The polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is a small nonenveloped DNA virus that asymptomatically infects about 80% of healthy adults and establishes latency in the kidney tissue. In case of immunodeficient hosts, JCV can lytically infect the oligodendrocytes, causing a fatal demyelinating disease, known as Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). Although the reactivation of another human polyomavirus, BK Virus (BKV), is relatively common and its association with the Polyomavirus Associated Nephropathy (PVAN) following renal transplantation is assessed, JCV replication and its impact on graft function and survival is less well studied. In addition, none of the performed studies
ruled out the hypothesis that JCV could be associated with certain post-transplantation clinical syndromes. Thus, monitoring of Polyomaviruses infection, especially during the first 24 months post-transplantation, is recommended.