, percent, frequency. Why is that this the case? Genes on separate bodys assort severally thanks to the random orientation of homologous chromosome pairs throughout meiosis. Homologous chromosomes area unit paired chromosomes that carry identical genes, however could have totally different alleles of these genes. One member of every homologous combine comes from associate organism's momma, the opposite from itspop.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Density Estimation Using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations

        Xiao-Feng Wang

        To help uncover the genetic determinants of complex disease, a scientist often designs an association study using either unrelated subjects or family members within pedigrees. But which of these two subject recruitment paradigms is preferable? This editorial addresses the debate over the relative merits of family- and population-based genetic association studies. We begin by briefly recounting the evolution of genetic epidemiology and the rich crossroads of statistics and genetics. We then detail the arguments for the two aforementioned paradigms in recent and current applications. Finally, we speculate on how the debate may progress with the emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies.

        Volume 12, Issue 9 (2021)

          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

          Approach towards a Digital Clinic

          Doepp Manfred*

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          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          When People Don't Know Their Numbers: Exploring an Approach to Choosing Proxy Biometrics in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment

          Brittany U Carter, Nik Fowler-Hainen, and Lauren R Smith

          when individuals do not know their numbers. Methodology: Proxy biometric values for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Total Cholesterol (TC), and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were created using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2015-2016 dataset stratifying by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and biometric level. These proxy biometric values were assigned to individuals who completed the WellSuite® IV Health Risk Assessment (HRA) for the Workforce based on their demographics and biometric level. Paired sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences between proxy biometric values and those reported in the HRA as well as the 10-year CVD risk based on either biometrics.
          Findings: Proxy biometric values for SBP, TC, and HDL cholesterol were statistically significantly different from those reported in the HRA. Proxy biometric values performed better in some subgroups than others. The 10-year CVD risk based on proxy biometric values were also significantly different from risk based on biometrics reported in the HRA, however, only 7.4% of HRA participants changed CVD risk levels. Conclusion: Using proxy biometric values from population health data may be one solution to assessing CVD risk when individuals do not know their numbers but only when done outside the healthcare setting. Future research is needed.
          Limitations: The populations from which the data are derived differed, and decisions regarding the assignment of proxy biometric values may have contributed to the statistically significant differences between biometric values and CVD risk.

          Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Treatment India Scheduled For Utilizing Facial Acknowledgment in Infection Fight

            Demissie Alemayehu

            India is testing the utilization of Facial Acknowledgment Innovation (FRT) to help its Covid-19 inoculation program, as it fights a flood in cases that last month took it past 20 million diseases and 200,000 passings. The Indian Government a month ago uncovered that it is running a pilot plot in the territory of Jharkhand to utilize contactless FRT from its Aadhaar ID program to check the personality of residents accepting their Covid-19 punches. Aadhaar is the world's biggest public biometric ID administration and holds the information of over 1.2 billion Indian residents. The point of the preliminary is for 'contactless' FRT to supplant existing more dangerous unique finger impression and iris ID frameworks at immunization focuses across India, as indicated by online news website ThePrint. Be that as it may, the plan has drawn analysis from an alliance of rights gatherings – including the Internet Freedom Foundation and Rethink Aadhaar – who gave an open letter on 14 April requesting the arrangement be rejected. These associations dread FRT will be abused to follow residents, will dissuade individuals from approaching for inoculation, and could avoid the assessed 100 million Indian residents not yet enlisted with Aadhaar.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Getting Identities: Biometric Technologies and the Enactment of Human Bodily Differences

            Seungjin Sul

            Around the world, biometrics are rapidly turning into the favored answer for a wide scope of issues including character checking. Biometrics are professed to give safer recognizable proof and confirmation, in light of the fact that 'the body doesn't lie.' Yet, every biometric check comprises of an interaction with many moderate advances, presenting possibility and decision on numerous levels. Moreover, there are fundamental regulating suspicions in regards to human bodies that influence the working of biometric frameworks in exceptionally hazardous manners. In ongoing sociology considers, the disappointments of biometric frameworks have been deciphered as gendered and racialized predispositions.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Confronting the Fate of Biometrics: Demand for Wellbeing and Security in General Society and Private Areas is Driving Exploration in this Quickly Developing Field

            J Fellman

            For over a century, criminal agents have utilized fingerprints to recognize associates on the premise with proof left at the crime location. While fingerprints were once looked at outwardly, today PCs accelerate the interaction: the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), presently utilized in most Western nations, thinks about follows found at a crime location with a great many put away unique finger impression pictures in only a couple seconds.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            What is Biometrics? 10 Physical and Behavioral Identifiers that can be Used for Authentication

            Kouji Yamamoto and Sadao Tomizawa

            Biometrics are physical or behavioral human characteristics to that can be used to digitally identify a person to grant access to systems, devices or data. Examples of these biometric identifiers are fingerprints, facial patterns, voice or typing cadence. Each of these identifiers is considered unique to the individual, and they may be used in combination to ensure greater accuracy of identification.

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Medical Care Biometrics Month: The Fight against COVID-19

            Xiao-Feng Wang

            Walk is Healthcare Biometrics Month at Find Biometrics, during which we'll convey top to bottom highlights, master investigation, sagacious exchange on our ID Talk digital broadcast, and then some. We've turned our concentration to the energizing space of medical care biometrics previously, yet this year the region is more notable than any time in recent memory, for reasons that are, sadly, really clear to perusers all throughout the planet. So we will kick things off by taking a gander at the obvious issue at hand, and inspecting how biometrics and related innovations are helping associations all throughout the planet to adjust to – and alleviate – the spread of COVID-19. Infection Detecting Wearable. Perhaps the most immediate manners by which biometrics are being utilized to battle the infection is in the utilization of wearable gadgets to search for indications of disease.

            Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021)

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Citations: 2835

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