Pharmacoeconomics: Open Access

ISSN: 2472-1042

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 8, Issue 2 (2023)

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    The History and Evolution of Pharmacopoeias

    Fuaud Ran*

    DOI: 10.37421/2472-1042.2023.8.167

    Pharmacopoeias have a rich and diverse history dating back to ancient times. The earliest known pharmacopoeia is the Chinese Shennong Benaco Jing, which was written in the 3rd century BCE and contains descriptions of hundreds of medicinal plants and their uses. The Greeks and Romans also had their own pharmacopoeias, which included descriptions of herbal remedies and other medicinal substances. In the middle Ages, Arab scholars built upon the Greek and Roman pharmacopoeias and developed their own systems of medicine, which included a focus on pharmacology and pharmacy. One of the most influential works from this period was the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna, which was written in the 11th century and remained a standard medical text for centuries. During the Renaissance, the study of medicine and pharmacy was further advanced in Europe, with the publication of several important pharmacopoeias. One of the most significant was the Pharmacopoeia. Which was published in 1618 and remained the official pharmacopoeia of England until the 19th century? This pharmacopoeia contained descriptions of medicinal substances, along with recipes for preparing medicines and instructions for quality control.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Pharmacopoeia: The Definitive Guide to Medicinal Substances

    Waud Htan*

    DOI: 10.37421/2472-1042.2023.8.166

    Pharmacopoeia is a comprehensive guide to the identification, quality control, and therapeutic use of medicinal substances. It is a critical reference tool for healthcare professionals, pharmacists, regulators, and manufacturers to ensure that medicines are safe, effective, and of high quality. Pharmacopoeias have a long history, dating back to ancient civilizations, and have evolved into international standards that govern the development and regulation of pharmaceuticals worldwide. This essay will explore the history and evolution of pharmacopoeias, the role of pharmacopoeias in modern healthcare, and the importance of pharmacopoeias in quality control of medicines. The history of pharmacopoeias can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, and China. The earliest known pharmacopoeia is the Ebers Papyrus, which was written in Egypt around 1550 BCE and contained information on over 700 medicinal substances. The Greeks also produced several pharmacopoeias, including the Hippocratic Corpus, which contained descriptions of hundreds of medicinal plants and their therapeutic uses. In China, the earliest known pharmacopoeia is the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, which was written around 100 BCE and contained information on over 350 medicinal substances.

    Volume 8, Issue 1 (2023)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 11

      Cost−effectiveness of Landiolol, an Ultra−short−acting Betablocker, for Treatment of Sepsis Related Tachyarrhythmia in Germany

      Günther Krumpl and Evelyn Walter*

      DOI: 10.37421/2157-1042.2022.8.161

      Background: Sepsis and septic-shock are associated with cardiovascular problems, including tachyarrhythmia, myocardial injury, and changes in vascular endothelial function that might affect cardiac output with potential fatal outcome. The consequences of sepsis extend well beyond the acute illness. Tachycardia and new-onset atrial-fibrillation (AF), often treated with less effective agents such as amiodarone, are key prognostic factors for sepsis and associated with increased use of health-care resources and costs. Early decrease of heart-rate is associated with improved outcome. The use of β-blockers for managing acute arrhythmias in patients with septic-shock has been described in the literature. Landiolol, an ultra-short-acting β1-selective adrenergic-receptor-antagonist, is used specifically for the acute management of atrial-fibrillation and atrial-flutter in critically ill patients with/without cardiac-dysfunction.

      Methods: A decision-model was developed to reflect the cost-effectiveness of landiolol in addition to conventional-therapy vs. standard-of-care (SoC) to manage sepsis-related tachyarrhythmia. The model combines a short-term decision tree to describe the time span of the sepsis related hospitalization over 28 days. The endpoint of the decision tree was then combined with a Markov model to simulate a life-long time horizon, as AF and post discharge mortality occurrence following sepsis hospitalization was more common among patients with new-onset AF during sepsis. The model calculates total costs (incl. hospital-stay, ICU and ventilation, AF costs) quality-adjusted life-years/QALYs and life-years/LYs over life-time.

      Results: Manage sepsis related tachyarrhythmia with landiolol led to estimated lifetime costs of 59.130.79 € (95%-CI=53,436-64,901) per patient and 4.02 QALYs (5.56 LYs) over a life-time horizon. SOC was associated with 60.935.11 € (95%-CI=47,928-73,124) and 3.55 QALYs (5.01 LYs). Landiolol yields cost savings of about 1,804.31 € per patient and a QALY gain of 0.47 or 5.63 months in perfect health. Landiolol resulted in a life year gain of 0.54 LYs.

      Conclusion: The economic analysis shows that the use of landiolol is associated with costs saving from the payer’s perspective.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      A Review of the Evidence from the Middle Eastern Countries on the Facilitators and Barriers of Pharmacoeconomic Studies

      Saud Tan*

      DOI: 10.37421/2472-1042.2023.8.162

      Pharmacoeconomic studies provide valuable information for healthcare decision-makers by assessing the economic impact of pharmaceutical interventions. Despite their importance, such studies face several challenges and barriers that may hinder their conduct and implementation. This review aims to explore the barriers and facilitators of pharmacoeconomic studies in Middle Eastern countries and suggest potential solutions to overcome these challenges.A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for relevant articles published from January 2010 to December 2021. The search was limited to studies conducted in Middle Eastern countries and those reporting on barriers and facilitators of pharmacoeconomic studies. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool. A total of 25 studies were included in this review. The main barriers to conducting pharmacoeconomic studies in Middle Eastern countries included limited funding, lack of trained personnel, inadequate data availability, and cultural barriers. On the other hand, the main facilitators of conducting such studies were the presence of supportive policies and regulations, collaborations between academia and industry, and the availability of skilled researchers. Moreover, the use of modeling techniques and the development of local pharmacoeconomic guidelines were suggested as potential solutions to overcome the identified barriers.

      Volume 5, Issue 1 (2020)

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