Short Communication - (2020) Volume 5, Issue 3
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) which generally effects lungs and also spread to the other parts of the body. Most of the infected persons do not show many symptoms. It is one of the diseases which cause death with high mortality.
It is a spreadful disease from infected person through sneezes & cough which caused n children and adolescents both men and women.
According to tuberculosis global report published by WHO in 2019 Oct, an estimated range of people 10.0 million globally fell ill with TB in 2018. The number of cases is becoming stable in the recent years.
SDG (Sustainable Development Goals) and WHO (World Health Organization) targets have been added for end TB strategy. Targets for 2030 are 90% reduction in the number of TB deaths and an 80% reduction in the TB new cases compared with 2015. The milestone for 2020 is 35% reduction in death cases and 20% reduction in new cases. Four new global targets have been included in the declaration. They are
• To treat 40 million TB infected people in the 5-years period 2018–2022
• Should reach at least 30 million people with TB preventive treatment for a latent TB infection in the 5-year period 2018–2022
• Mobilize at least US$ 13 billion annually for universal access to TB diagnosis, treatment and care by 2022
• Mobilize at least US$ 2 billion annually for TB research
WHO European Region is on the track to achieve the 2020 milestones for reductions in cases and deaths. The incidence rate has fall to 15% and the number of TB deaths has fall to 24% in between 2015 and 2018.
There was some progress in testing, detection and treatment of MDR/RRTB between 2017 and 2018. Coverage of testing was 46% for new cases and 83% for previously treated TB patients.
Globally, a total number of 186 772 cases of MDR/RR-TB were detected and notified in 2018, 160 684 in 2017, and 156 071 cases were enrolled in treatment, 139 114 in 2017. The latest treatment outcome data for people with MDR/RR-TB shows a global treatment a great success rate of 56%. Examples of high MDR-TB burden countries with better treatment success rates (>70%) are Ethiopia, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Kazakhstan.
WHO guidelines were issued in 2018 recommends TB preventive treatment for PLHIV, household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB cases and clinical risk groups. In 2018 globally 65 countries reported initiating TB preventive treatment for 1.8 million PLHIV. The number of household contacts initiated on TB preventive treatment was much smaller in 2018. 153 countries reported providing BCG vaccination as a standard part of childhood immunization programmes, of which 113 reported coverage of ≥90% in 2018.
Funding for TB prevention, diagnostic and treatment services has doubled since 2006. Most of the funding which is available in 2019 is from the domestic sources. In India, domestic funding quadrupled between 2016 and 2019. In other low- and middle-income countries, donor funding remains crucial.
The End TB Strategy milestones for 2020 and 2025 can be achieved if TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention services are provided within the context of progress towards UHC (Universal Health Coverage).
Progress is being made for reductions in TB new cases and deaths. WHO region and seven high TB burden countries are on the track to reach 2020 milestones for reductions in TB new cases and deaths. Technological breakthroughs are needed by 2025 for annual decline globally. As of August 2019, there were 23 drugs, various combination regimens and 14 vaccine candidates are in clinical trials stage.