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Pesticides and Environmental Toxicology


Pages: 1 - 2

Glycidyl Methacrylate as Probably Carcinogenic to Humans

Bruno Jose Dumêt Fernandes*, Silvana Trinchão Costa, Nadielle Silva Bidu and Ricardo David Couto


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s6.001

Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is a monomer widely used in the production of dyes, paper, beverages, epoxy polymers, and others. It is a genotoxic substance with occupational exposure that can reach the general population by inhalation and skin contact. This agent may produce a large spectrum of DNA damage, evidenced by various carcinogenicity studies conducted on animals, and strong evidence of being carcinogenic in primary human cells. There is a deficit/absence of studies related to and no threshold limit value for GMA, however, due to the principles of similarity and precaution, it should be classified as a human carcinogen, and collective and personal control measures should be implemented or reviewed. This study provides an alert of GMA human exposure and its genotoxic and carcinogenic potential.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 7

Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometric Determination of the Concentration of Fe, Mn, Pb and Cd in Fruits of Mango, Avocado and Papaya from Gondar "Gebeya" Market Gondar, Ethiopia

Senait Aklog Tesfaw*


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s6.002

In order to assess the levels and impact of different trace metals on human health a study has been carried out to determine the levels of heavy metals present in commonly edible fruits available in local market of Gondar, city Ethiopia. For this purpose, total of three samples of different fruits were purchased. The study was conducted to determine the concentration of trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, and Cd in fruits of Mango, Avocado and Papaya. The dried samples were digested in 4:2 mixtures of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The studies average result were in range of, 50.0± 12.5 μg/g Fe, 20.825 ± 3.6 μg/g Pb, 27.77 ± 4.8 μg/g Cd 37.500 ± 0.02 μg/g Mn , For Mango , 22.075 ± 7.2 μg/g Fe, 14.57 ± 3.6 μg/g Pb, 21.00 ± 4.8 μg/g Cd, 0.17 ± 0.05 μg/g Mn, For Avocado, 23.075 ± 11 μg/g Fe , 14.57 ± 14.5 μg/g Pb, 19.47 ± 4.8 μg/g Mn, 37.500 ± 2.1μ g/g Cd For Papaya. The result of the study indicates that all types of fruits contain considerable concentration of trace metals. The concentrations of iron in all fruits were higher than other trace elements. But the amount of other metals such as Pb, Cd and Mn were significantly different from other studies and WHO/FAO recommended values this shows that the fruit farms around Gondar town was highly contaminated. Furthermore, the developed method was checked by using different method validation and recovery test and so the digestion procedure provides an easy method for the digestion of fruit samples and percent recovery obtained was above 95% with a very good LOD and LOQ values.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Nutritive Benefits of Plantain (Musa paradisaica) Grown with Sludge Obtained from Wastewater Treatment Plant within Port-Harcourt Environment

Emmanuel I Amadi*, Ben A Amadi, Felix U Igwe and Joy O Akaninwor


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s6.003

A study on the nutritive benefits of sludge obtained from the wastewater treatment plant to crops within the Port-Harcourt environment was investigated. The proximate composition and mineral contents were assessed in the different plantain food samples using standard methods, to know the biochemical impact of the applied sludge on their nutrient values over the control. The proximate composition calculated on a dry weight basis revealed an increase in moisture content (5.03%), crude protein (7.41%), crude fibre (3.58%), as well as a decrease in crude fat (2.31%), ash content (3.08%), carbohydrate (78.58%), and energy value (364.78 kcal/kg) for the test sample over the control (3.86%, 3.58%, 2.51%, 2.53%, 3.15%, 84.36%, and 374.57 kcal/kg) respectively. The moisture, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate and mineral content were significantly different (p<0.05), while lipid and ash content showed no significant difference (p>0.05) when compared to their controls. The mineral analysis revealed an increase in iron (Fe) (88.87 mg/kg), potassium (K) (5930.46 mg/kg), calcium (Ca) (1783.47 mg/kg), as well as a decrease in sodium (Na) (127.69 mg/kg), phosphorus (P) (0.78 mg/kg), magnesium (Mg) (1000.33 mg/kg), and zinc (Zn) (5.93 mg/kg ) for the test sample over the control (55.29 mg/kg, 5086.40 mg/kg, 1736.66 mg/kg, 148.92 mg/kg, 1.13 mg/kg, 1072.25 mg/kg, and 11.12 mg/kg) respectively. These results revealed that the plantain food samples grown on the sludge amended soils contains appreciably high protein and mineral content and thus can be recommended as a diet for diabetic patients and in combating protein deficiency.

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 5

The Mechanism of Chemoreception in Fish under Low pH Condition

Rostern Tembo*


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s6.004

Studies in fresh water and marine ecosystem both have shown significant impacts that anthropogenic ocean acidification has on olfactory abilities of fish and other invertebrates’ organisms, leading to impaired behavioral responses. This has led to far reaching consequences on population dynamics and community structure. In acidified waters, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfactory sensitivity appears to be the primary cause of olfactory-mediated behavioral impairments. Many aquatic organisms, olfactorymediated behavior is critical to maintenance of numerus fitness-enhancing activities such as homing, mate choice, predator avoidance, foraging, kin recognition and food odor source. Changes in olfactory-mediated behavior caused by elevated CO2 in ocean, lakes or rivers could affect not only fish population but much more recruitment of fish as well. Recent research work has shown how fish behaviors have been potentially affected by acidification as carbon dioxide levels continued dissolving in ocean waters. In this paper I have tried to unpack potential consequences that befall on fish as chemosensory cells are impacted by acidified waters.

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 6

A Review on Deforestation: It’sEffects and Ways to reduce it."

Tuba Maryam*


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s6.005

Deforestation is the cutting of forest and converting the land into uncultivated non-forest land. It is done for several purposes such as converting the land into urban areas, land farms, ranches, and timberland. Deforestation is the physical change of land on local or regional level. The cause of deforestation is global warming. Forest are the storage of private goods, and public services such as carbon storage, conservation of biodiversity, water filtration, suppression of disease, timber and non-timber products, recreation and medicine. There are several other uses on private and regional level such as economic gains. Reducing emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries is doing work on climate policies. The purpose of doing this is to remove greenhouse gas and forest degradation. In short the anthropogenic activities are the main cause of deforestation and they are effecting our environment in verse ways. In response to public concern about benefits of forest that are lost due to deforestation, should make policies for the protection of protected areas, enforcement of forest laws, establishing programs for ecosystem services.

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